Journal articles


  1. Zhao, X. Chang, A. Malkani, X. Yang, L. Thompson*, F. Jiao*, B. Xu*, “Speciation of Cu Surfaces During the Electrochemical CO Reduction Reaction”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 142, 2020, 9735.
  2. Yang, B. Ko, S. Hwang, Z. Liu, Y. Yao, W. Luc, M. Cui, A. Malkani, T. Li, X. Wang, J. Dai, B. Xu, G. Wang, D. Su, F. Jiao*, L. Hu*, “Overcoming Immiscibility Toward Bimetallic Catalyst LibrarySci. Adv., 6, 2020, eaaz6844
  3. Anibal, A. Malkani, B. Xu*, “Stability of the Ketyl Radical as a Descriptor in the Electrochemical Coupling of Benzaldehyde”, Catal. Sci. Tech., 10, 2020, 3181.
  4. Cho, D. Kim, B. Xu*, “Selectivity Control in Tandem Catalytic Furfural Upgrading on Zeolite-Encapsulated Pt Nanoparticles through Site and Solvent Engineering”, ACS Catal., 10, 2020, 4770.
  5. Chang, A. Malkani, X. Yang, B. Xu, “Mechanistic Insights into Electroreductive C-C Coupling between CO and Acetaldehyde into Multi-Carbon Products”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 142, 2020, 2975.
  6. Gould, S. Li, H. Cho, H. Landfield, S. Caratzoulas, D. Vlachos, P. Bai, B. Xu, “Understanding Solvent Effects on Adsorption and Protonation in Porous Catalysts”, Nat. Commun., 11, 2020, 1060.
  7. Cho, D. Kim, S. Li, D. Su, D. Ma, B. Xu, “Molecular-Level Proximity of Metal and Acid Sites in Zeolite-Encapsulated Pt Nanoparticles for Selective Multistep Tandem Catalysis”, ACS Catal., 10, 2020, 3340.
  8. J. Li, D. Wu, A. Malkani, M. Cheng, B. Xu, Q. Lu, “Hydroxide Is Not A Promoter of C2 Product Formation in Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 on Copper”, Angew. Chem. In. Ed., 132, 2020, 2.
  9. M. Gilkey, H. Cho, B. Murphy, J. Wu, D. Vlachos, B. Xu, “Catalytic Adipic Acid Production on Zeolites from Biomass-Derived Tetrahydrofuran-2,5-Dicarboxylic Acid”, ACS Appl. Energy Mater., 3, 2020, 99.
  10. A. Malkani, J. Li, J. Anibal, Q. Lu, B. Xu, “Impact of Forced Convection on Spectroscopic Observations of the Electrochemical CO Reduction Reaction”, ACS Catal.,10, 2020, 941.
  11. S. Li, J. Liu, Z. Yin, P. Ren, L. Lin, Y. Gong, C. Yang, X. Zheng, R. Cao, S. Yao, Y. Deng, X. Liu, L. Gu, W. Zhou, J. Zhu, X. Wen, B. Xu, D. Ma, “Impact of Coordination Environment on Atomically Dispersed Pt Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction”, ACS Catal., 10, 2020, 907.
  12. N. Gould, H. Landfield, B. Dinkelacker, C. Brady, X. Yang, B. Xu, “Selectivity Control in Catalytic Reductive Amination of Furfural to Furfurylamine on Supported Catalysts”, ChemCatChem, 12, 2020, 2106.


