Genus Perkinsiella Kirkaldy, 1903

[Back to Higher classification of Delphacidae]

Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815

Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815

Genus Perkinsiella Kirkaldy, 1903: 179.


= Araeopides Ribaut, 1948

Type species: Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirkaldy, 1903: 179.


Mostly tropical Asia, Australia, parts of Africa and the Middle East, but Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirkaldy, 1903 widely adventive where sugarcane is grown. Perkinsiella saccharicida was adventive into Hawaii in 1900, and into Florida (at least) in the early 1980s. Perkinsiella saccharicida has spread into Central and South America.

Distribution of Perkinsiella from FLOW (5 Nov. 2019)

Distribution of Perkinsiella from FLOW (5 Nov. 2019)

Recognized species

36 currently recognized species worldwide as follows (distribution records incomplete, a few records need to be checked):

1 Perkinsiella amboinensis Muir, 1911: 10 – Indonesia (Maluku: Ambon)
2 Perkinsiella bakeri Muir, 1916: 379 – Australia (Northern Territory, western Australia), western Caroline Is., (Palau), Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam
3 Perkinsiella bicoloris Muir, 1911: 7 – Papua New Guinea
4 Perkinsiella bigemina Ding, 1980 – China, Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan
=   Perkinsiella taiwana Yang, 1989; syn. by Ding (2006: 242)
5 Perkinsiella boreon Fennah, 1979 – Papua New Guinea
6 Perkinsiella bulli Fennah, 1979 – Papua New Guinea
7 Perkinsiella diagoras Fennah, 1979 – Papua New Guinea
8 Perkinsiella dorsata (Melichar, 1905: 285) – Nigeria, Afghanistan, Cyprus, Reunion, Iraq, Israel, Sudan, Turkey
= Delphax dorsata Melichar, 1905; original combination.
= Perkinsiella dorsata (Melichar); comb by see Fennah (1969: 35)
= Araeopides picta Ribaut, 1948; original combination see Fennah (1969: 35)
= Pundaluoya insignis Distant, 1912 synonym by ? (see FLOW)
= Perkinsiella insignis  (Distant); comb. by Muir 1919.
= Perkinsiella picta (Ribaut, 1948), comb. by Fennah (1969);  synonym by Linnavuori 1973: 106 (see Fennah 1969: 35, Asche 1988: 202).
9 Perkinsiella facialis (Distant, 1912: 191) – India
= Pundaluoya facialis Distant, 1912, original combination.
= Perkinsiella facialis (Distant); comb. by Muir 1919.
= Perkinsiella fascialis (Distant); missp. by Usman, 1954: 648.
10 Perkinsiella falcipennis Fennah, 1979 – Papua New Guinea
Perkinsiella fuscifrons Muir, 1911: 11 subsequently transfered to Dicranotropis by Muir (1917: 317), then to Paraconon Yang, 1989 by Ding (2006: 295)
11 Perkinsiella fuscipennis Muir, 1916: 380 – Philippine Islands
12 Perkinsiella graminicida Kirkaldy, 1906: 406 – Australia, Queensland; Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands)
13 Perkinsiella insignis (Distant, 1912: 190) – India, West Africa, Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iraq, Israel, Turkey
14 Perkinsiella lalokensis Muir, 1911: 9 – Papua New Guinea
15 Perkinsiella lineata Muir, 1916: 380 – Philippine Islands
16 Perkinsiella macrinus Fennah, 1979 – Papua New Guinea
17 Perkinsiella manilae Muir, 1917: 324 – Philippine Islands
18 Perkinsiella miriamae Emeljanov, 1987 – Vietnam
19 Perkinsiella mycon Fennah, 1979 – Papua New Guinea
20 Perkinsiella neoinsignis Muir, 1923 – Indonesia
21 Perkinsiella pallidula Muir, 1911: 6 – Borneo; Indonesia (Kalimantan)
22 Perkinsiella papuensis Muir, 1911: 9 – Papua New Guinea
23 Perkinsiella pseudosinensis Muir, 1916: 381 – Philippine Islands
24 Perkinsiella rattlei Muir, 1911: 6 – Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia
25 Perkinsiella rivularis Linnavuori, 1964 – Israel, Egypt, Greece
26 Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirkaldy, 1903: 179 (The Sugarcane Leafhopper) –  USA: Hawaii, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas; Mexico, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Ecuador, Mexico (Veracruz), Peru, Venezuela (Adventive); Australia (New South Wales, Queensland), India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Fiji, Philippine Islands, Taiwan, China (South-Central), Mauritius, Bonin Island,  Reunion [refuted Emeljanov 1987], Madagascar, South Africa, Swazilan; Comoros, Japan (Ogasawara-Shoto or Bonin islands); Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands) , Papua New Guinea [refuted by Emeljanov 1987],  Thailand,  Vietnam (widespread in Pacific, Indo-Malayan, and Australian regions )
27 Perkinsiella saccharivora Muir, 1916: 379 – Philippine Islands
28 Perkinsiella sinensis Kirkaldy, 1907: 138 – China, Borneo, Japan (Honshu, Kyushu), Taiwan, India, Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Palau, Indonesia (Kalimantan); Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands)
Perkinsiella taiwana Yang, 1989 (Taiwan); syn. of P. bigemina Ding, 1980
29 Perkinsiella thompsoni Muir, 1913: 240 – Guam, western Micronesia (Saipan, Palau, Yap Is., Truk Is.), Indonesia (Java), Taiwan, Marinace Is., Papua New Guinea, Mariana islands
30 Perkinsiella variegata Muir, 1911: 8 – Papua New Guinea
31 Perkinsiella vastatrix (Breddin, 1896: 107) – Indonesia (Jawa, Maluku: Ambon, Seram); Malaysia, Philippine Islands, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, Japan, Sundra Islands; Tanganyika, East Africa
32 Perkinsiella vitalisi Muir, 1925 – Vietnam
33 Perkinsiella vitiensis Kirkaldy, 1906: 406 – Fiji, Savage Island (Polynesia), Samoa
34 Perkinsiella yakushimensis Ishihara, 1954 – Japan (Yakushima)
35 Perkinsiella yuanjiangensis Ding, 1985 – China

