Genus Metcalfa Caldwell, 1951

[Back to North American Flatidae]

Family Flatidae Spinola, 1839

Subfamily Flatinae Spinola, 1839

Tribe Nephesini Melichar, 1923

Genus Metcalfa Caldwell, 1951 (in Caldwell & Martorell, 1951)

Type species (in original combination): Flata pruinosa Say, 1830: 237.

Distribution

North America, Cuba, Central and South America; adventive in Europe – is becoming (has become) widespread in Europe and Asia.

Distribution of Metcalfa pruinosa

Distribution of Metcalfa pruinosa in North America (based on 1,060 specimen records in the Tri Trophic TCN) (as of June 6, 2017)

Distribution of Metcalfa

Distribution of Metcalfa from FLOW (as of 18 Jan 2021)

Recognized species

[I’ve included the synoptic synonymy list here for now – based primarily on Metcalf (1957) – but it will be eventually moved elsewhere to a species list]

Metcalfa frigida Metcalf and Bruner, 1948 [Metcalf 1957: 342] – Cuba

Metcalfa persea Metcalf and Bruner, 1948 [Metcalf 1957: 343]- Cuba

Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (“citrus flatid planthopper“, “frosted moth bug“) [Metcalf 1957: 343] – USA: AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV; CAN: NB, ON, QC; Bermuda; Doubtful records: Brazil (error), Cuba; Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Mexico (but this one from Nuevo León looks right to me).

Palearctic (adventive): Italy (inc Sicily, Sardini), Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Corsica, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey.

Flata pruinosa Say, 1830: 237.
Poeciloptera pruinosa (Say, 1830); comb. by Schaum, 1850: 72.
Ormenis pruinosa (Say, 1830); comb. by Glover, 1877: 28.
Melormenis pruinosa (Say, 1830); comb. by Metcalf and Bruner, 1948.
Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830); comb. by Caldwell in Caldwell and Martorell, 1951: 236.

Metcalfa pruinosa cubana (Metcalf and Bruner, 1948)  [Metcalf 1957: 350] – Cuba
Melormenis pruinosa cubana Metcalf and Bruner, 1948: 96. 
Metcalfa pruinosa cubana 
(Metcalf and Bruner, 1948); comb. by Metcalf, 1954: 11.

Metcalfa regularis (Fowler, 1900) [Metcalf 1957: 350] – Mexico, Guyana
Flata regularis Fowler, 1900: 53
Ormenis regularis (Fowler, 1900); comb. by Melichar, 1902: 101.
Melormenis regularis (Fowler, 1900); comb. by Metcalf, 1938: 395.
Metcalfa regularis (Fowler, 1900); comb. by Caldwell in Caldwell and Martorell, 1951: 236.

Metcalfa siboney (Metcalf and Bruner, 1948) [Metcalf 1957: 350] – Cuba
Melormenis siboney Metcalf and Bruner, 1948: 96.
Metcalfa siboney (Metcalf and Bruner, 1948); comb. by Metcalf, 1954: 11.

Plant associations

Metcalfa pruinosa and Metcalfa pruinosa cubana are reported in Wilson et al. (1994) as being polyphagous. Metcalfa pruinosa feeds on a wide variety of trees and shrubs (for example – see Metcalfa pruinosa wiki page), including citrus and grape.  See Wilson and McPherson (1980, 1981) for lists of hosts from southern Illinois. Preda and Skolka (2011) reported Metcalfa pruinosa from 110 species in 49 families in southeastern Europe.

Metcalfa pruinosa cubana was reported by Metcalf and Bruner (1948) from Annona reticulata L. (custard apple, Annonaceae), Coffea arabica L. (coffee, Rubiaceae), Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape, Polygonaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Guava, Myrtaceae), and “other plants”.

