Genus Opiconsiva Distant, 1917

[Back to Higher classification of Delphacidae]

Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815

Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815

Genus Opiconsiva Distant, 1917: 301.

Type species (in original combination): Opiconsiva fuscovaria Distant, 1917: 301.


= Corbulo Fennah, 1965: 68 was made a junior synonym of Opiconsiva by Asche (1988: 197).

= Harmalia Fennah, 1969 synonym of Opiconsiva Distant, 1917 by Huang et al. (2017)

= Paracorbulo Tian & Ding, 1980 synonym of Harmalia Fennah, 1969 by Yang (1989: 198.)

Note: in Metcalf 1943: 389, Opiconsiva was treated as a synonym of Delphacodes, as implied by Muir (1919: 7) and others.


Mostly Africa, Indo-Malayan and Pacific.  Opiconsiva dodona recorded from Jamaica, possibly in error (and possibly unpublished).


Distribution of Opiconsiva from FLOW (as of 6 Aug. 2017)

Recognized species

This genus is represented by 10 species (distribution information is quite incomplete)

1. Opiconsiva albicollis (Motschulsky, 1863) – Bangladesh, Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku), Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), South Korea, Russia (Maritime Territory), China, Taiwan, Turkey, Palestine, Canary Islands, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Philippines, South Pacific (Mariana Is., S. Mariana Is. [Guam], Palau, Yap Island), Indonesia, Caroline Islands. [Intercepted in US USDA APHIS PPQ 1974: 55, as Delphacodes sameshima]
= Delphax albicollis Motschulsky (1863: 110).
= Liburnia albicollis (Motschulsky, 1863); comb. by Melichar (1903: 99).
= Delphacodes albicollis (Motschulsky, 1863); comb. by Ishihara (1949: 66).
= Opiconsiva albicollis (Motschulsky, 1863); comb. by Fennah (1975: 112).
= Kakuna sameshimae Matsumura & Ishihara, 1948; syn. by Fujinama (2013: 246).
= Delphacodes sameshimai (Matsumura & Ishihara, 1945), comb. by Ishihara (1949: 66).
= Sogata yanoi Ishihara (1952: 42), original combination.
= Corbulo koreacola Kwon (1982: 7).
= Opiconsiva sameshimai (Matsumura & Ishihara, 1945); comb. by Kuoh & Ding (1980).
= Harmalia sameshimai (Matsumura & Ishihara, 1945) comb. by Fennah (1971: 582); syn. by Fujinama (2013: 246)
= Opiconsiva koreacola (Kwon, 1982); comb. by Ding et al. 1990; syn by Fujinama (2013: 246).
= Toya yanoi (Ishihara, 1952); comb. by Nast (1972): 65; syn by Fujinuma, 1913.
= Harmalia albicollis (De Motschulsky, 1863) comb. by Fennah (1969: 21).

2. Opiconsiva albimarginata Chen & Li, 2000 – China (Guizhou Province)
   Opiconsiva anufrievi Kwon, 1982 (South Korea, Russia (Maritime Territory)) see Harmalia (Fujinuma 2013)

3.  Opiconsiva brontes (Fennah, 1971) – Micronesia, Gilbert Is.
Corbulo brontes Fennah, 1971 , Original combination
= Opiconsiva brontes (Fennah); combination by implication Asche 1988

4. Opiconsiva dilpa (Kirkaldy, 1907) [Metcalf 1943: 427] – Australia, New South Wales, New Zealand (Chatham Islands, North and South Islands) (Larivière et al. 2010)
= Delphax dilpa Kirkaldy, 1907: 162, original combination .
= Delphacodes dilpa (Kirkaldy, 1907), comb. by Muir (1917d)
= Corbulo dilpa (Kirkaldy, 1907), comb. by Fennah (1965: 48)
= Opiconsiva dilpa (Kirkaldy, 1907), comb. by implication Asche (1988)

5. Opiconsiva dodona (Fennah, 1965: 48) – Sudan, New Caledonia, Sri Lanka, Australia (Queensland), Tonga Is., Solomon Islands (South Solomons), Vietnam (Pacific and SE Asia); also reported Jamaica (unpublished) .
= Corbulo dodona Fennah 1965: 48; original combination.
= Opiconsiva dodona (Fennah 1965), comb. by implication Asche (1988)

6. Opiconsiva fuscovaria Distant, 1917: 301 – Seychelles

7. Opiconsiva guamensis (Metcalf, 1946) – Micronesia, Mariana Is., Guam, Palau, Yap Is., Caroline Atolls, Marshal Islands, Gilbert Islands (adventive Hawaii?).
= Delphacodes guamensis Metcalf, 1946 original combination
= Corbulo guamensis (Metcalf, 1946); comb. by Fennah (1971: 575)
= Opiconsiva guamensis (Metcalf); comb. by implication (Asche 1988)

