Delaware Agronomy Blog

University of Delaware Cooperative Extension

Grid Sampling Soils to Improve Understanding of Soil Variability

Jarrod Miller and James Adkins, University of Delaware

Variability in soil land landscape characteristics reduces yield response to management techniques, particularly regarding seeding rates and fertilizer additions. Yield maps provide a spatial map of yield, which can be associated with drainage issues, soil nutrient holding, or nutrient concentrations. One method to uncover soil variability and crop response is to use precision soil sampling, including either grid or zone methods. Both increase the cost of taking soil samples, and each have their value depending on the desired outcomes.

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Soybean Yield Response to Planting Populations, Row Spacing and Irrigation

To update our recommendations for soybean population, the Delaware Soybean Board sponsored a study of five different planting populations (60, 90, 120, 150, and180,000 seeds per acre), two row spacings (15 and 30”), and included irrigated and rainfed treatments under variable rate irrigation. Overall, no differences in yield were observed by population, while 15″ rows boosted yields by 10.6 bushels and irrigation boosted yields by 25.9 bushels.

Figure 1: a) aerial image of planting populations and row spacings at our Irrigation research farm, b) rainfed plots senescing earlier under our variable rate linear irrigation field.

Project Summary

Soybeans (maturity group 4.3) were planted at the UD Warrington Irrigation Research farm in May 2022 and harvested in November 2022 with a plot combine. The results were analyzed statistically as a randomized complete block design with three factors (population*row-spacing*irrigation) with means separation by Fisher’s LDS (alpha = 0.1).

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Exchangeable Cation Uptake by Irrigated and Rainfed Soybeans (2021-2022)

Although Ca, Mg, and K are all exchangeable nutrients that are considered plant available, soil chemistry and plant root interactions result in different uptake and bioavailability. Within the soil, Ca and Mg can move with soil water or by diffusion, while the lower K concentrations do not readily move with soil water. This results in differences in uptake for soils with adequate moisture versus those under drought stress. Understanding how concentrations of each nutrient, the soil CEC, and soil moisture content interact is important for giving future nutrient recommendations.

Irrigated and rainfed dry corners in a Delaware field.

Average Delaware Growing Degree Days (2019-2021)

The standard method used to follow and predict corn growth stages is using growing degree days (GDD). This is a calculation that uses average daily temperatures measure accumulated heat over the growing season. Using GDD works better than days from planting because cool spring temperatures slow early planted corn, while corn planted later in May can have a more linear growth pattern.

For the past three seasons in Georgetown we have followed our research plots and have these values as the average GDD for our area (Table 1). They will be similar to those found in other states, but represent averages and ranges for our region. You may find GDD values on our regional mesonet (DEOS) or through the Climate Smart Ag page at Cornell (edit the site location).

 EmergeV3V6V9V12VT
Average10926255687110671308
Range84-150220-310448–603787-950943-12721232-1363
R1R2R3R4R5R6
Average148616451891204422872824
Range1321-15941560-17431734-20671957-21872029-25092686-2926
Growing Degree Days (GDD) Average Accumulation to Reach Corn Vegetative and Reproductive Stages.

Cover Crop Biomass and Termination Considerations

Jarrod Miller, Amy Shober, & Mark VanGessel

The benefits of cover crops to the following corn crop can include additional nitrogen (N) or weed suppression, but maximizing these benefits requires later termination to build greater biomass. These N and weed control characteristics are especially appealing this season as input costs are relatively high while supplies are relatively low. However, growers should take the time to estimate the additional costs of allowing a more robust cover crop to accumulate this spring, as surface residues reduce proper seed placement as well as limit seed to soil contact. This article will discuss the management of cover crops for both maximizing N benefits as well as weed suppression in the following corn crop.

Aerial picture of cover crop plots

Cover crop plots at the Carvel Research and Education Center.

Maximizing Cover Crop Biomass

Estimating the amount of N that could be available requires knowledge about 1) total cover crop biomass and 2) cover crop C:N ratio, both of which are affected by termination timing. The longer a cover crop is allowed to grow, the greater the amount of cover crop biomass will accumulate. Continue reading

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