Genus Thionia Stål, 1859

[Return to North American Issidae]

Family Issidae Spinola, 1839: 339.

Subfamily Thioniinae Melichar, 1906 

Tribe Thioniini Melichar, 1906 

Subtribe Thioniina  Melichar, 1906

[Note: The family-level status of ‘Thionini’ has changed several times, but most recently it has been upgraded to subfamily by Wang et al. 2016]

Genus Thionia Stål, 1859: 321.

Type species (in original combination): Issus longipennis Spinola 1839: 348. See Gnezdilov and Dmitriev (2018) for lectotype designation, images and description of the type species; also Gnezdilov 2020.

Several South American species (noted below) have recently been moved out of Thionia (Gnezdilov, 2020).

Synonyms

Cyclumna Fowler, 1904 (Type species Cyclumna subrotunda Fowler, 1904); syn. by Metcalf 1938: 415.

Issomorphus Melichar, 1906 (Type species Issomorphus maculatus Melichar, 1906); syn. by Metcalf 1938: 414.

Subgenera

Cheiloceps Uhler, 1895: 68 (subsumed to subgeneric level by Fennah 1955: 34) (Type species Cheiloceps musca Uhler 1895: 68).  This subgenus includes 8 species (all Caribbean); all other species assumed to be Thionia (Thionia). Raised to genus by Gnezdilov 2018.

Distribution

Widespread in Nearctic (reaching southern Canada) and Neotropical ecozones.  In the U.S., most diverse in the southwest.

Thionia Distribution FLOW 11 Oct 2019

Distribution of Thionia (From FLOW 11 Oct 2019)

Recognized species

There are ~69 species in this genus as follows:

Species north of Mexico

Thionia acuta Doering, 1941 – Recently transferred to the new genus Fowlerium Gnezdilov, 2018.
Thionia bullata (Say, 1830) – USA: AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, TX; CAN: ON
Thionia bullata bullata (Say, 1830); comb. by implication Metcalf 1938: 411, see Metcalf 1958: 441-442.
Thionia bullata conspersa (Walker, 1851) – USA: NC
Thionia elliptica (Germar, 1830) – USA: AR, DC, GA, KY, IL, MD, MO, MS, NJ, NC, OH, OK, PA, TN, TX, VA; CAN: ON
Thionia obrienae Wilson, 1987 (in Wheeler & Wilson 1987) – USA: TX
Thionia omani Doering, 1938 – USA: NM
Thionia producta Van Duzee, 1908 – Recently transferred to the new genus Fowlerium Gnezdilov, 2018.
Thionia quinquata Metcalf, 1923 – USA: AL, GA, NC
Thionia simplex (Germar, 1830) – Recently moved to the new genus Aplos Gnezdilov, 2018.

Neotropical species (adopted from an unpublished list by Lois O’Brien)

