Genus Chlorochara Stål, 1869

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Family Acanaloniidae Amyot & Serville, 1843

Subfamily Acanaloniinae Amyot & Serville, 1843

Tribe Acanaloniini Amyot & Serville, 1843

Genus Chlorochara Stål, 1869: 107

Type species (in original combination): Cicada vivida Fabricius, 1775: 683.

Distribution: Caribbean, Suriname

Chlorochara distribution

Distribution of Chlorochara from FLOW *10 Dec. 2019)

Recognized species

There is 1 species and 2 subspecies as follows: [see Metcalf 1954: 39, beginning at the very bottom].

Chlorochara vivida (Fabricius, 1775) – Puerto Rico, Cuba, Suriname
= [Cicada] vivida Fabricius, 1775: 683 (Systema Entomologiae), and 1787: 268 (as viuida), 1794: 29.
= Fulgora conica Olivier, 1791 6: 571 (Encyclopedic Methodique), syn. by Germar, 1830: 47.
= [Flata] viuida [sic] (Fabricius, 1775), comb. Fabricius, 1798: 519 (Supplementum Entomologiae Systematicae)
= [Fulgora] viuida [sic] (Fabricius, 1775), Fabricius, 1803: 11 (Metcalf said p. 5, but that doesnt seem right; Systema Rhyngotorum)
= [Pseudophana vivida] (Fabricius, 1775), Burmeister, 1835: 160 (Handbuch der Entomologie2 (1):160)
= Dictyophora vivida (Fabricius, 1775), Walker, 1851: 309 (List of Homopterous Insects 2: 309)
= Nersia [vivida] (Fabricius, 1775), comb. by Stal, 1862: 65 (Handl. Svenska Vet. Akad. 3 (6):65)
= C[hlorochara] vivida (Fabricius, 1775), comb. by Stal, 1869 : 107 (Handl. Svenska Vet. Akad. 8 (1): 107)
= Acanalonia vivida (Fabricius, 1775), comb. by Caldwell and Martorell, 1951: 262; returned to Chlorochara by Metcalf 1954: 40.

Chlorochara vivida avivida (Caldwell, 1951) – Puerto Rico
= Acanalonia vividaavivida Caldwell in Caldwell and Martorell, 1951: 264
= Chlorochara vivida avivida (Caldwell, 1951), comb. by Metcalf 1954: 42.

Chlorochara vivida coniceps (Osborn, 1929) – Puerto Rico, Caja de Muertos Island
= Acanalonia coniceps Osborn, 1929: 108
= Acanalonia vivida coniceps Osborn, 1929; comb. by Caldwell and Martorell, 1951: 264.
= Chlorochara vivida coniceps (Osborn, 1929); comb. by Metcalf 1954: 43.


None reported in Wilson et al. (1994)

Scientific names, authorship and common names of plants from the USDA Plants database, except where absent, then try Tropicos or The Plant List).

Economic Importance: Limited.


Recognized compared to Acanalonia by the sharply produced head, carinae on the vertex, and the somewhat angulate and truncate wings.

Caldwell & Martorell 1951 compares the taxa, but it is not entirely clear to me that his species concepts were correct.

Stal, 1869: 107 reads (in full, there might be OCR errors; tried Google translate, but it was humorous)

Caput longe triangulariter productum; vertice levisime concavo; fronte transversim convexa, carina obtusa percurrente instructa; clypeo carinis destituto. Ocelli distincti, ante oculos siti. Thorax capite nonnihil latius, antice obtuse rotundato-productus, basi truncatus, disco planus et ante medium impressionibus duabus punctiformibus instructus, lateribus ad discum leviter impressis. Scutellum thorace triplo longius, carinis duabus, posterius divergentibus , instructum. Tegmina ampla, decumbentia, a basi ad medium sensim rotundato-ampliata, dein nonnihil angustata, apice truncata, remote et irregulariter reticulata, corio venis duabus, altera principali, utrimque ramos emittente, per medium tegminis currente, altera prope suturam clavi sita, instructo. Tibiae posticae inermes.

Acanoniae affine genus, capite longe producto, thoracis disco piano et structura tegminum diversum.