  1. C. Brady, M. Davis*, B. Xu*, “Integration of Thermochemical Water Splitting with CO2 Direct Air Capture”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 116, 2019, 25001.
  2. X. Yang, J. Nash, N. Oliveira, Y. Yan, and B. Xu, “Understanding the pH Dependence of Underpotential Deposited Hydrogen on Platinum“, Angew. Chem. In. Ed., 58, 2019, 17718.
  3. J. Nash, X. Yang, J. Anibal, M. Dunwell, S. Yao, K Attenkofer, J. Chen, Y. Yan, and B. Xu, “Elucidation of the Active Phase and Deactivation Mechanisms of Chromium Nitride in the Electrochemical Nitrogen Reduction Reaction“, J. Phys. Chem. C, 123, 2019, 23967.
  4. F. Jiao*, B. Xu*, “Electrochemical Ammonia Synthesis and Ammonia Fuel Cells“, Adv. Mater., 31, 2019, 1805173.
  5. X. Yang, S. Kattel, J. Nash, X. Chang, J. Lee, Y. Yan, J. Chen and B. Xu, “Quantification of Active Sites and Elucidation of Reaction Mechanism of Electrochemical Nitrogen Reduction Reaction on Vanadium Nitride“, Angew. Chem. In. Ed.,131, 2019, 13906.
  6. Y. Zhao, B. Setzler, J. Wang, J. Nash, B. Xu and Y. Yan, “An Efficient Direct Ammonia Fuel Cell for Affordable Carbon-Neutral Transportation“, Joule, 2019, Accepted.
  7. H. Zhang, X. Chang, J. Chen, W. Goddard III, B. Xu, M Cheng and Q. Lu, “Computational and experimental demonstrations of one-pot tandem catalysis for electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction to methane“, Nat. Commun.,10, 2019, 3340.
  8. J. Wu, B. Murphy, N. Gould, C. Wang, L. Ma and B. Xu “A FTIR Study of the Acidity of In‐Situ Generated Brønsted Sites on NaY via Displacement Reactions“, ChemCatChem, 2019, in press.
  9. J. Wang, Y. Zhao, B. Setzler, S. Rojas-carbonell, C. Yehuda, A. Amel, M. Page, L. Wang, K. Hu, L. Shi, S. Gottesfeld, B. Xu, and Y. Yan, “Poly(aryl piperidinium) membranes and ionomers for hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells“, Nat. Energy, 4, 2019, 392.
  10. B. Murphy, J. Wu, H. Cho, J. Soreo, C. Wang, L. Ma, B. Xu, “Nature and Catalytic Properties of In-Situ-Generated Brønsted Acid Sites on NaY“, ACS Catal., 9, 2019, 1931.
  11. H. Cho, N. Gould, W. Vattipalli, S. Sabnis, W. Chaikittisilp, T. Okubo, B. Xu, W. Fan, “Fabrication of hierarchical Lewis acid Sn-BEA with tunable hydrophobicity for cellulosic sugar isomerization“, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 278, 2019, 387.
  12. J. Jiao, R. Lin, S. Liu, W. Cheong, C. Zhang, Z. Chen, Y. Pan, J. Tang, K. Wu, S. Hung, H. Chen, L. Zheng, Q. Lu, X. Yang, B. Xu, H. Xiao, J. Li, D. Wang, Q. Peng, C. Chen, Y. Li, “Copper atom-pair catalyst anchored on alloy nanowires for selective and efficient electrochemical reduction of CO2“, Nat. Chem., 11, 2019, 222. 
  13. A. Malkani, M. Dunwell, B. Xu, “Operando Spectroscopic Investigations of Copper and Oxide-Derived Copper Catalysts for Electrochemical CO Reduction“, ACS Catal., 9, 2019, 474.