European hosts for Metcalfa pruinosa include Acer campestre L.(hedge maple, Aceareae), Acer platanoides L.(Norway maple)Clematis vitalba L. (evergreen clematis, Ranunculaceae)Cornus sanguinea L. (bloodtwig dogwood, Cornaceae), Celtis australis, Crataegus monogyna, Hibiscus syriacus, Ligustrum vulgare, Malus domesticus, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Prunus domestica, Rhamnus catharticus, Robinia pseudacacia, Rubus fruticosus, Salix sp., Sambucus nigra, Ulmus sp., Urtica dioica, Viburnum lantana and V. opulus.  See also Pencheva & Yovkova (2016), Vlad & Grozea (2016) (and others listed below) [edit: Pencheva and Yovkova 2017 noted that the most ‘infested’ plant species were Acer platanoides L., A. campestre L., Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent., Catalpa bignonioides Prints, C. speciosa Prints, Cornus mas L., Diospyros kaki Thunb., Fraxinus excelsior L., Ficus carica L., Hibiscus syriacus L., Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch., Philadelphus coronarius L. and Vitis vinifera L.]

Metcalfa pruinosa was on Albizia julibrissin Durazz. (Fabales, Fabaceae), Diospyros kaki (Thunb.) (Ebenales, Ebenaceae) (in Russia) by Gnezdilov & Sugonyaev (2009)

Also reported for Metcalfa pruinosaAcer spp., Clematis vitalbaCornus spp., Crataegus spp., Ligustrum vulgareRobinia pseudacaciaSalix spp., Sambucus nigraUlmus spp.;  Grape (Vitis vinifera), Citrus, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), peach (Prunus persica), blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), raspberry (Rubus idaeus). In Florida, reported are camellias, azaleas, viburnum, magnolias, hollies, seagrape, cherry laurel, peach, orange and grapefruit (with the preference of grapefruit over orange in Texas) (this information appears to be based on a 1969 Florida extension bulletin (Mead 1969).

Interestingly, reported on Ginkgo biloba – see Wheeler 1975: 39).

Recently reported from Morus rubra L. (red Mulberry) in Florida (Hillsborough co., Tampa Bay Bypass canal, Harnet Park; specimen record)

Metcalfa damage from Grozea et al. 2011 (researchgate here).

Metcalfa eggs from Choi et al 2018

Eggs of Metcalfa pruinosa on ‘acacia’ in Korea (from Choi et al 2018).

Parasites and predators

Metcalfa pruinosa is parasitized by Neodryinus typhlocybae (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). (see e.g., Krombein & Burks 1967: 321; Krombein et al. 1979: 1244; Strauss 2009, 2010a, b).

Ceraeochrysa lineaticornis (Fitch) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is reported to eat immatures and construct debris packets from the wax (Wheeler and Stocks 2019)

Economic Importance

Metcalfa pruinosa is of considerable concern in orchards and vineyards in its introduced range, particularly in southern Europe.  In North America, reported on ornamental or agricultural plants including citrus, dahlia, ginseng, salvia (Wilson & O’Brien 1987 et cit.), and walnut (Weber & Wilson 1981), as well as those listed above in Florida. This species is reported in the annual Cooperative economic insect report in many years.

Metcalfa pruinosa is a possible vector of bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (e.g., here).

Also, bees pick up honeydew and incorporate it into honey.  There is substantial literature relating to the properties of Metcalfa honey (Barbattini et al. 1992, Lucchi 1997, for starters).

Recognition

The only flatid north of Mexico with a ‘gray’ theme, generally bearing characteristic distinct spots  in the proximal portion of the wing.  The shade of gray may vary considerably (depending, e.g., on the amount of wax on the wing).  In Mexico and south (and the Caribbean) there are other gray to black species and so much more care is needed with identifications (and reports should be verified).

Genus-level features from Caldwell and Martorell (1951) are

“Vertex short, transverse. Frons longer than broad, rather flat. Forewing broadest subapically; apex truncate; costal cell broader than costal area; the subapical line present with most veins forked beyond. Metatibia bispinose.”

Metcalfa pruinosa rhoto by Doug Tallamy, University of Delaware, Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology.

Metcalfa pruinosa rhoto by Doug Tallamy, University of Delaware, Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology.

Metcalfa pruinosa photo by Dave Funk of Stroud Water Research Center.

Metcalfa pruinosa photo by Dave Funk of Stroud Water Research Center.

Metcalfa pruinosa from Jericho, Vermont.

Metcalfa pruinosa from Jericho, Vermont.

Metcalfa pruinosa

Metcalfa pruinosa from Jericho, Vermont.