1. C. vivida Fabr.

Viridi-flavescens ; tegminibus virescentibus , duplo longioribus quam apice latioribus, angulis apicalibus rotundatis, interiore recto, exteriore obtuso, margine imo costali flavescente; capite thorace duplo longiore, vertice pone medium carina obtusa obsoleta instructo; fronte prope apicem utrimque rotundata, sursum sensim leviter angustata; alis albidis. [male]. Long. corp. 8, Exp. tegm. 23 mill.
Cicada vivida Fabr. Syst. Ent, p. 683. 6. (1775); Spec. ins. II. p. 323. 9. (1781); Mänt. ins. II. p. 268. 10. (1787); Ent. syst. IV. p. 29. 10. (1794).
Flata vivida Fabr. Ent. syst. Suppl. p. 519. 11. (1798); Germ. in Thon, Ent. Arch. II. 2. p. 47. 14. (1830).
Fulgora vivida Fabr. Syst. Rhyng. p. 5. 20. (1803).
Patria: Insulae, Americae. (Mus. Fabricii.)

Features from Melichar’s 1901 key

Vertex flat, strongly projecting, sharply acute, three to four times as long as between the eyes, edges keeled. Forewing at costal edge angled, rear truncate. Pronotum with two lateral keels. [Label? pronotum?] with two approximated longitudinal keels.

Description of genus from Melichar 1901: 191 (may be OCR errors)

Der Kopf ist in eine lange schmale, scharfe Spitze vorgezogen, dessen Ränder scharf gekielt sind. Die Scheitelfläche ist flach, in der Mitte mit einem sehr undeutlichen, oft verloschenen Kiel versehen, welcher im Nacken gabelförmig gespalten ist. Die Stirn e ist länger als breit, in der unteren Hälfte etwas verbreitert, die Seiten daselbst gerundet, Stirnfläche mit einem scharfen durchlaufenden Mittelkiel versehen. Ocellen vorhanden. Fühler kurz. Pronotum vorne gerundet, hinten fast gerade, mit zwei scharfen, nach vorne divergierenden Seitenkielen, zwischen welchen zwei eingestochene Grübchen liegen. Schildchen länglich dreieckig, mit zwei einander sehr genäherten Längskielen, welche sich vorne miteinander verbinden. Decktlügel breit, der Costalrand an der Basis bis zur Mitte gerundet, von da ab gerade, mit dem Innenrande nach hinten convergierend, der Apicalrand gerade. Hinterschienen ohne Dornen.

Same, google translate

The head is pulled forward into a long narrow, sharp point, the edges of which are sharply keeled. The apex is flat, provided in the middle with a very indistinct, often extinguished keel, which is forked at the nape of the neck. The forehead is longer than wide, slightly widened in the lower half, the sides rounded there, the end face provided with a sharp, running center keel. Ocelli present. Antennae short. Pronotum rounded at the front, almost straight at the back, with two sharp, diverging lateral keels, between which are two punctured dimples. Signs elongated triangular, with two closely approximated along keels, which connect at the front. Cover wing wide, the costal margin at the base rounded to the middle, from there straight, with the inner margin converging to the rear, the apical margin straight. Rear rails without thorns.

Chlorochara vivida (Photos by Kimberley Shropshire, University of Delaware)

Chlorochara vivida

 Chlorochara vivida

Chlorochara vivida

Chlorochara vivida from Melichar 1902 plate 1.


Chlorochara vivida avivida (as Acanalonia) from Caldwell & Martorell 1954

Chlorochara species and subspecies from Caldwell & Martorell 1951

Chlorochara vivida avivida

Type specimen of Chlorochara vivida avivida from AMNH.

Discover Life (N/A)
Bugguide (N/A)
3I Interactive Keys and Taxonomic Databases (Dmitry Dmitriev)

Molecular resources:

None reported. GenBank has undetermined Acanaloniidae, but nothing specific for the genus.  Barcode of Life has lots of “Acanalonia” but no Chlorochara.

Selected references: (should include all the above references, links to BHL incomplete)

Amyot, C. J. B. and J. G. Serville. 1843. Deuxième partie. Homoptères. Homoptera Latr. Histoire Naturelle des insectes. Hemiptères 1843: 1-676.

Burmeister, H.C.C. 1835a. Schnabelkerfe. Rhynchota. Handbuch der Entomologie 2(1): 1-396. [Planthoppers only, pp. 144-171]

Caldwell, J. S. and L. F. Martorell. 1951 [dated1950]. Review of the Auchenorynchous [sic] Homoptera of Puerto Rico. Part II. The Fulgoroidea except Kinnaridae. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 34(2): 133-269.