  1. M. Dunwell, X. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Xu, “Potential Routes and Mitigation Strategies for Contamination in Interfacial Specific Infrared Spectroelectrochemical Studies“, 122, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2018, 24658.
  2. S. Giles, J. Wilson, J. Nash, B. Xu, D. Vlachos, Y. Yan, “Recent advances in understanding the pH dependence of the hydrogen oxidation and evolution reactions“, 367, J. Catal., 2018, 328.
  3. J. Nash, J. Zheng, Y. Wang, B. Xu, Y. Yan, “Mechanistic Study of the Hydrogen Oxidation/Evolution Reaction over Bimetallic PtRu Catalysts“, J. Electrochem. Soc., 165, 2018, J3378.
  4. H. Cho, D. Kim, J. Li, D. Su, B. Xu, “Zeolite Encapsulated Pt Nanoparticles for Tandem Catalysis“, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 140, 2018, 13514.  
  5. X. Yang, J. Nash, J. Anibal, M. Dunwell, S. Kattel, E. Stavitski, K. Attenkofer, J. Chen, Y. Yan, B. Xu, “Mechanistic Insights into Electrochemical Nitrogen Reduction Reaction on Vanadium Nitride Nanoparticles“, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 140, 2018, 13387.  
  6. B. Murphy, T. Mou, B. Wang, B. Xu*, “The Effect of Co-Fed Species on the Kinetics of Catalytic Methyl Lactate Dehydration on NaY“, ACS Catal., 8, 2018, 9066.
  7. N. Gould, B. Xu*, “Temperature Programmed Desorption of Pyridine on Zeolites in the Presence of Liquid Solvents“, ACS Catal., 8, 2018, 8699. 
  8. M. Dunwell, W. Luc, Y. Yan*, F. Jiao*, B. Xu*, “Understanding Surface-Mediated Electrochemical Reactions: CO2 Reduction and Beyond“, ACS Catal., 8, 2018, 3999.
  9. M. Dunwell, Y. Yan*, B. Xu*, “Understanding the influence of the electrochemical double-layer on heterogeneous electrochemical reactions“, Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng., 20, 2018, 151.
  10. M. Gilkey, R. Balakumar, D. Vlachos, B. Xu*, “Adipic Acid Production Catalyzed by a Combination of a Solid Acid and an Iodide Salt from Biomass-Derived Tetrahydrofuran-2,5-dicarboxylic Acid“, Catal. Sci. Tech., 8, 2018, 2661.
  11. M. Dunwell, Y. Yan*, B. Xu*, “Examination of Near-Electrode Concentration Gradients and Kinetic Impacts on the Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 using Surface Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy“, ACS Catal., 8, 2018, 3999.
  12. M. Gilkey, D. Vlachos, B. Xu*, “Characterization of Oxidation States in Metal/Metal Oxide Catalysts in Liquid-Phase Hydrodeoxygenation Reactions with a Trickle Bed Reactor”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 57, 2018, 5591.
  13. B. Murphy, B. Xu*, “Foundational techniques for catalyst design in the upgrading of biomass-derived multifunctional molecules“, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 2018, 67, 1.
  14. N. Gould, B. Xu*, “Quantification of Acid Site Densities on Zeolites in the Presence of Solvents via Determination of Extinction Coefficients of Adsorbed Pyridine“, J. Catal., 358, 2018, 80. 
  15. N. Gould, B, Xu*, “Catalyst Characterization in the Presence of Solvent: Development of Liquid Phase Structure-Activity Relationships“, Chem. Sci., 9, 2018, 281. 
  16. A. Mehdad, N. Gould, B. Xu, R. Lobo*, “Effect of steam and CO2 on ethane activation over Zn-ZSM-5“, Catal. Sci. Tech., 8, 2018, 358.
  17. J. Zheng, J. Nash, B. Xu, Y. Yan*, “Towards Establishing Apparent Hydrogen Binding Energy as the Descriptor for Hydrogen Oxidation/Evolution Reactions“, J. Electrochem. Soc., 165, 2018, H27.



  1. M. Gilkey, A. Mironenko, D. Vlachos*, B. Xu*, “Adipic Acid Production via Metal-Free Selective Hydrogenolysis of Biomass-Derived Tetrahydrofuran-2,5-Dicarboxylic Acid“, ACS Catal., 7, 2017, 6619.
  2. M. Dunwell, Y. Yan*, B. Xu*, “In-Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Investigations of Pyridine-Mediated CO2 Reduction on Pt Electrocatalysts“, ACS Catal., 7, 2017, 5410.
  3. S. Liu, S. Dutta, W. Zheng, N. Gould, Z. Cheng, B. Xu, D. Vlachos*, B. Saha*, “Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of High Carbon Furylmethanes to Renewable Jet-fuel Ranged Alkanes over a Rhenium Modified Iridium Catalyst“, ChemSusChem, 10, 2017, 3163.
  4. M. Gilkey, D. Vlachos*, B. Xu*, “Poisoning of Ru/C by Homogeneous Brønsted Acids in Hydrodeoxygenation of 2,5-Dimethylfuran via Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation”, App. Catal. A: Gen., 542, 2017, 327. 
  5. C. Brady, B. Murphy, B. Xu*, “Enhanced Methane Dehydroaromatization via Coupling with Chemical Looping“,  ACS Catal., 7, 2017, 3924.
  6. B. Xu, C. Friend, “Heterogeneous Catalysis – A Central Science for a Sustainable Future“, Acc. Chem. Res., 50, 2017, 517.
  7. M. Dunwell, Q. Lu, J. Heyes, J. Rosen, J. Chen, Y. Yan*, F. Jiao*, B. Xu*, “The Central Role of Bicarbonate in the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide on Gold“, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 139, 2017, 3774.
  8. B. Murphy, M. Letterio, B. Xu*, “Catalyst Deactivation in Pyridine-Assisted Selective Dehydration of Methyl Lactate on NaY“, ACS Catal., 7, 2017, 1912.
  9. Marco Dunwell, Junhua Wang, Yushan Yan*, Bingjun Xu*, “Surface Enhanced Spectroscopic Investigations of Impact of Cations on Electrochemical Interfaces“, 2017, PhysChemChemPhys, 19, 2017, 971.
  10. picture1Hong Je Cho, Limin Ren, Vivek Vattipailli, Yu-Hao Yeh, Nicholas Gould, Bingjun Xu, Raymond J. Gorte, Raul Lobo, Paul J. Dauenhauer, Michael Tsapatsis,Wei Fan*,Renewable p-Xylene from 2,5-Dimethylfuran and Ethylene Using Phosphorus-containing Zeolite Catalysts, ChemCatChem, 9, 2017, 398.
  11. J. Nash, X. Yang, J. Anibal, J. Wang, Y. Yan*, B. Xu*, “Electrochemical Nitrogen Reduction Reaction on Noble Metal Catalysts in Proton and Hydroxide Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers“, J. Electrochem. Soc., 164, 2018, F1712.