Economic Importance

Perkinsiella saccharicida is the sugarcane planthopper, a widespread and important pest of sugarcane and a vector of fiji disease (fiji leaf gall).  Perkinsiella vastatrix and P. vitiensis are also vectors.

An extension pamphlet (from Centro de Investigación de la Caña de Azúcar de Colombia, in Spanish) is here.

An older (1984) circular from Florida on the sugarcane planthopper is here.

Plant associations

Perkinsiella amboinensis,, P. bicoloris,  P.  lalokensis, P. pallidula, P. papuensis, P. rattlei, P. rivularis, P. saccharicida, P. sinensis, P. thompsoni, and P. vastatrix have all been recorded from sugarcane. Perkinsiella sinensis has also been reported from Andropogon sorghum (= Sorghum halepense (L.)Pers., Johnsongrass), Phragmites communis, and Rice (Oryza sativa).

Perkinsiella dorsataChloris gayana Kunth,  Saccharum officinarum L., Zea mays L. (all Poaceae by Bonfils et al. (1994).

Perkinsiella sinensisAndropogon sorghum (L.) Brot., Oryza sativa L., Phragmites communis Trin., Zizania sp. (all, Poaceae; Ishihara (1949: 3)

Perkinsiella thompsoniSaccharum sp. (Poaceae; Fennah 1971)

Perkinsiella vastatrixAndropogon sorghum (L.) Brot., Saccharum officinarum L., Zea mays L. (Poaceae; Ishihara 1949: 3)


Pseudogonatopus saccharetorum Perkins 1905 in Perkinsiella saccharicida by (Kieffer 1914)

Haplogonatopus vitiensis Perkins, 1906; Pseudogonatopus saccharetorum Perkins 1905 (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae; Swaminathan & Ananthakrishnan 1984: 7)

A list of predators and parasites in Colombia are found here (Bustillo Pardey 2011); see also Kifune and Hirashima (1989), Guerrieri and Viggiani (2005), Swaminathan and  Ananthakrishnan 1984.


Description of genus from Kirkaldy 1903

“Closely allied to Araeopus, Spinola, but distinguished by the first segment of the antennae being distinctly shorter than the second ; distinguished from Dicranotropis, Fieber, to which it bears some resemblance, by the form of the frons, and by the flattened apically dilated first segment of the antennae. Type, P. saccharicida, Kirkaldy.