8. Opiconsiva messalina (Fennah, 1971) – Micronesia, Wake Atoll
= Corbulo messalina Fennah, 1971
= Opiconsiva messalina (Fennah); comb. by implication Asche 1988

9. Opiconsiva paludum (Kirkaldy, 1910: 579) [Metcalf 1943: 366]  – Fiji, Indonesia, Laysan Island, Philippine Islands, Sri Lanka, Australia (Queensland), Samoa; Hawaii (Oahu – adventive). Jamaica? Cook Islands.
= Kelisia paludum Kirkaldy, 1910, original combination
= Liburnia paludum (Kirkaldy, 1910), comb. by Zimmerman (1948)
= Chloriona paludum (Kirkaldy, 1910), comb. by Fennah (1956)
= Corbulo paludum (Kirkaldy, 1910), comb. by Fennah (1971)
= Opiconsiva paludum (Kirkaldy, 1910), com. by Asche (1988)

10. Opiconsiva tangira (Matsumura, 1910) – Morocco, Palestine, Italy, Guinea, Nigeria, Sudan, south China; Bangladesh, India (Punjab), Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Sri Lanka, Thailand

= Delphax tangira Matsumura 1910: 30
= Toya tangira (Matsumura 1910); comb. by Nast 1975: 6.
= Corbulo tangira (Matsumura 1910); comb. by Kwon 1982: 7
= Opiconsiva tangira (Matsumura 1910); comb. by Asche 1988: 197.
= Chloriona (Sogatella) paludum (Kirkaldy, 1910); syn by Fennah 1958: 490.
= Opicosiva nigra Ding & Tian, 1980: 39; syn by Fujinama, 1913: 348.

The following species were moved to Opiconsiva from Harmalia, but have not be used in combination with Opiconsiva:

Harmalia anacharsis Fennah, 1969 – USA: Florida (adventive); New Caledonia, Indonesia, India, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, China (Guangdong), Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan
= Paracorbulo amplexicaulis Tian & Ding, 1980 original combination
= Harmalia amplexicaulis (Tian, 1980) synonym by Ding (2006): 549

Harmalia brunnia (Muir, 1917) – Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan, Philippines (Luzon), Malaysia (Amboyna)
= Sardia brunnia Muir, 1917
= Harmalia brunnia (Muir, 1917); comb by … ? (listed in this combination by Hayashi & Fujinuma 2016: 333; not sure by the annotation whether H. commelinae Yang, 1989 may be a jr synonym).

Harmalia clavata (Tian & Ding, 1980) – China (Fujian)
= Paracorbulo clavata Tian & Ding, 1980.
= Harmalia clavata (Tian & Ding, 1980); new combination by implication Yang, 1989: 198.

Harmalia commelinae Yang, 1989: 206 – Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Philippines (Luzon), Taiwan

Harmalia cordata Yang, 1989 – Bangladesh, Indonesia (Jawa), Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Philippines (Luzon), Taiwan, Thailand

Harmalia heitensis (Matsumura & Ishihara, 1945) – Japan, Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Philippines (Luzon), Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam, China
= Sogata heitensis Matsumura & Ishihara 1945: 66.
= Harmalia heitensis (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Fennah (1975: 105).
= Matutinus aculeatus Yang, 1989: 183.
= Harmalia aculeatus (Yang, 1989); comb. by Ding (2006: 558).
= Harmalia aculeatus (Yang, 1989); synonym by Fujinuma (2013: 340)

Harmalia heitensis otho Fennah, 1975 – Sri Lanka (see Gnaneswaran 2013)

Harmalia obscura Ding, 2006 – China

Harmalia ostorius (Kirkaldy, 1907) – Australia: Queensland
= Delphax ostorius Kirkaldy 1907: 153
= Chloriona ostorius (Kirkaldy 1907), comb. by Metcalf 1943: 324.
= Harmalia ostorius (Kirkaldy), comb. by Fennah 1969: 39

Harmalia sanguinalis (Ding and Tian 1980) – China (Guangdong)
= Paracorbulo sanguinalis Ding & Tian, 1980
= Harmalia sanguinalis (Ding & Tian, 1980). comb. by Yang (1989: 198)

Harmalia separata Yang, 1989 – Taiwan

Harmalia sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara, 1945) – China, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku), Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), South Korea, Taiwan
= Sogata Sirokata Matsumura & Ishihara 1945: 64.
= Chloriona (Sogatella) sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Fennah, 1956: 472.
= Paracorbulo sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Tian & Ding, 1980: 316.
= Opiconsiva sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Kwon, 1982: 6.
= Harmalia sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Yang, 1989: 204
= Opiconsiva anufrievi Kwon, 1982; syn by Fujinuma, 2013: 337.
= Opiconsiva gayasana Kwon, 1982: 6.
= Harmalia gayasana (Kwon, 1982); comb. by Ding et al. 1990; syn by Fujinuma, 2013: 337.