  1. M. Gilkey, A. Mironenko, L. Yang, D. Vlachos*, B. Xu*, “Insights into ring opening of biomass-derived furanics over Ru/C“, ChemSusChem, 9, 2016, 3113. Picture1
  2. N. Gould, B. Xu*, “Effect of Liquid Water on Acid Sites of NaY: An in-situ Liquid Phase Spectroscopic Study“, J. Catal., 342, 2016, 193.toc
  3. J. Heyes, M. Dunwell, B. Xu*, “CO2 Reduction on Cu at Low Overpotentials with Surface Enhanced In-Situ Spectroscopy“, J. Phys. Chem. C, 120, 2016, 17334. TOC
  4. B. Murphy, M. Letterio, B Xu*, “Selectivity Control in the Catalytic Dehydration of Methyl Lactate: The Effect of Pyridine“, ACS Catal., 6, 2016, 5117.ACS TOC
  5. K Schwarz*, B Xu, Y Yan, R Sundararaman, “Partial oxidation of step-bound water leads to anomalous pH effects on metal electrode step-edges“, PhysChemChemPhys, 18, 2016, 16216.GA
  6. B. Murphy, M. Letterio, B Xu*, “Catalytic dehydration of methyl lactate: Reaction mechanism and selectivity control“, J. Catal., 339, 2016, 21.Graph Abs_BMM
  7. J. Zheng, S. Zhou, S. Gu, B. Xu*, Y. Yan*, “Size-Dependent Hydrogen Oxidation and Evolution Activities on Supported Palladium Nanoparticles in Acid and Base“, J. Electrochem. Soc., 163, 2016, F499.Pd
  8. M. Gilkey, B. Xu*, “Heterogeneous Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation as an Effective Pathway in Biomass Upgrading“, ACS Catal., 6, 2016, 1420. (Invited review)ToC
  9. J. Zheng, B. Xu*, Y. Yan*, “Universal Dependence of Hydrogen Oxidation and Evolution Reaction Activity of Platinum-Group-Metals on pH and Hydrogen Binding Energy“, Sci. Adv., 2,e1501602.  Jie_Jan2016