Metcalfa pruinosa

Metcalfa pruinosa

Metcalfa persea from Metcalf & Bruner 1948

Tail of Metcalfa persea from Metcalf & Bruner 1948

Dorsal view of head and thorax and face of Metcalfa persea from Metcalf & Bruner 1948

Metcalfa frigida from Metcalf & Bruner

Male terminalia of Metcalfa frigida from Metcalf & Bruner 1948

Online resources

(specific to Metcalfa; popular or non-literature sources)
NCSU Insect Museum on Metcalfa pruinosa.
Wikipedia entry.
Discover Life.
Bugguide.
CABI Invasive Species Compendium (Beta).
Cabi (frosted moth bug)
FLOW.
EOL.
GBIF.
(I’m sure there are many more)

Molecular resources

There is now (29 Sept 2018) considerable data on Metcalfa pruinosa Genbank and BOLD (761 sequences!), but nothing on the other species within the genus.

Selected references

Alma, A. 2000. I Flatidi Italiani Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) origine, diffusione e aspetti fitopatologici. In: Metcalfa pruinosa: Diffusione nel Continente Europeo e Prospecttive di Controllo Biologico. Atti del Convegno Tenuto a S. Donato, Milanese 21 Ottobre 1999. Pp.9-11.

Bagnoli, B. and A. Lucchi. 2000. Dannosità e misure di controllo integrato.[Damage and control of Metcalfa pruinosa in agricultural and urban environments] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 65-88.

Bajc, M. 2003Metcalfa pruinosa Say in Slovenia. Proteus 66(4): 161-169, 190, 192. [Slovenian]

Barbattini, R. 2002. La presenza di Metcalfa pruinosa e l’apicoltura. Atti della Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia Rendiconti 49: 149-163.

Barbattini, R., M. Greatti, M. Iob, A. G. Sabatini, G. L. Marcazzan and R. Colombo. 1992. Apicultural interest of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say): Production and physico-chemical characteristics of honeydew honey. Apicoltore Moderno 83(1): 5-11 [Italian]

Barbuceanu, D., M. C. Dobrescu, V. Boruz and A. Timus. 2015. Host plants and climatic preferences of the invasive species Metcalfa pruinosa (Say 1830) (Hemiptera: Flatidae) in some places from Southern Romania. Current Trends In Natural Sciences, 4(8): 13-22.

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Blanc, M. and J. C. Laurent. 2000. Les cicadelles nuisibles a la vigne (Scaphoideus titanus, Empoasca vitis, Metcalfa pruinosa) [Pest leafhoppers of grapevine (Scaphoideus titanus, Empoasca vitis, Metcalfa pruinosa)]. Progres Agricole et Viticole (France) 117(11): 247-253.

Bucchianico, N. Di and A. Mazzocchetti. 2003. Impiego di Neodryinus typhlocybae contro Metcalfa pruinosa in Abruzzo [Utilization of Neodryinus typhlocybaeagainst Metcalfa pruinosa in Abruzzi]. Informatore Agrario 59(44): 69-71.

Barbuceanu, D. and C. F. Mihaescu. 2015. New data about the control of the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa (Say 1830) (Hemiptera: Flatidae) in the town of Pitesti (Arges county). Annals Of The University Of Craiova – Agriculture, Montanology, Cadastre Series, 45(1): 26-31.

Caldwell, J. S. and L. F. Martorell. 1951 [dated1950]. Review of the Auchenorynchous [sic] Homoptera of Puerto Rico. Part II. The Fulgoroidea except Kinnaridae. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 34(2): 133-269.

Ciampolini, M., A. Grossi and G. Zottarelli. 1987. Danni alla soia per attacchi di Metcalfa pruinosa. Informatore Agrario 43(15): 101-103.

Cravedi, P. 1989. Infestazioni di Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Auchenorrhyncha Flatidae) in provincia di Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna) [Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Auchenorrhyncha Flatidae) infestation in the province of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna) (Italy).] Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria di Bachicoltura 21: 203-205.

D’uso, C. 1984. Infestazioni di Metcalfa pruinosa nel Veneto. IF (Informatore Fitopatologico) 34(5): 11-14.