Harmalia tarasco Fennah, 1975 – Sri Lanka

Harmalia thoracica (Distant, 1916) [Metcalf 1943: 520] – Sri Lanka, India
= Sogata thoracica Distant, 1916
= Delphacodes thoracica (Distant); comb. by Muir, 1919: 8
= Harmalia thoracica (Distant) comb. by Fennah 1969: 39 (Type species of genus Harmalia))

Harmalia tiphys Fennah, 1971 – Micronesia, Caroline Is., Palau Island, Sri Lanka

Economic importance

Probably limited, although some species are widespread, disperse well, and could be accidentally introduced.

Harmalia anacharsis Fennah, 1969 is adventive into Florida (but it is unclear whether the species is still found there)

Plant associations

Opiconsiva albicollisPaspalum distichum L. (knotgrass), Isachne globosa (Thunb. ex Murray) Kuntze (Poaceae; Fujinuma 2013: 348).
Opiconsiva dilpa – Juncus sp. (Poales, Juncaceae) according to Larivière et al. (2010)
Opiconsiva nigraPaspalum distichum L.
Opiconsiva paludumBacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell (as Herpestis monnieri) (Scrophulariaceae, Water Hyssop), Juncus sp., sedges
Harmalia anacharsisEchinodorus paniculatus Micheli (Alismataceae; Holdom et al. 1989)
Harmalia commelinaeCommelina diffusa Burm. f. (Commelinaceae;  Yang 1989: 208;  Fujinuma 2013: 344)
Harmalia heitensisAlternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC. (Amaranthaceae); Commelina diffusa Burm. f. (Commelinaceae) (Fujinuma 2013: 342; Gnaneswaran 2013: 291)
Harmalia sirokataCommelina diffusa Burm. f. (Commelinaceae), Persicaria biconvexa (Hayata) Nemoto (Polygonaceae), Persicaria thunbergii (Siebold & Zucc.) H. Gross (Polygonaceae) (Fujinuma 2013: 340).

For additional associations that I may have missed, see FLOW.


Not expected in the New World.  Superficially similar to Chionomus.  Asche (1988: 198) notes that “….limits between these species (if there are any) are not very clearly expressed in literature and should be newly defined.” Ding (2006) provides a key to the four species in China.

I have seen specimens from Mexico that are probably this genus.  I am aware of a record from Jamaica that appears not to have been published.

Very close to Chionomus in superficial appearance; the most obvious differences are that the processes on segment 10 are closely approximated in Opiconsiva, separated in Chionomus.

Opiconsiva dodona (Photographs by Kimberley Shropshire, University of Delaware)

Opiconsiva dodona

Opiconsiva dodona

Opiconsiva dodona

Opiconsiva dodona

Opiconsiva dodona

Opiconsiva dodona

Opiconsiva dodona

Opiconsiva dodona (as Corbulo) from Fennah 1965

Opiconsiva tangira

Opiconsiva tangira

Opiconsiva tangira

Opiconsiva tangira

Opiconsiva tangira

Opiconsiva tangira

Opiconsiva tangira

Opiconsiva tangira from Asche 1988

Opiconsiva albicollis from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Opiconsiva albicollis from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Opiconsiva albicollis from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Opiconsiva brontes from Fennah, 1971

Opiconsiva brontes from Fennah, 1971

Opiconsiva brontes from Fennah, 1971

Opiconsiva guamensis and O. dodona from Fennah, 1971

Opiconsiva guamensis and O. dodona from Fennah, 1971

Opiconsiva guamensis and O. dodona from Fennah, 1971

Opiconsiva messalina from Fennah, 1971

Opiconsiva messalina from Fennah, 1971

Opiconsiva messalina from Fennah, 1971

Opiconsiva anufrievi (jr syn of Harmalia sirokata) from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Opiconsiva anufrievi (jr syn of Harmalia sirokata) from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Opiconsiva anufrievi (jr syn of Harmalia sirokata) from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Opiconsiva albicollis from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Opiconsiva albicollis from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Opiconsiva paludum from Cook Islands

Opiconsiva paludum from Cook Islands Insects.Opiconsiva paludum from Cook Island Insects.