  1. M. Dunwell, Y. Yan*, B. Xu*, “A surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopic study of pH dependent water adsorption on Au“, Surf. Sci., 2015, in press. graphical abstract
  2. J. Wang, S. Gu, R. Xiong, B. Zhang, B. Xu*, Y. Yan*, “Structure–Property Relationships in Hydroxide‐Exchange Membranes with Cation Strings and High Ion‐Exchange Capacity“, Chemsuschem, 8, 2015, 4229.junhua fig
  3. J. Zheng, Z. Zhuang, Y. Yan*, B. Xu*, “Correcting the Hydrogen Diffusion Limitation in Rotating Disk Electrode Measurements of Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Kinetics“, J. Electrochem. Soc. 162, 2015, F1470.Untitled
  4. J. Zheng, Z. Zhuang, B. Xu*, Y. Yan*, “Correlating hydrogen oxidation/evolution reaction activity with the minority weak hydrogen-binding sites on Ir/C catalysts“, ACS Catal., 5, 2015, 4449.Untitled
  5. M. Gilkey, P. Panagiotopoulou, A. Mironenko, Glen Jenness, D. Vlachos*, B. Xu*, “Mechanistic Insights into Metal-Lewis Acid Mediated Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Furfural to 2-Methylfuran“, ACS Catal. 2015, 5, 3988.ToC-image-FINAL-3
  6. A. Mironenko, M. Gilkey, P. Panagiotopoulou, G. Facas, D. Vlachos*, B. Xu*, “Ring Activation of Furanic Compounds on Ru-Based Catalysts“, J. Phys. Chem. C, 119, 2015, 6075.TOC
  7. B. Murphy, M. Davis, B. Xu*, “The Effect of Adsorbed Molecule Gas-Phase Deprotonation Enthalpy on Ion Exchange in Sodium Exchanged Zeolites: an in-situ FTIR Investigation“, Top. Catal. 58, 2015, 393.update_jan_brian


  1. S. Gu, B. Xu, Y. Yan*, “Electrochemical Energy Engineering: A New Frontier of Chemical Engineering Innovation”, Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng., 5, 2014, 429.Untitled

Postdoctoral research at California Institute of Technology (with Prof. M. E. Davis)

  1. B. Xu, Y. Bhawe, M. Davis, “Spinel metal oxide-alkali carbonate-based, low-temperature thermochemical cycles for water splitting and CO2 reduction”, Chem. Mater. 25, 2013, 1564.
  2. B. Xu, Y. Bhawe, M. Davis, “Low-temperature, manganese oxide-based thermochemical water splitting cycle”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109, 2012, 9260. (Highlighted by MIT Technology Review)








Graduate research at Harvard University (with Profs. C. M. Friend and R. J. Madix)

  1. B. Xu, R. Madix, C. Friend*, “Predicting gold-mediated catalytic oxidative-coupling reactions from single crystal studies”, Acc. Chem. Res., 47, 2014, 429
  2. B. Xu, C. Siler, R. Madix, C. Friend*, “Ag/Au Mixed Sites Promote Oxidative Coupling of Methanol on the Alloy Surface”, Chem. Euro. J. 20, 2014, 4646.
  3. B. Xu, R. Madix, C. Friend, “Alkyl groups as synthetic vehicles in gold-mediated oxidative coupling reactions”, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 15(9), 2013, 3179.
  4. B. Xu, R. Madix, C. Friend, “Dual-function of alcohols in gold-mediated selective coupling of amines and alcohols”, Chem. Euro. J. 18, 2012, 2313.
  5. C. Siler, B. Xu, C. Friend, R. Madix, “Oxygen-assisted acylation of dimethylamine to dimethylacetamide on gold and silver single crystal surfaces: a comparative study”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 2012, 12604.
  6. B. Xu, R. Madix, C. Friend, “Activated metallic gold as an agent for direct methoxycarbonylation”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 2011, 20378.
  7. B. Xu, C. Friend, “Oxidative coupling of alcohols on gold: Insights from experiments and theory”, Faraday Discuss. 152, 2011, 307.
  8. B. Xu, C. Friend, R. Madix, “A paradigm for predicting selective oxidation on noble metals: oxidative catalytic coupling of amines and aldehydes on metallic gold”, Faraday Discuss. 152, 2011, 241.
  9. B. Xu, J. Haubrich, T. Baker, E. Kaxiras, C. Friend, “Theoretical study of O-assisted selective coupling of methanol on Au(111)”, J. Phys. Chem. C 155(9), 2011, 3703.
  10. T. Baker,  B. Xu, S. Jensen, C. Friend, E. Kaxiras, “Role of defects in propene adsorption and reaction on a partially O-covered Au(111) surface”, Catal. Sci. & Tech. 1, 2011, 1166.
  11. B. Xu,  R. Madix, C. Friend,  “Achieving optimum selectivity in oxygen assisted alcohol cross-coupling on gold”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 2010, 16571.
  12. B. Xu, J. Habrich, C. Freyschlag, R. Madix, C. Friend,  “Oxygen-assisted cross-coupling of methanol with alkyl alcohols on metallic gold”, Chem. Sci. 1, 2010, 310. (Cover article)
  13. B. Xu, X. Liu, J. Haubrich, C. Friend, “Vapor-phase gold-surface-mediated coupling of aldehydes with methanol”, Nat. Chem. 2, 2010, 61. (Highlighted by Chemical and Engineering News and Chemistry World)
  14. B. Xu, L. Zhou, R. Madix, C. Friend, “Highly Selective Acylation of Dimethylamine Mediated by Oxygen Atoms on Metallic Gold Surfaces”, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 49, 2010, 394.
  15. L. Zhou, C. Freyschlag, B. Xu, R. Madix, C. Friend, “Direct selective oxygen-assisted acylation of amines driven by metallic silver surfaces: dimethylamine with formaldehyde”, Chem. Commun. 46, 2010, 704.
  16. T. Baker, B. Xu, X. Liu, E. Kaxiras, C. Friend, “Nature of Oxidation of the Au(111) Surface: Experimental and Theoretical Investigation”, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2009, 16561.
  17. V. Zielasek, B. Xu, X. Liu, M. Baumer, C. Friend, “Absence of Subsurface Oxygen Effects in the Oxidation of Olefins on Au: Styrene Oxidation over Sputtered Au(111)”, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2009, 8924.
  18. X. Liu, B. Xu, J. Haubrich, R. Madix, C. Friend, “Surface-Mediated Self-Coupling of Ethanol on Gold”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2009, 5757.
  19. B. Xu, X. Liu, J. Haubrich, R. Madix, C. Friend, “Selectivity Control in Gold-Mediated Esterification of Methanol”, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48, 2009. (Cover article and highlighted by Nature Chemistry)