Second segment of antennal peduncle about one-half longer than the first ; flagellum about one-third longer than the entire peduncle, first peduncular segment much wider at apex than basally, flattened and explanate; second segment nearly as wide at base as the apex of the first segment [in Araeopus it is much narrower, while the first segment is more parallel-sided] . Exterior longitudinal nervure of corium forked near the base, and its exterior branch forked near its middle ; interior longitudinal nervure forked near the apex. Membrane with six nervures, the fourth (commencing inwardly) forked ; the first area has an incomplete nervure reaching only to the middle. Other characters as in Araeopus.”

Large, robust delphacids with flattened antennae and patterned frons; carinae of frons parallel sided except narrowed between eyes; median carinae of frons forked nearly to base of eyes.  In New World (where P. saccharicida is adventive), only Neoperkinsiella similar in general features.

Perkinsiella bakeri

Photos by Kimberly Shropshire, University of Delaware)

Perkinsiella bakeri

Perkinsiella bakeri

Perkinsiella bakeri

Perkinsiella bakeri

Perkinsiella bakeri

Perkinsiella bakeri (pygofer, caudal view)

Perkinsiella bakeri (pygofer, lateral view)

Perkinsiella bakeri (pygofer, lateral view)

Perkinsiella saccharicida – This species is adventive into the United States.  It occurs in large numbers on sugarcane.

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida, pygofer, subventral view

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida, pygofer, subventral view (median processes of pygofer highlighted)

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida- hind tibia and calcar

Perkinsiella saccharicida

Perkinsiella saccharicida *kine drawing of aedeagus)


Perkinsiella vastatrix

Perkinsiella vastatrix

Perkinsiella vastatrix

Perkinsiella vastatrix

Perkinsiella vastatrix

Perkinsiella vastatrix FEMALE

Perkinsiella vastatrix


Perkinsiella vastatrix

Perkinsiella vastatrix


Perkinsiella vitiensis (dorsal and lateral view are females)

Perkinsiella vitiensis

Perkinsiella vitiensis

Perkinsiella vitiensis

Perkinsiella vitiensis

Perkinsiella vitiensis MALE

Perkinsiella vitiensis

Perkinsiella rattlei (Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research)

Perkinsiella rattlei

Perkinsiella rattlei (Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research)

Perkinsiella thompsoni

Perkinsiella thompsoni Muir (Murray Fletcher, New South Wales Government Department of Primary Industries, Biosecurity Collections)

Perkinsiella thompsoni female

Perkinsiella thompsoni (female)

Online resources

Discover Life.
Kunzweb Gallery. link to delphacid page, this genus not present)
American Insects. (link to delphacid page, this genus not present)
Leafhopper, Planthopper and Psyllid vectors of Plant disease.

Molecular resources

There is a variety of molecular resources for this genus on Genbank. There is some sequence data (internal transcribed spacer sequences) for for Perkinsiella saccharicida, P. thompsoni and P. vitiensis here.  There is only Perkinsiella saccharicida on BOLD.

Selected References

Allsop, P. G. and R. M. Bull. 1990. Sampling distributions and sequential sampling plans for Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) and Tytthus spp.(Hemiptera: Miridae) on sugarcane. Journal of Economic Entomology. 83(6):2284-2289.

Asche, M. 1985. Zur Phylogenie der Delphacidae Leach, 1815 (Homoptera Cicadina Fulgoromorpha). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 2(1 & 2): 1-398, 399-910. [geographical notes]

Attié M., T. Bourgoin, J. Veslot and A. Soulier-Perkins. 2008. Patterns of trophic relationships between planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) and their host plants on the Mascarene Islands. Journal of Natural History 42(23-24): 1591-1638.

Ayquipa A. G. and Q. A. Gomez. 1984. Evaluation of a heavy infestation with Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirk. (Homoptera: Delphacidae) on sugarcane in Cooperativa Casa Grande, Trujillo. Entomology Newsletter 16: 5-6.

Badilla F., W. Jara and W. Gordillo. 2004. Control of the leaf-hopper Perkinsiella saccharicida with the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Manejo Integrado de Plagas y Agroecologica 73: 29-34.

Bartlett, C.R. 2002. A new genus and species of delphacid planthopper (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) from Canada. Entomological News 113(2): 97-102. [comparative note]

Bartlett, C. R. 2013. National. Pest Alert. Sugarcane Planthopper Perkinsiella saccharicida (Kirkaldy, 1903) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). National Pest Alert. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Regional IPM Centers and the 1862 Land-Grant Universities.

