Classification of the Kinnaridae

The family Kinnaridae was established by Muir (1925) (out of Cixiidae).  At the time of Metcalf (1945) there were no defined tribes (or subgenera).  Fennah (1945a, b; 1948) defined Prosotropinae Fennah, 1945a (as forms with wax-bearing plates on tergites 6-8 reduced or absent) and Kinnarinae as having wax-bearing plates at least on tergite 6).  Fennah (1945) explicitly placed  Atopocixius, Dineparmene, Eparmenoides, Lomagenes, Prosotropis and Quilessa into Prosotropinae , and for Kinnarinae he placed Southia (and by implication Kinnara). Fennah used Kinnarinae in a broader sense than Emeljanov (1984, 2006).

Emeljanov (1984) defined tribes Adolendini  and Propleromini as Old World tribes of Kinnarinae  (Prosotropinae restricted to the New World).   Emeljanov (1984) appeared to limit Kinnarini to Kinnara and Paramicrixia, the later transferred to Adolendini by Emeljanov 2006).  His classification in 1984 appears to be as follows:


Propleromini – BashgultalaNesomicrixia, Paramicrixia, Propleroma (Old World),  Oeclidius (= Paroeclidius) and Southia (= Bytrois) (New World)
Adolendini – Adolenda
Kinnarini – Kinnara


Prosotropini –  AtopocixiusDineparmene, Eparmenoides, Lomagenes, Prosotropis  and Quilessa (and remaining New World genera by implication)

Propleromini Emeljanov (1984) as originally defined included Oeclidius and Southia. The type genus (Propleroma) was preoccupied and replaced by Emeljanopleroma Koçak, 1986 (creating Emeljanopleromini).

Bourgoin (1993) presented the first – and I think only – phylogenetic analyses of the Kinnaridae, suggesting that the Meenoplidae are derived within the Kinnaridae and evaluating the evidence for this suggestion.  Bourgoin (1993) suggested that the analysis was preliminary and this suggestion has not been followed up in a manner to fully support or refute the hypothesis.

Cladogram of Kinnaridae + Meenoplidae from Bourgoin (1993)

In a brief paper, Emeljanov (2006) synonymized Emeljanopleroma with Perloma, and transferred Perloma to Adolendini, creating the tribal synonymies.  Oeclidius, Micrixia and Southia were placed in the new tribe Oecleini, and Kinnacana Remane 1985 and Kinnoccia Remane 1985 placed in the new tribe Kinnocciini.  With his cproposed changes in nomenclature, and transfer of Adolendini to Prosotropinae, all taxa except Kinnara are now in Prosotropinae. Emeljanov (2006) presented a key to tribe and have a synoptic genus-level checklist.

Key to higher taxa of Kinnaridae from Emeljanov 2006.

Subsequently, Potiguara Hoch & Ferreira, 2013 was described and placed in Propleromini sensu Emeljanov (1984), but the authors were apparently not aware of the redefinition of this tribe by Emeljanov (2006), and is here listed under Oeclidiini.  Subsequently, Iuiuia caeca Hoch & Ferreira, 2013, a troglobitic planthopper from Brazil, was described and placed in Kinnocciini.  They presented support for this placement, but considered it unsatisfactory.

Classification (borrowed, with slight modification, from FLOW)

Family Kinnaridae Muir 1925
Subfamily Kinnarinae Muir, 1925 (sensu Fennah 1945, 1948) (Key in Fennah 1948)
Tribe Kinnarini Muir, 1925 (sensu Fennah 1945 – tribal placement implied; also Emelyanov, 1984)
Kinnara Distant, 1906

Subfamily Prosotropinae Fennah 1945 (sensu Fennah 1945, 1948)
Tribe Adolendini Emeljanov, 1984 (sensu Emeljanov 2006)
= Propleromini Emeljanov 1984 (s.s.); syn. by Emeljanov 2006: 77.
= Emeljanopleromini Koçak, 1986; syn. by Emeljanov 2006: 77
Adolenda Distant, 1911
Bashgultala Dlabola, 1957
Nesomicrixia Emeljanov, 1984
Paramicrixia Distant, 1911 (to Adolendini from Kinnarini by Emeljanov, 2006)
Perloma Emeljanov, 1984 (= Propleroma Emeljanov, 1984 [preoccupied], replaced by Emeljanopleroma (Emeljanopleroma) Koçak, 1986: 21; = Emeljanopleroma Koçak, 1986 [to subgenus, synonym of Perloma Emeljanov, 1984 by Emeljanov 2006: 77, = Micricodes Emeljanov 1984 [subgenus] , synonym of Perloma Emeljanov, 1984 according to Emeljanov 2006: 77)

Tribe Kinnocciini Emeljanov, 2006
Kinnacana Remane, 1985
Kinnoccia Remane, 1985
Luiuia Hoch & Ferreira, 2016

Iuiuia caeca

Iuiuia caeca from Hoch and Ferreira 2013.

Tribe Oeclidiini Emeljanov 2006
= Propleromini Emeljanov 1984 in part (placement Emeljanov 1984, Hoch & Ferreira, 2013)
Entithena Fieber, 1866 (this is a Cixiid – Myndus musivus (Germar, 1825))
Micrixia Fowler, 1904 (tribal placement by Emeljanov 2006)
Oeclidius Van Duzee, 1914
Subgenus Paroeclidius Myers, 1928 (rank by Fennah 1980: 695 )
subgenus Oeclidius  Van Duzee, 1914
Kinnapotiguara Xing, Hoch & Chen, 2013  (Potiguara Hoch & Ferreira, 2013 (tribal placement [Propleromini] by Hoch & Ferreira, 2013, preoccupied replaced by Kinnapotiguara Xing, Hoch & Chen, 2013 ; placed in incertae sedis [Kinnarinae] in FLOW)
Southia Kirkaldy, 1904 (= Paulia Stål, 1869 nomen praeoccupatum replaced by Southia Kirkaldy, 1904: 279; Bytrois Fennah, 1945a synonym of Southia Kirkaldy, 1904 by Fennah 1980: 675


Oeclidius sp.

Oeclidius sp.

Oeclidius sp.

Oeclidius brickellus

Oeclidius brickellus from BOLD systems.

Tribe Prosotropini Fennah 1945 (sensu Fennah 1945 – tribal placement implied; Emeljanov 2006; tribal placement specified)
Apocathema Emeljanov, 2017
Atopocixius Muir, 1926
Dineparmene Fennah, 1945
Eparmene Fowler, 1904
Eparmenoides Fennah, 1945a
Lomagenes Fennah, 1945
Mauriciana Campodonico, 2018
Microissus Fennah, 1947
Oreopenes Ramos, 1957
Prosotropis Uhler, 1895
subgenus Paraprosotropis Ramos 1947 (status subgenus by Fennah 1948: 431)
subgenus Prosotropis Uhler, 1895
Quilessa Fennah, 1942

Lomagenes delphacodes

Lomagenes delphacodes from BOLD.


Kinnaridae (Quilessa sp., Dominica) showing ‘chevron shaped’ tergites.

Forewing of Quilessa fasciata from Fennah 1945

Forewings of Kinnaridae from Fennah 1945: 32. Lomagenes delphacoides, 33. Southia iridescens, 21 Quilessa pellucida.


Undetermined Kinnaridae (possibly Southia sp.) from Ecuador.

Undetermined Kinnaridae from Ecuador

Undetermined Kinnaridae from Costa Rica.

Undetermined Kinnaridae from Belize.


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