[Return to North American Issidae]
- 1 Family Issidae Spinola, 1839: 339.
- 1.1 Subfamily Thioniinae Melichar, 1906
- 1.2 Tribe Thioniini Melichar, 1906
Family Issidae Spinola, 1839: 339.
Subfamily Thioniinae Melichar, 1906
Tribe Thioniini Melichar, 1906
Subtribe Thioniina Melichar, 1906
[Note: The family-level status of ‘Thionini’ has changed several times, but most recently it has been upgraded to subfamily by Wang et al. 2016]
Genus Fowlerium Gnezdilov, 2018
Type species (in original combination): Thionia naso Fowler, 1904
Distribution: Nearctic, mostly southwestern USA
There are three species in the genus, all of the pointy-headed species transferred from Thionia.
Species north of Mexico
Fowlerium acutum (Doering 1941) – USA: OK, TX; Mexico (Hidalgo)
= Thionia acuta Doering, 1941
= Thionia naso Doering, 1938: 463 [nec. Fowler 1905]; replacement name by Doering 1941: 214.
= Fowlerium acutum (Doering 1941); comb. by Gnezdilov, 2018: 164.
Fowlerium productum (Van Duzee, 1908)
= Thionia producta Van Duzee, 1908 – USA: AZ, CO, OK, TX, UT
= Fowlerium productum (Van Duzee 1908); comb. by Gnezdilov, 2018: 165.
Fowlerium naso (Fowler, 1904) – Mexico (Hidalgo, Veracruz)
= Thionia naso Fowler 1904: 124
= Fowlerium naso (Fowler 1904); comb. by Gnezdilov, 2018: 164
Known host plants:
- Thionia producta – Juniperus (Cupressaceae)
Macropterous; hindwings well-developed (evident by peering beneath the forewings in ventral view), bearing large notch in hindwing at claval fold, body stout (but usually narrower than Picumna), hind tibiae with 2 lateral spines (4 in Picumna).
(from Gnezdilov 2018) Diagnosis. Metope elongate, with distinct median and sublateral carinae joined in one point on its upper margin (Doering 1938, Pl. 52: 8, 10). Coryphe elongate, with distinct median carina running from its anterior margin to its middle; anterior margin acutely angulately convex (Doering 1938, Pl. 51: 2, 5). Second and third segments of rostrum are almost equal in length; third segment narrowing apically (Fig. 18). Fore wings elongate, surpassing abdomen, with narrow hypocostal plate. Forewing vein sequence: R 2, furcating near to basal cell; M 2, furcating before wing middle; CuA 1. Clavus long, open—Pcu+A1 runs into apex of clavus. Pcu fusing A1 after middle of clavus. Hind wings 3-lobed, with deep cubital and anal clefts and without coupling lobe on its anterior margin. CuA2 and CuP not fused apically, but connected by several transverse veins (Figs 12, 13). Pcu and A1.1 not fused medially, free. Hindwing sequence: R 2 r-m 1 M 1 m-cua 1 CuA 2 cua-cup 2-5 CuP 1 cup-pcu 1 Pcu 3 pcu-a1 1 A1 2 A2 2–4. Hind tibia with 2 lateral spines. First metatarsomere with a whole row of spines arranged in arc. Ventral aedeagal hooks slightly furcating subapically (Doering, 1938, Pl. 55: 1, 7, 8). Ovipositor with rounded gonoplacs. Hind margin of VII sternum with large semicircular process.
Plates from Doering (1938)
This genus is here on Bugguide (I am not sure that the species identifications are all right).
Adults are taken beating woody vegetation or by inspection of hosts.
There are no data for this genus on Genbank or Barcode of Life
Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.
Doering, K. C. 1941. A contribution to the taxonomy of the subfamily Issinae in America north of Mexico (Fulgoroidea: Homoptera. Part IV. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 27(10): 185-233.
Fowler, W. W. 1904. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). Biologia Centrali-Americana; contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America 1: 85-124 (1904), 125-139 (1905).
Germar, E. F. 1830. Species Cicadarium enumeratae et sub genera distributae. Thon’s Entomologisches Archiv. 2 (2):1-8 [i.e. 37-44], 45-57.
Gnezdilov, V. M. 2009. Revisionary notes on some tropical Issidae and Nogodinidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 49(1): 75-92.
Gnezdilov, V. M. 2018. To the revision of the genus Thionia Stål (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Issidae), with description of new genera and new subtribe. Zootaxa 4434 (1): 158–170. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4434.1.10.
Melichar, L. 1906. Monographie der Issiden. (Homoptera). Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königliche Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 3: 1-327.
Metcalf, Z. P. 1958. General Catalogue of the Homoptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 15, Issidae. Waverly Press, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland.
Spinola, M. 1839a. Essau sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. Annales de la Société entomologique de France 8: 133-454.
Van Duzee, E. P. 1908. Studies in North American Fulgoridae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1907: 467-498.
Walker, F. 1858. Supplement. List of the specimens of Homopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. 307 pp.
Wang, M. L., Y. L. Zhang and T. Bourgoin. 2016. Planthopper family Issidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha): Linking molecular phylogeny with classification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 105:224-234.
Wilson, S. W., C. Mitter, R. F. Denno and M. R. Wilson. 1994. Evolutionary patterns of host plant use by delphacid planthoppers and their relatives. In: R. F. Denno and T. J. Perfect, (eds.). Planthoppers: Their Ecology and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York. Pp. 7-45 & Appendix.