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Bartlett, C. R. and G. Kunz. 2015. A new genus and species of delphacid planthopper (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Delphacidae) from Central America with a preliminary regional species list. Zootaxa 3946(4): 510–518. [Erratum. Zootaxa 3963(4): 598-600.]

Bellis G. A., J. F. Donaldson, V. Quintao, A. Rice, D. Tenakanai and L. Tran-Nguyen. 2014.  New records of Delphacini (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Delphacinae) from Australia, Timor Leste and Papua New Guinea, and an updated checklist of Delphacini from Australia. Austral Entomology 53: 167-174.

Bianchi, F. A. 1981. Notes and Exhibitions: Perkinsiella saccharicida (Kirkaldy). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 23(3): 324.

Bonfils J., S. Quilici and B. Reynaud. 1994. Les Hémiptères Auchénorrhynques de l’Ile de la Réunion. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 99: 227-240.

Breddin, G. 1896. Javanische Zuckerrohrschädlinge aus der Familie der Rhynchoten. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift 1: 105-110.

Bull, R. M. 1972. A study of the sugar cane leafhopper Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirk (Homoptera: Delphacidae) in the Bundaberg District of South-Eastern Queensland. Pp. 173-183. In: Proceedings of the 39th Congress organized by the Queensland Society Sugarcane Technolologists.

Bull, R.M. 1981. Population studies on the sugarcane leaf-hopper (Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirk.) in the Bundaberg district. Pp. 293-303. In: Proceedings of the Third Conference organized by the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists.

Bustillo Pardey, A. E.  2010 (2011). Parasitoides, predadores y entomopatógenos que afectan las plagas de la caña de azúcar en Colombia. Nos. 3 y 4 de 2010. online

CAB International Institute of Entomology. 1987. Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirkaldy – Hemiptera: Delphacidae. Sugarcane leafhopper/planthopper. Commonwealth Institute of Entomology Distribution Maps of Pests Series A Agricultural No. 150 (revised) .

Dhileepan, K. and B. J. Croft. 2003. Resistance to Fiji disease in sugar cane: Role of cultivar preference by planthopper vector Perkinsiella saccharicida (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 96(1): 148-155.

Dhileepan, K., B. J. Croft, A. W. Ridley, A. P. James and S. Raghu. 2006. Susceptibility of source plants to Sugarcane Fiji disease virus influences the acquisition and transmission of the virus by the planthopper vector Perkinsiella saccharicida. Journal of Applied Entomology 130(1): 67-71.

Dhileepan, K., A. Greet, A. Ridley, B. J. Croft and G. R. Smith. 2003. Fiji disease resistance in sugarcane: Relationship to cultivar preference in field populations of the planthopper vector Perkinsiella saccharicida. Annals of Applied Biology 143: 375-379.

Ding, Jin-Hua 1980. On the genus Perkinsiella Kirkaldy of China (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Journal of Nanjing Agricultural College 1(01): 108 [108].

Ding, Jin-Hua. 2006, Fauna Sinica Insecta Vol. 45 Homoptera Delphacidae. Science Press, Beijing, China.

Distant W. L. 1912. Descriptions of new genera and species of Oriental Homoptera. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Ser. 8) 9: 181-194.

Emeljanov, A. F. 1988. A new planthopper species of the genus Perkinsiella Kirkaldy (Homoptera, Delphacidae) from Vietnam. Entomological Review 67(1): 108-111 [Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 1987 66(2): 338-341].

Emeljanov, A. F. 1994. The species of Perkinsiella introduced into Florida is the genuine P. saccharicida Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Zoosystematica Rossica 3(1): 18.

García, M. R., C. C. González, D. A. de León Reyes and F. G. Gómez. 2011. Informe de Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) en el cultivo del maíz (Zea mays L.) en la provincia de Ciego de Ávila, Cuba. Fitosanidad 15(3): 143-145.

Fennah, R. G. 1950. Fulgoroidea of Fiji. Bulletin Bernice P. Bishop Museum 202: 1-122.

Fennah, R. G. 1956. Insects of Micronesia, Homoptera: Fulgoroidea. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Insects of Micronesia 6(3): 39-211.

Fennah, R. G. 1964. Delphacidae from Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 116: 131-150.

Fennah, R. G. 1965. Delphacidae from Australia and New Zealand (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 17(1): 1-59. (see p. 16).

Fennah, R. G. 1969. Delphacidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) from the Sudan Republic. Acta Entomologica Fennica., Helsinki 26: 1-78.