Harmalia tiphys Fennah, 1971 (from Fennah 1971, supplement Micronesia)

Online resources

Discover Life
Bugguide (N/A)
Leafhopper, Planthopper & Psyllid Vectors of Plant Disease (N/A)
Insects of Australia (O. dilpa and O. dodona listed)
3I Interactive Keys and Taxonomic Databases (Dmitry Dmitriev)
Cook Island Insects.

Molecular resources

Genbank has Harmalia  and Opiconsiva, including Histine3, 28S and 18s for Harmalia ostorius here.  Bold does 1 species of Harmalia and Opiconsiva..

Selected References

Anufriev, G. A. and A. F. Emeljanov. 1988. Volume II: Homoptera and Heteroptera. In: P.A. Lehr, (ed.). Keys to the Insects of the Far East of the USSR in Six Volumes, Transliteration of the Russian title: Opredelitel’ nasekomykh Dal’nego Vostoka SSSR v shesti tomakh. Vol. 2. Ravnokrylye i poluzhestkokrylye. Nauka, Leningrad.[English] Volume II.

Asche, M. 1988. Delphacidae from Cote d’Ivoire (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea). Revue Francaise d’Entomologie (Nouvelle Serie) 10(2): 151-231.

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Butler, G. D., jr. and R. L. Usinger. 1963. Insects and other invertebrates from Laysan Island. Atoll research bulletin 98: 1-30.

Chen, X. S. and Z. Z. Li. 2000. One new species of the genus Opiconsiva (Homoptera: Delphacidae) from China. Entomotaxonomia 22 (1): 20-22.

Ding, J. H. 2006. Fauna Sinica Insecta Vol. 45 Homoptera Delphacidae. Science Press, Beijing, China.

Ding, J., F. Zhang and C. Hu. 1990. New and little known planthopper of the family Delphacidae from northeast China. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University [Nanjing Nongye Daxue Xuebao] 13(2): 46-49.

Distant, W. L. 1917. Rhychota. Part ii: Suborder Homoptera. The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, under the leadership of Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, M. A. The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second series. Zoology 17: 273-322. [see P. 301]

Dupo, A.L.B. and A. T. Barrion. 2009.Taxonomy and general biology of delphacid planthoppers in rice agroecosytems. Pp 3-156 In: K.L. Heong and B. Hardy, (eds). Planthoppers: new threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines.

Fennah, R. G. 1956. Fulgoroidea from southern China. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco 28(4): 441-527.

Fennah, R. G. 1964. Delphacidae from Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 116: 131-150.

Fennah, R. G. 1965.  Delphacidae from Australia and New Zealand (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 17: 1-59.

Fennah, R. G. 1967. New species and new records of Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from Samoa and Tonga. Pacific Insects 9: 29-72.

Fennah, R. G. 1969a. Delphacidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) from the Sudan Republic. Acta Entomologica Fennica 26:1-78.

Fennah, R. G. 1969b. Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. Pacific Insects Monograph 21:1-116.

Fennah, R. G. 1970.  Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from Rennell & Belona Islands. Pp. 43-85. In: Wolff T. 1970. The natural history of Rennell Islands, British Solomon Islands (Scientific Research of the Noona Dan Expedition (Rennell Section 1962) & Danish Rennell Exp. 1965.), 6. Danish Science Press, Copenhagen (Denmark).

Fennah, R. G. 1971. Homoptera: Fulgoroidea, Supplement. Insects of Micronesia, Bernice P. Bishop Museum 6(8): 563-609.

Fennah, R. G. 1975. Homoptera: Delphacidae from Ceylon. Entomologica Scandinavica (Supplement) 4: 79-136.

Fennah, R. G. 1978. Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from Vietnam. Annales Zoologici Warszawa 34(9): 207-279.

Fujinuma, S. S. 2013. A taxonomic study of the genera Harmalia and Opiconsiva (Homoptera, Delphacidae) from Japan. Japanese Journal Of Systematic Entomology 19(2): 335-350.

Gnaneswaran, R. 2013. A review of the Genus Harmalia Fennah 1969 (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) recorded from Sri Lanka with the description of Harmalia heitensis otho Fennah 1975. Pp. 287-296. In: Chopra A. K. & Khanna D. R. 2013. Animal Diversity and their Conservation, Biotech Books.

Hayashi, M. and S. Fujinuma. 2016. Part Fulgoromorpha. p. 323-355. In: Entomological Society of Japan. 2016. Catalogue of the insects of Japan. Volume 4 Paraneoptera (Psocodea, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera), 4. Editorial Committee of Catalogue of the Insects of Japan.