AngewCover ChemSciCover


MS research at Fudan University (with Profs. Z. Gao and Y. Yue)

  1. B. Xu, B. Zheng, W. Hua, Y. Yue, Z. Gao, “High Si/Al ratio HZSM-5 supported Ga2O3: a highly stable catalyst for dehydrogenation of propane to propene in the presence of CO2”, Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal. 170, 2007, 1072.
  2. L. Zhou, B. Xu, W. Hua, Y. Yue, Z. Gao, “Sulfated tin oxide: An efficient catalyst for alkylation of hydroquinone with tert-butanol”, Catal. Commun. 9, 2008, 2274.
  3. B. Xu, T. Li, B. Zheng, W. Hua, Y. Yue, Z. Gao, “Enhanced stability of HZSM-5 supported Ga2O3 catalyst in propane dehydrogenation by dealumination”, Catal. Lett. 119, 2007, 283.
  4. B. Xu, H. Li, W. Hua, Y. Yue, Z. Gao, “Role of surface pockets on MCM-49 structure in the alkylation of hydroquinone with tert-butanol”, J. Catal. 240, 2006, 31.
  5. B. Xu, B. Zheng, W. Hua, Y. Yue, Z. Gao, “Support effect in dehydrogenation of propane in the presence Of CO2 over supported gallium oxide catalysts”, J. Catal. 239, 2006, 470.
  6. B. Xu, H. Li, W. Hua, Y. Yue, Z. Gao, “MSU-S(BEA) mesoporous molecular sieve: An active and stable catalyst for alkylation of hydroquinone”, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 88, 2006, 191.
  7. B. Xu, W. Hua, Y. Yue, Z. Gao, “Alkylation of hydroquinone with tert-butanol over AlSBA-15 mesoporous molecular sieves”, Catal. Lett. 100, 2005, 95.



  1. M.Davis, B. Xu, Y. Bhawe, “Methods and materials for the catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide”, US Patent 9,206,041 (2015).
  2. M. Davis, B. Xu, Y. Bhawe, “Methods and materials for the thermochemical production of hydrogen from water”, US Patent 8,940,269 (2015).
  3. C. Friend, R. Madix, B. Xu, “Gold-catalyzed synthesis of alkyl carbonates from carbon monoxide”, US Patent Application No. 61/572,416 (2011).
  4. C. Friend, R. Madix, L. Zhou, B. Xu, C. Freyschlag, “Metallic silver heterogeneous catalyst for acylation of amines”, US Patent Application No. 61/336,673 (2010).

A full publication list of the Xu group can also be found at this google scholar page:

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