Fennah, R. G. 1971. Homoptera: Fulgoroidea Supplement. Insects Micronesia 6(8): 563-609.

Fennah, R. G. 1978. Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from Vietnam. Annales Zoologici Warszawa 34(9): 207-279.

Fennah, R. G. 1979. New species and new records of Perkinsiella (Homoptera: Delphacidae) form Papua New Guinea. Bulletin of Entomological Research 69(3): 507-517. [PDF]

Francki, R.I.B., C. C. Ryan, T. Hatta, J. Rohozinski and C. J. Grivell. 1986. Serological detection of Fiji disease virus antigens in the planthopper Perkinsiella saccharicida and its inefficient ability to transmit the virus. Plant Pathology (Oxford) 35(3): 324-328.

Frappa C. 1955. Sur quelques observations biologiques effectuées à Brickaville sur Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirk., agent vecteur de la maladie de Fidji. Bulletin de Madagascar 108: 1-6.

García, M. R., C. C. González, D. A. de León Reyes and F. G. Gómez. 2011. Informe de Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) en el cultivo del maíz (Zea mays L.) en la provincia de Ciego de Ávila, Cuba. Fitosanidad 15(3): 143-145.

Grillo, H. 1994. Natural enemies of Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirk. (Homoptera; Delphacidae) at the central region of Cuba. [Enemigos naturales de Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirk. (Homoptera; Delphacidae) en la region central de Cuba.] Centro-Agricola (Cuba) 21(1): 51-56. (CIDA no. 125830).

Giraldo-Vanegas, H. , A. Nass, E. Hernández, F. Amaya, A. Vargas, M. Ramón, M. Ramírez, F. Ramírez and D. Tua 2004. Situación Actual de la Chicharrita de La Caña de Azúcar Perkinsiella Saccharicida (Kirkaldy) (Hemíptera: Delphacidae) en Venezuela. [Current distribution of sugarcane leafhopper Perkinsiella Saccharicida (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Venezuela]. Caña de Azúcar 22(01): 39-51.

Guerrieri, E. and G. Viggiani. 2005. A review of the encyrtid (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) parasitoids of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) with description of a new species of Cheiloneurus. Systematics and Biodiversity 2(3): 305-317.

Harris, R.H.G. 1970. Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Delphacidae) an insect pest of sugarcane in Southern Africa. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 44: 169-174.

Hayashi, M. and S. Fujinuma. 2016. Part Fulgoromorpha. Pp. 323-355. In: Entomological Society of Japan 2016 – Catalogue of the insects of Japan. Volume 4 Paraneoptera (Psocodea, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera), 4. Editorial Committee of Catalogue of the Insects of Japan.

Hughes, G. L., P. Allsopp, S. Brumbley, K. N. Johnson and S. L. O’Neill. 2008. In Vitro Rearing of Perkinsiella saccharicida and the Use of Leaf Segments to Assay Fiji disease virus Transmission. Phytopathology 98 7: 810-814.

Hughes, G. L., P. G. Allsopp, S. M. Brumbley, M. Woolfit, E. A. McGraw and S. L. O’Neill. 2011. Variable infection frequency and high diversity of multiple strains of Wolbachia pipientis in Perkinsiella planthoppers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77(6): 2165-2168.

Hughes, G. L., P. G. Allsopp, R. I. Webb, R. Yamada, I. Iturbe-Ormaetxe, S. M. Brumbley and S. L. O’Neill. 2011. Identification of yeast associated with the planthopper, Perkinsiella saccharicida: potential applications for Fiji leaf gall control. Current Microbiology 63(4): 392-401.

Ishihara, T. 1949. Revision of the Araeopidae of Japan, Ryukyu Islands, and Formosa. Scientific reports of Matsuyama Agricultural College 2: 1-102.

Jiang, J., A. W. Ridley, H. Tang, B. J. Croft and K. N. Johnson. 2008. Genetic variability of genome segments 3 and 9 of Fiji disease virus field isolates. Archives of virology 153(5): 839-848.

Kennedy A. C., C. R. Bartlett and S. W. Wilson. 2012. An annotated checklist of the delphacid planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) of Florida with the description of three new species and the new genus, Meristopsis. Florida Entomologist 95(2): 395-421.

Kershaw, J.C.W. and F. Muir. 1922a. The genitalia of the Auchenorhynchous Homoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 15(3): 201-210, Plt 13. [male genitalia Perkinsiella saccharicida illustrated.]

