“The functions of CRISPR and Cas9 genes are essential in adaptive immunity in selected bacteria.” This being able to enable organisms to respond and eliminate invading genetic material. It was said that these repeats were discovered in the 1980`s in the E.Coli outbreak. This function was also said that it was not confirmed until 2007.

“CRISPR/ Cas9 is a big piece of technology used in the science world and it enables geneticist and medical researchers to edit parts of the genome by removing, adding or altering sections of the DNA sequence.” This system consist of 2 key molecules that introduce mutation into the DNA. These are Enzymes and RNA. “Enzymes act as a pair of molecular scissors that can cut two strands of DNA at a specific location in the genome so that bits of DNA can then be added or removed” RNA “consist of a small piece of pre-designed RNA sequence”

RNA acts as a guide and it is there to help find a “bind” to a specific sequence in the DNA. RNA has things called RNA bases in which they are complementary, they then target DNA sequences in the genome. The Cas9 follows RNA, in the same sequence DNA went, and it makes a cut across both strands of DNA. During this stage the cell recognizes that the DNA is damaged and tries to repair it. Scientist use this DNA repair machinery to introduce changes to one or more genes. This system was developed when certain bacteria have a similar “gene editing system” to the CRISPR/ Cas9 system that they use to respond to invading pathogens and viruses, “much like and immune system”. This piece of technology is planned to be used routinely with humans.

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