Thionia anguillana Fennah 1965 :104 – to Cheiloceps by Gnezdilov, 2018: 162-163.
Thionia argo Fennah 1949: 60 – to Cheiloceps by Gnezdilov, 2018: 162-163.
Thionia bifasciatifrons Melichar 1906: 274 – Brazil; recently moved to Cyclometa Gnezdilov 2020 (type species Thionia bifasciatifrons Melichar, 1906), combination Cyclometa bifasciatifrons (Melichar, 1906)
Thionia biforis (Germar 1830: 51) – Brazil
Thionia boliviensis Schmidt 1910: 205 – Bolivia
Thionia borinquensis Dozier 1931: 18 – to Cheiloceps by Gnezdilov, 2018: 162-163.
Thionia borinqueta Caldwell 1951: 251 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951) –  to Cheiloceps by Gnezdilov, 2018: 162-163.
Thionia brasiliensis Schmidt 1910: 190 – Brazil
Thionia brevifrons Schmidt 1910 :196 – Bolivia
Thionia brevior Fowler 1904: 123 – Mexico (Veracruz), Panama
Thionia bufo Fennah 1945: 508 – Trinidad
Thionia carinata Melichar 1906: 281 – Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
Thionia caviceps Fowler 1905: 125 – Panama.
Thionia colombiae (Walker 1851: 361) – Colombia, Venezuela
Thionia conspersa Fowler, 1904 see Thionia fowleri Metcalf, 1938
Thionia coriacea (Fabricius 1803: 100) – Brazil, Guiana, Panama
Thionia crucifera Metcalf 1938: 411 – Panama (there is a dorsal view of the primary type here, under Issidae, nr bottom of page (pic))
Thionia dissimilis Schmidt 1910: 2006 – Colombia
Thionia douglundbergi† Stroinski & Szwedo, 2008 – Dominican Republic
Thionia dryas Fennah 1945: 507 – Trinidad
Thionia dubiosa Melichar 1906: 276 – Peru
Thionia ecuadoriensis Schmidt 1910: 203 – Ecuador
Thionia fowleri Metcalf 1938: 411, new name for T. conspersa Fowler 1905:125 – Guatemala
Thionia fusca Melichar 1906: 274 – Brazil – recently moved to Thiopara Gnezdilov 2020 (type species Thionia fusca Melichar, 1906), combination Thiopara fusca (Melichar, 1906)
Thionia gibba Melichar 1906: 275 – Brazil
  Thionia gibbicollis Dozier 1931: 17 – (Haiti) – moved to Dozierana Gnezdilov, 2018 (Nogodinidae: Colpopterinae)
Thionia herbacea (Spinola 1839: 357) – French Guiana, Brazil
Thionia humilis Fowler 1904: 124, pl. 12 – Mexico (Guerrero, Veracruz)
Thionia impressa Melichar 1906: 284 – Jamaica
Thionia latifrons Melichar 1906: 275 – Bolivia
Thionia longipennis (Spinola 1839: 348) – Locality unknown, Brazil, Venezuela
=  Thionia longula (Lethierry 1890: 149) (Venezuela) to Colpoptera longula (Lethierry, 1890) by Gnezdilov 2012.
Thionia maculata Melichar 1906: 279 – “Laguayca” (South America)
Thionia maculipes Stal 1864: 51 – Mexico
Thionia mammifera Fennah 1945: 508, pl. 17 – Trinidad
Thionia mexicana Melichar 1906: 285 – Mexico
Thionia minor Schmidt 1910: 201 – Brazil
Thionia naso Fowler 1904: 124 – Recently transferred to the new genus Fowlerium Gnezdilov, 2018.
Thionia obsoleta Melichar 1906: 278 – Brazil
Thionia obtusa Melichar 1906: 279 – Mexico (Morelos, Jalisco, Michoacán) – recently moved to Memusta Gnezdilov 2020 (type species Thionia obtusa Melichar, 1906), combination Memusta obtusa (Melichar, 1906)
Thionia ocellata Melichar 1906: 270 – “North America” (Not U.S. see Doering 1938:457)
Thionia ohausi Schmidt 1910: 199 – Ecuador
Thionia onerata Melichar 1906: 270 – Venezuela
Thionia ovata Melichar 1906: 280 – French Guiana, Brazil
Thionia parana Bergroth 1910: 240, new name for T. coriacea Melichar nec Fabricius – Brazil
Thionia pehlkei Schmidt 1910: 198 – Colombia
Thionia pictifrons Fowler 1905: 125 – Mexico (Guerrero)
Thionia prasina (Spinola 1839: 349) – Brazil, Venezuela
Thionia proxima Melichar 1906: 278 – Peru, Colombia – recently moved to Metopasius Gnezdilov 2020 (type species Thionia proxima Melichar, 1906), combination Metopasius proximus (Melichar, 1906),
Thionia puertoricensis Caldwell 1951: 251 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951) – to Cheiloceps by Gnezdilov, 2018: 162-163.
Thionia punctipesnomen nudum Melichar 1906:27
Thionia quadratifrons Schmidt 1910: 193 – Bolivia
Thionia ramosi Caldwell 1951: 249 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951)- Puerto Rico
Thionia rubrocostata (Spinola 1839: 357) – Brazil
Thionia schmidti Schmidt 1910: 207 – Costa Rica
Thionia scutellata Fowler 1904: 123 – Mexico (Veracruz)
Thionia similis Schmidt 1910: 202 – Brazil
Thionia sinuata Schmidt 1910: 195 – Bolivia (Recently moved to Carimeta Gnezdilov 2020 as Carimeta sinuata (Schmidt, 1910)
Thionia soluta Fowler 1905: 126 – Panama (Congo according to Synave 1973 [most likely in error?])
Thionia sordida Fowler 1904: 124 – Mexico (Guerrero)
Thionia stipes Fowler 1905: 127 – Panama
Thionia testacea Walker, see T. colombiae Walker
Thionia tigrata Melichar 1906: 272 – Peru, Bolivia
Thionia transversalis Melichar 1906: 281 – “North America”
Thionia truncatella Melichar 1906: 284 – Mexico (level is illegible, see Gnezdilov 2020 fig. 32) – recently moved to Cophteroma Gnezdilov 2020 (type species Thionia truncatella Melichar, 1906), combination Cophteroma truncatella (Melichar, 1906)
Thionia ustulipunctata (Uhler 1876: 355) – Cuba, Mexico
Thionia varia Walker, 1851 see Philatis varia (Walker) (Acanaloniidae), comb. by Gnezdilov 2012
Thionia variata Melichar 1906: 278 – S.A., Brazil
Thionia variegata Stal 1864: 51 – Mexico (Veracruz), Guatemala, Panama, Dominica
= Thionia variegata
 var.___Fowler 1904: 122 – Panama