Holdom, D. G., P. S. Taylor, R. J. Mackay-Wood, M. E. Ramos and R. S. Soper. 1989. Field studies on rice planthoppers (Hom., Delphacidae) and their natural enemies in Indonesia. Journal of Applied Entomology 107(2): 118-129.

Huang, Yi-Xin, Li-Fang Zheng, C. R. Bartlett and Dao-Zheng Qin. 2017. Resolving phylogenetic relationships of Delphacini and Tropidocephalini (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Delphacinae) as inferred from four genetic loci. Scientific Reports 7(1): 3319 : 9 pp.  doi:10.1038/s41598-017-03624-w

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1907. Leafhoppers supplement. (Hemiptera). Bulletin. Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association Experiment Station. Division of Entomology. Honolulu 3: 1-186 [162].

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1910. Hemiptera. Fauna Hawaiiensis or the zoology of the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Isles. Supplement 1910: 531-599. (See Pp. 579-599).

Kuoh, C.-L., J.-H. Ding, L.-X. Tian & C. L. Hwang. 1983. Economic Insect Fauna of China. Fasc. 27 (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Science Press, Beijing, China. 166 pp.

Kuoh, C.-L. and J.-H. Ding. 1980. New combinations and new records of Delphacidae from China. Entomotaxonomia 2(4): 301-302.

Kwon, Y. J. 1982. New and little known planthoppers of the family Delphacidae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Korean Journal of Entomology 12(1): 1-11.

Larivière M. C., Fletcher M. J. & Larochelle A. 2010. Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue. Fauna of New Zealand 63: 1-232.

Leach, W. E. 1815a. Entomology. The Edinburg encyclopedia; conducted by David Brewster 9: 57-172. (family Delphacidae here)

Matsumura, S. 1910. Neue Cicadinen aus Europa und Mittelmeergebiet (Schluss). Journal of the College of Sciences, Imperial University of Tokyo. Tokyo 27(18): 1-38.

Matsumura S. and T. Ishihara. 1945. Species novae vel cognitae Araeopidarum imperii japonici (Hemiptera). Mushi 16: 59-82.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1943. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 3, Araeopidae (Delphacidae). Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts. 552 pp. (see p. 389)

Metcalf, Z. P. 1946. Homoptera. Fulgoroidea and Jassoidea of Guam. Bulletin Bernice P. Bishop Museum 189: 105-148.

De Motschulsky, V. I. 1863. Essai d’un catalogue des insectes de l’ile de Ceylan. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou. Moscou 36: 1-153.

Muir, F.A.G. 1917d. Homopterous notes. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 3: 311-338. [328]

Muir, F.A.G. 1917c. New Hawaiian Delphacidae. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 3: 298-311. [Comparative note D. dilpa p. 334]

Muir, F. A. G. 1919a. Notes on the Delphacidae in the British Museum collection. Canadian Entomologist 51: 6-8. [Notes on synonymy.]

Muir, F. A. G. 1927a. Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea. In Insects of Samoa and other Samoan terrestrial Arthropoda. British Museum . London. Vol./pp.: 1 (2):1-27. Fig(s).: 1-25.

Tian, Li-Xin, Jin-Hua Ding and Chung-Lin Kuoh. 1980. A new genus and three new species of Delphacidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Entomotaxonomia 2(4): 315-319 [316].

USDA APHIS PPQ. 1974. List of intercepted plant pests, 1972 (pests recorded from July 1, 1971, through June 30, 1972)  Aphis 82-4, Augyst 1974. USDA, Hyattsville, MD.

Vanthournout, B., V. Vandomme and F. Hendrick. 2014. Sex ratio bias caused by endosymbiont infection in the dwarf spider Oedothorax retusus. The Journal of Arachnology 42(1): 24-33. Retrieved from [Phylogenetic position of Cardinium endosymbiont of Hamalia sirokata, in relation to other Cardinum available on GenBank]

Wooten, C. M., S. W. Wilson and J. H. Tsai. 1993. Descriptions of nymphs of the planthopper Harmalia anacharsis Fennah, a species new to the United States (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 101(4): 567-573.

Yang, C. T. 1989. Delphacidae of Taiwan II (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). NSC Special Publications 6: 1-334.

Zimmerman, E. C. 1948. Insects of Hawaii 4. Homoptera: Auchenorhyncha. 268 pp. University Hawaii Press, Honolulu (United States of America (Hawaii)).


Print Friendly, PDF & Email