Climate change has the potential to affect fruit and vegetable production as temperatures increase. Climate data from the region has shown a steady increase in average temperatures over the last 100 years with average night temperatures in summer months increasing the most. Record high temperatures have occurred throughout the past decade and many vegetable crops have had losses due to the heat. Providing adequate moisture through irrigation is critical in high heat periods. However, maintaining soil moisture cannot completely compensate for extreme heat.
Photosynthesis rapidly decreases at temperatures above 94°F, so high temperatures will limit yields in many vegetables and fruits. Plant stomates will close earlier in the day, thus limiting gas exchange and thereby photosynthesis. Respiration increases with temperature. While daytime temperatures can cause major heat related problems in plants, high night temperatures can also have great effects on vegetables, especially fruiting vegetables. Hot night temperatures (nights above 75 °F) will lead to greater cell respiration. This limits the amount of sugars and other storage products that can go into fruits and developing seeds. Because of this increased respiration the plant expends stored photosynthates and they do not contribute to yield.
High air temperatures may result in high leaf temperatures, especially where water is deficient. High leaf temperature result in heat damage to the proteins which allow the plant to photosynthesize and carry out metabolic processes. Very high leaf temperatures result in visible, physical damage to leaves in the form of sunburn and scorching. Sunscald of fruits will increase, especially where leaves wilt and reduce fruit cover.
In flowering and fruiting crops, high heat will affect pollen production, often reducing viable pollen numbers. Reproductive parts in plants (anthers, stigmas) may not form properly or function properly. If pollen is transferred to stigmas, pollen germination may be reduced or halted due to heat and desiccation. Reduced pollination can result in smaller fruit or misshapen fruit.
If pollination is successful, early fruit abortion may occur due to lack of photosynthates or heat damage. In heat stressed plants, the hormone balance is affected and there is an increase in abscisic acid that is involved in these abortions.
High soil temperatures can damage surface roots, limiting water and nutrient uptake, especially potassium. This is particularly an issue in crops grown on black plastic mulch, a common cultural practice. On black plastic mulch, surface temperatures can exceed 150°F. This heat can be radiated and reflected onto vegetables causing tremendous heat loading. This is particularly a problem in young plants that have limited shading of the plastic. High bed temperatures under plastic mulch can also lead to reduced root function limiting nutrient uptake. This can lead to increased fruit disorders such as white tissue, yellow shoulders, and blotchy ripening in tomato fruits where not enough potassium reaches the fruit.
Shading for Heat Stress Mitigation
Artificial shading is a strategy that can be used mitigate heat stress. Commonly, shade cloth or netting is used for this purpose. This netting comes in black, green, white, and reflective aluminum colors and is commonly used at the 20-30% shade levels. Shading is applied during the hottest periods or periods when the plant is most sensitive to heat (such as tomato fruit development). Research at the University of Maryland by Jerry Brust showed that shading tomatoes during fruiting can improve fruit quality and reduce culls. Research at the University of Georgia on peppers showed similar results with improvement in the number of marketable fruits. Kansas research showed that lettuce production was improved where white shade cloth was used.
University of Delaware research with shading of strawberries for summer production showed mixed effects with shading benefiting in some years but not in others. In 2018 and 2019 University of Delaware vegetable researchers studied the effect of shade cloth on tomato and pepper marketable yield. Treatments were no shade, 30% black, 30% Aluminet, 30% red, 22% white, 40% white. In 2018 shade treatment did not have a significant effect on pepper quality or marketable yield. In contrast, in 2019 shade treatments, especially 30% black, shaded plots produced more marketable peppers than the unshaded plots. Yield of marketable first harvest (early Aug) for 30% black was 18x higher than unshaded. Yield of marketable second harvest (Sep) was 2x unshaded. Shade did not reduce internal white tissue in tomatoes to the point of achieving marketability in the 2018 or 2019 trial. Lettuce trials were conducted with no shade, 30% black, 30% Aluminet, 30% red, 30% blue, 22% white, and 40% white. Shade cloth reduced soil temperatures by 3 °C. Shaded lettuce treatments had reduced bitterness in both the 2018 and 2019 trials. For lettuce the combination of a heat tolerant variety with shade had the greatest effect on reducing bitterness.
To summarize, there is good evidence that 30% black shade cloth applied during the hottest time period (early June through early August) improves bell pepper yield and quality. There is also good evidence that shade cloth reduces bitterness in lettuce, especially when used with a heat tolerant variety. There is some evidence that 30% black shade cloth increases tomato quality.
A trial testing different colored shade cloth for tomato and pepper production.