Subgenus Cheiloceps Uhler, 1895: 68; type-species Cheiloceps musca Uhler 1895: 68)- Restored to genus by Gnezdilov, 2018: 162.
Thionia (Cheiloceps) clusiae Fennah 1955: 35 – St.  Lucia
Thionia (Cheiloceps) laodice Fennah 1955: 36 – Montserrat
Thionia (Cheiloceps) medusa Fennah 1955: 35 – Dominica
Thionia (Cheiloceps) musca (Uhler 1895: 68), comb. by Fennah 1945 :122 – St.  Vincent
= Thionia (Cheiloceps) musca grenadana
 Fennah 1955: 34 – Dominica

Fossil species

Thionia douglundbergi† Stroinski & Szwedo, 2008

Recent taxonomic changes

From Gnezilov, 2020

Carimeta Gnezdilov 2020 (type species Carimeta maculipennis Gnezdilov 2020) (Paraguay), also includes Thionia sinuata Schmidt, 1910 as Carimeta sinuata (Schmidt, 1910)
Metopasius Gnezdilov 2020 (type species Thionia proxima Melichar, 1906), combination Metopasius proximus (Melichar, 1906)
Cophteroma Gnezdilov 2020 (type species Thionia truncatella Melichar, 1906), combination Cophteroma truncatella (Melichar, 1906)
Cyclometa Gnezdilov 2020 (type species Thionia bifasciatifrons Melichar, 1906), combination Cyclometa bifasciatifrons (Melichar, 1906)
Memusta Gnezdilov 2020 (type species Thionia obtusa Melichar, 1906), combination Memusta obtusa (Melichar, 1906)
Thiopara Gnezdilov 2020 (type species Thionia fusca Melichar, 1906), combination Thiopara fusca (Melichar, 1906)

Economic Importance

Limited, but recently adventive to Italy.

Plant associations

Thionia bullata – Pinus taeda L (Loblolly pine, Pinaceae), P. echinata Mill. (Shortleaf pine), P. virginiana Mill. (Virginia pine)

Thionia clusiae – Clusia L. (attorny, Clusiaceae)

Thionia elliptica – Quercus ilicifolia Wangenh. (bear oak, Fagaceae), Q. marilandica Münchh. (blackjack oak)

Thionia sp. – Prosopis (mesquite, Fabaceae)

Thionia obtusa – Senna obtusifolia (Caesalpiniaceae)

(more to add from subsequent literature)

Hosts from Wilson et al. 1994, Palmer & Pullen (2001), Gnezdilov and Poggi (2014) and FLOW; plant names from USDA PLANTS or Tropicos.

Parasites/ predators.

Thionia bullata with Epipyropid from Bugguide

Thionia bullata – Fulgoraecia exigua (Epipyropidae: Lepidoptera) (see bugguide)

Recognition

Macropterous; hindwings well-developed (evident by peering beneath the forewings in ventral view), bearing large notch in hindwing at claval fold, body stout  (but usually narrower than Picumna), hind tibiae with 2 lateral spines (4 in Picumna).

The genus as currently composed is heterogeneous and needs revision.

Hind tibia and tarsus of Thionia elliptica showing 2 lateral spines.