Kieffer, J. J. 1914. Bethylidae, bearbeitet von prof. dr. J. J. Kieffer. Mit 205 abbildungen. Das Tierreich, Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der  rezenten Tierformen. 41. Lieferung. Berlin,R. Friedländer und sohn. 595 pp.

Kifune, T. and Y. Hirashima. 1989. Taxonomic studies on the Strepsiptera in The Collection Of Bishop Museum (Notulae Strepsipterologicae-XX). Esakia (28): 11-48.

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1903. Miscellanea Rhynchotalia. No.7. The Entomologist 36: 179-181.

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1906. Leafhoppers and their natural enemies. (Pt. IX Leafhoppers. Hemiptera). Bulletin. Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association Experiment Station. Division of Entomology 1(9): 271-479.

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1907. Leafhoppers supplement (Hemiptera). Bulletin of the Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association, Entomological Series 3:1-186, plus 20 plates.

LaVerde L.A.G. and L.A.L. Borja. 1998. Nota de Investigatión. Perkinsiella saccharicida : el saltahojas hawaiano. Carta Trimestrial 2-3: 15-17.

Leach, W. E. 1815a. Entomology. The Edinburg encyclopedia; conducted by David Brewster 9: 57-172. (family Delphacidae here).

Linnavuori, R. 1973. Hemiptera of the Sudan, with remarks on some species of the adjacent countries 2. Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae; Cercopidae, Machaerotidae, Membracidae and Fulgoridae (Zoological contribution to the Sudan no. 33). Notulae Entomologicae 53(3):65-137.

Llano C. A., C. R. Bartlett and G. Guevara. 2016. First record of the subfamily Asiracinae and Copicerus irroratus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Delphacidae) in Colombia. Florida Entomologist 99(1): 120-122. [Perkinsiella saccharicida]

Mararey, R. C., L. S. Kuniata, P. R. Samson, B. J. Croft, K. J. Chandler, Irawan, K.S. Braithwaite, P.G. Allsopp, A.P. James and G.R. Rauka. 2007. Research into exotic disease and pest threats to saccharum germplasm in Australia and neighbouring countries. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technology 29: 9 pp [unpaginated]

Melichar, L. 1905. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Homopterenfauna Deutsch-Ost-Afrikas. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 24(9 et 10): 279-304.

Mendoza, M. J. 2005. Management of Perkinsiella saccharicida in sugarcane in Ecuador. Sugarcane International 23(6): 7-9.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1943. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 3, Araeopidae (Delphacidae). Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts. 552 pp. (see p. 133).

Muir, F. A. G. 1911. On some new species of leafhopper (Perkinsiella) on sugar cane. Bulletin. Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association Experiment Station. Division of Entomology 9: 4-11.

Muir, F. A. G. 1913. On some new Fulgoroidea. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 2: 237-269.

Muir, F.A.G. 1916b. Additions to the Known Philippine Delphacidae (Hemiptera). Philippine Journal of Science (part D) 11: 369-385.

Muir, F. A. G. 1917. Homopterous notes. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 3: 311-338.

Muir, F. A. G. 1925. Two new species of exotic Delphacidae (Homoptera). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 61: 221-223.

Muir. F. A. G. 1934. New and little-known Fulgoroidea (Homoptera). Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. (Ser. 10) 14: 561-586. [Perkinsiella rattlei Muir, 1911 from New Caledonia]

Nguyen, R., O. Sosa Jr. and F. W. Mead. 1984. Sugarcane delphacid, Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirkaldy 1903 (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry Entomology Circular 265: 1-2.

Osborn, A. W. 1969. Polymorphism in males of the sugarcane planthopper Perkinsiella saccharicida. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 62(3): 247.

Osborn, A. W. 1969. Parasitism associated with brachypterous males in the sugarcane leafhopper, Perkinsiella vitiensis. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 62(3): 669-670.

Pierce, W. D. 1917b.  A manual of dangerous insects likely to be introduced in the United States through importations. Government Printing Office . Washington, D. C. Vol./pp.: 1-256. Fig(s).: 1-107. Plate(s): 1-49. [Economics of various species. Reprinted in 1918.] [see e.g., P. 198]

Qin, D. Z. and F. J. Ren. 2015. The planthopper genus Perkinsiella Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Delphacidae) from China. Entomotaxonomica 37(3): 207-212.

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