Fabricius, J. C. 1775a. Ryngota. Systema Entomologiae, sistens insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species, adiectis, synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus (Korte: Flensburg and Leipzig). 816 pp. [pages 673-687 only]. (vivida p. 683)

Fabricius, J. C. 1787. Ryngota. Pp. 260-320. In: Species insectorum: exhibentes eorum differentias specificas, synonyma auctorum, loca natalia, metamorphosin, adjectis observationibus, descriptionibus. Impensis C. E. Bohnii. Hamburgi et Kilonii. 2: 1-382. (vivida – as viuida p. 268)

Fabricius, J. C. 1794. Ryngota. Pp. 1- 229. In: Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta: secundun classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonimis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Impensis Christ. Gottl. Proft. Hafniae. 4: 1-472. (vivida p. 29)

Fabricius, J. C. 1798a. Ryngota. Os Rostro: Vagina articulata. Pp. 511-524. In Supplementum Entomologiae systematicae. Hafniae, Apud Proft et Storch. (vivida on p. 519)

Fabricius, J. C. 1803a. Rhyngota. In: Systema rhyngotorum: secundum ordines, genera, species: adiectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. C. Reichard. Brunsvigae. Pp. 1-101.

Fowler, W. W.. 1900e. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). In Biologia Centrali-Americana. Porter, London. 1: 44-48.

Germar, E. F. 1830. Species Cicadarium enumeratae et sub genera distributae. Thon’s Entomologisches Archiv 2(2): 1-8

Gnezdilov, V. M. 2012a. On the composition and distribution of the family Acanaloniidae Amyot et Serville (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea). Entomologicheskoe obozrenie 91(3): 157–161. [In Russian]

Gnezdilov, V. M. 2012b. On the taxonomy of some Fulgoroidea (Hemiptera).  Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS 316(3): 239–247.

Gnezdilov, V. M. 2012c. A new genus of the family Acanaloniidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) from the Caribbean Basin. Zoosystematica Rossica 21(2): 302-305.

Melichar, L. 1901a. Monographie der Acanaloniiden und Flatiden (Homoptera). Annalen des k.k Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums 16: 178-258

Melichar, L. 1923. Homoptera; fam. Acanaloniidae, Flatidae et Ricaniidae. Genera Insectorum. Bruxelles 182: 1-185.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1954. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 14 Acanaloniidae. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. vii + 55 pp.

Metcalf, Z. P. and S. C. Bruner. 1930. Cuban Fulgorina. 1. The families Tropiduchidae and Acanaloniidae. Psyche 37(4): 395-424.

Olivier, G. A. 1791. Fulgore, Fulgora. Encyclopedie méthodique. Histoire naturelle des animaux. Insectes 6: 561-577 [571].

Osborn, H. 1929b. Notes on Porto Rican Homoptera. The Journal of the Department of Agriculture Puerto Rico 13: 81-112.

Osborn, H. 1935a. Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Homoptera (excepting the Sternorhynchi). Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 14: 111-260.

Spinola, M. 1839a. Essai sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 8: 133-337.

Spinola, M. 1839b. Essai sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. (Suite). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 8 :339-454.

Stål, C. 1862. Bidrag till Rio de Janeiro-tratkens Hemipterfauna.II. Handlingar. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien 3(6): 1-75.

Stål, C. 1864. Hemiptera mexicana enumeravit speciesque novas descripsit. (Continuatio). Entomologische Zeitung. Herausgegeben von dem entomologischen Vereine zu Stettin 25: 49-86.

Stål, C. 1869. Hemiptera Fabriciana. Fabricianska Hemipterarter, efter de Köpenhamn och Kiel förvarade typexemplaren granskade och beskrifne. 2. Handlingar. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien 8(1): 1-130. (p. 107)

Walker, F. 1851. List of the specimens of Homopterous Insects in the collection of the British Museum. British Museum, London. 2: 261-636.

Wilson, S. W., C. Mitter, R. F. Denno and M. R. Wilson. 1994. Evolutionary patterns of host plant use by delphacid planthoppers and their relatives. Pp. 7-45 & appendix. In: R. F. Denno and T. J. Perfect, (eds.). Planthoppers: Their Ecology and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York.

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