Hind tibia and tarsus of Thionia elliptica showing 2 lateral spines.

Key to Thionia species from Doering (1938) (note T. naso = T. acuta and T. elliptica sensu Doering = T. obrienae)

Key to Thionia species from Doering (1938) (note T. naso = T. acuta and T. elliptica sensu Doering = T. obrienae)

Thionia bullata

Thionia bullata

Thionia bullata

Thionia bullata

Thionia bullata

Thionia bullata

Thionia elliptica

Thionia elliptica

Thionia elliptica

Thionia elliptica

Thionia elliptica

Thionia elliptica

Thionia elliptica

Thionia elliptica

 

 

Thionia quinquata

Thionia quinquata

Thionia quinquata

Thionia quinquata

Thionia quinquata

Thionia quinquata

 

Thionia cinctifrons (Stål), holotype from Gnezdilov, 2018

Thionia cinctifrons (Stål), holotype from Gnezdilov, 2018

Plates from Doering (1938)

Plate 51 from Doering (1938)

Plate 51 from Doering (1938)

Plate 52 from Doering (1938)

Plate 52 from Doering (1938)

This genus is here on Bugguide (I am not sure that the species identifications are all right).

Collecting

Adults are taken beating woody vegetation or by inspection of hosts (the species appear to be mostly host-specific).  This genus (or subtribe) was found in abundance in canopy fogging samples from Ecuador.

Molecular resources

 There is an assortment of Thionia data on Genbank (mostly taxa removed from the genus); Barcode of Life has data for several species, some removed from Thionia (Thionia bullata, T.  ellipticus, T. gibbicollis, T. products, and T. simplex).

Selected references

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Bergroth, E. 1910. Eine neue Fulgoriden-Gattung. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung. Wien 29: 238-241.

Caldwell, J. S. 1945. Notes on Issidae from Mexico (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 38: 89-120.

Caldwell, J. S. and L. F. Martorell. 1951 [dated1950]. Review of the Auchenorynchous [sic] Homoptera of Puerto Rico. Part II. The Fulgoroidea except Kinnaridae. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 34(2): 133-269.

Doering. K. C. 1938. A contribution to the taxonomy of the subfamily Issinae in America north of Mexico (Fulgoroidea: Homoptera. Part II. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 25(20): 447-575.

Doering, K. C. 1941. A contribution to the taxonomy of the subfamily Issinae in America north of Mexico (Fulgoroidea: Homoptera. Part IV. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 27(10): 185-233.

Dozier, H. L. 1931. New and interesting West Indian Homoptera. American Museum Novitates. Published by the American Museum of Natural History 510: 1-24.

Fennah, R. G. 1949. On a small collection of Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from the Virgin Islands. Psyche 56(2): 51-65.

Fennah, R. G. 1955. Lanternflies of the Family Issidae of the Lesser Antilles (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Proceedings of the United States Museum 105(3350): 23-47.

Fennah, R. G. 1965. New Species of Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from the West Indies. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 117(4): 95-126.

Fowler, W. W. 1904. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). Biologia Centrali-Americana; contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America 1: 85-124 (1904), 125-139 (1905).

Germar, E. F. 1830. Species Cicadarium enumeratae et sub genera distributae. Thon’s Entomologisches Archiv. 2 (2):1-8 [i.e. 37-44], 45-57.

Gnezdilov, V. M. 2009. Revisionary notes on some tropical Issidae and Nogodinidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 49(1): 75-92.

Gnezdilov, V. M. 2012. On the composition and distribution of the family Acanaloniidae Amyot et Serville (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 91(3): 643-647.

Gnezdilov, V. M. 2016. Notes on the phylogenetic relationships of planthoppers of the family Issidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea) of the Western Palaearctic fauna, with descriptions of two new genera. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 95(2): 362-382.

Gnezdilov, V.M. 2018. To the revision of the genus Thionia Stål (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Issidae), with description of new genera and new subtribe. Zootaxa 4434 (1): 158–170. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4434.1.10.

Gnezdilov, V. M. 2018. New genus for Thionia gibbicollis Dozier, 1931 (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea: Nogodinidae) from Haiti. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS 322(4): 457-462.

Gnezdilov, V. M. 2020. Six new genera of the subtribe Thioniina (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Issidae) based on type material of L. Melichar and E. Schmidt in the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS 324(2): 221–241. https://doi.org/10.31610/trudyzin/2020.324.2.221

Gnezdilov, V.M. and D.A. Dmitriev. 2018. Proposed designation of a neotype for Issus longipennis Spinola, 1839, the type species of Thionia Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea: Issidae). Zoosystematica Rossica 27(1): 137–141.

Gnezdilov, V. M. and F. Poggi. 2014. First record of Nearctic issid planthopper Thionia simplex (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Issidae) from Europe. Zoosystematica Rossica 23(2): 238-241.

Melichar, L. 1906. Monographie der Issiden. (Homoptera). Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königliche Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 3: 1-327.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1923a. A key to the Fulgoridae of Eastern North America with descriptions of new species. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 38(3): 139-230, plus 32 plates. [from http://www.lib.unc.edu/dc/jncas/]

Metcalf, Z. P. 1938. The Fulgorina of Barro Colorado and other parts of Panama. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College 82: 277-423. [available from http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org]

Metcalf, Z. P. 1958. General Catalogue of the Homoptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 15, Issidae. Waverly Press, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland.

Muir, F. A. G. 1923. On the classification of the Fulgoroidea (Homoptera). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Honolulu 5: 205-247.

Palmer, W. A. and K. R. Pullen. 2001. The phytophagous arthropods associated with Senna obtusifolia (Caesalpiniaceae) in Mexico and Honduras and their prospects for utilization for biological control. Biological Control 20: 76-83.

Say, T. 1830. Descriptions of new North American hemipterous insects, belonging to the first family of the section Homoptera of Latreille. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6:235-244, 299-314.

Schmidt, E. 1910c. Die Issinen des Stettiner Museums. (Hemiptera-Homoptera). Entomologische Zeitung 71: 146-220.

Siwanowicz, I. and M. Burrows. 2017. Three dimensional reconstruction of energy stores for jumping in planthoppers and froghoppers from confocal laser scanning microscopy. Elife 6: doi: 10.7554/eLife.23824.

Spinola, M. 1839a. Essau sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. Annales de la Société entomologique de France 8: 133-454.

Stål, C. 1859. Novae quaedam Fulgorinorum formae speciesque insigniores. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 3: 313-327.

Stål, C. 1864. Hemiptera mexicana enumeravit speciesque novas descripsit. (Continuatio). Entomologische Zeitung 25: 49-86.

Synave, H. 1973. Monographie des Derbidae africains (Homoptera – Fulgoroidea). Etude du Continent Africain 2: 1-223.

Stroinski, A. and J. Szwedo. 2008. Thionia douglundbergi sp nov from the Miocene Dominican amber (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) with notes on extinct higher planthoppers. Annales Zoologici 58(3) 529-536.

Uhler, P. R. 1876. List of Hemiptera of the region west of the Mississippi River, including those collected during the Hayden Explorations of 1873. Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. 1 (5): 269-361.

Uhler, P. R. 1895. An enumeration of the Hemiptera-Homoptera of the Island of St. Vincent, W. I. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1895: 55-84.

Van Duzee, E. P. 1908. Studies in North American Fulgoridae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1907: 467-498.

Walker, F. 1858. Supplement. List of the specimens of Homopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. 307 pp.

Wang, M. L., Y. L. Zhang and T. Bourgoin. 2016. Planthopper family Issidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha): Linking molecular phylogeny with classification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 105:224-234.

Wheeler, A. G., Jr. 1996. Use of an introduced host, scotch pine, by a native planthopper, Thionia bullata (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Issidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98(2): 374-375.

Wheeler, A. G., Jr. and S. W. Wilson. 1987. Life history of the Issid planthopper Thionia elliptica (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) with description of a new Thionia species from Texas. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 95(3): 440-451.

Wheeler, A. G., Jr. and S. W. Wilson. 1988. Notes on the biology and immatures of the issid planthoppers Thionia bullata and T. simplex (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 96(3): 266-273.

Wilson, S. W., C. Mitter, R. F. Denno and M. R. Wilson. 1994. Evolutionary patterns of host plant use by delphacid planthoppers and their relatives. In: R. F. Denno and T. J. Perfect, (eds.). Planthoppers: Their Ecology and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York. Pp. 7-45 & Appendix.

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