D’uso, C. 1987. A new pest of vine in Europe: Metcalfa pruinosa Say (Homoptera: Flatidae). In: R. Cavalloro, (ed.). Integrated pest control in viticulture. A.A. Balkema for the Commission of the European Communities, Rotterdam and Brookfield. Pp. 103-107

D’uso, C. and F. Pavan. 1988. The occurrence of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) in Italy. In: C. Vidano and A. Arzone, (eds.). 6th Auchenorrhyncha Meeting, Turin, Italy, September 7-11, 1987. Proceedings. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Italy. Pp. 545-552

Dean, H. A. and J. C. Baily. 1961. A flatid planthopper, Metcalfa pruniosa. Journal of Economic Entomology 54: 1104-1106.

della Giustina, W. 1987Metcalfa pruinosa (Say 1830), nouveaute pour la faune de France (Hom. Flatidae). Bulletin de la Societé Entomologique de France 191(3-4): 89-92.

della Giustina, W. and E. Navarro. 1993Metcalfa pruinosa, un nouvel envahisseur? Phytoma la Defense les Vegetaux 451: 30-32.

Dlabola, J. 1981Metcalfa pruinosa. (Say, 1830), eine schädliche nordamerikanische Flatide als Erstfund in der Palaearktis. Faunistische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden 8(9): 91-94.

Donati, I., S. Mauri, G. Buriani, A. Cellini and F. Spinelli. 2017. Role of Metcalfa pruinosa as a Vector for Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. The Plant Pathology Journal 33(6), 554–560. http://doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.04.2017.0074.

Dradi, D. 2002. Lotta biologica alla Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) con Neodryinus typhlocybae (Ashmead, 1893): Il Caso di Ravenna (Insecta Homoptera Flatidae, Hymenoptera Dryinidae). Quaderno di Studi e Notizie di Storia Naturale della Romagna 17: 77-90.

Drosopoulos, A., T. Broumas and V. Kapothanassi. 2004. Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha: Flatidae) an undesirable new species in the insect fauna of Greece. Annals of the Benaki Phytopathological Institute 20(1): 49-51.

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 2008. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Plant Heath on a request from the European Commission on Pest risk assessment made by France on Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) considered by France as harmful in French overseas departments of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion. The EFSA Journal 701: 1-17

Frilli, F., A. Villani and P. Zandigiacomo. 2002Neodryinus typhlocybae (Ashmead) antagonista di Metcalfa pruinosa (Say). Risultati di liberazioni pluriennali effettuate in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Entomologica (Bari) 35: 27-38.

Gervasini, E. 2000. Il programma di lotta biologico a Metcalfa pruinosa in Lombardia. In: Metcalfa pruinosa: Diffusione nel Continente Europeo e Prospecttive di Controllo Biologico. Atti del Convegno Tenuto a S. Donato, Milanese 21 Ottobre 1999. Pp. 21-26.

Girolami, V. 2000Neodryinus typhlocybae: introduziona, diffusione e comportamento. In: Metcalfa pruinosa: Diffusione nel Continente Europeo e Prospecttive di Controllo Biologico. Atti del Convegno Tenuto a S. Donato, Milanese 21 Ottobre 1999. Pp. 12-14.

Girolami, V. and L. Conte. 1999. Possibilita di controllo chimico e biologico di Metcalfa pruinosa ad opera di Neodryinus typhlocybae. Informatore Fitopatologico 5: 20-25.

Girolami, V. and L. Mazzon. 1999. Controllo di Metcalfa pruinosa ad opera di Neodryinus typhlocybae. Informatore Agrario 19: 87-91.

Girolami, V. and P. Camporese. 1994. Prima moltiplicazione in Europa di Neodryinus typhlocybae su Metcalfa pruinosa. In: Atti XVII Congresso Nazionale Italano di Entomologia, Udine, Giugno. Pp. 655-658.

Giustina, W. della. 1986Metcalfa pruinosa (Say), nouveauté pour la fauna de France (Hom.: Flatidae). Bulletin de la Societé Entomologique de France 91(3-4): 89-92.

Giustina, W. della and E. Navarro. 1993. Giustina, W. della and E. Navarro. 1993. Metcalfa pruinosa, un nouvel envahisseur? Phytoma: la defense des vegetaux. La Revue Professionnelle de la Protection des Plantes 451: 30-32.

Glover, T. 1877a. “Homoptera.” In Report of the Entomologist and Curator of the Museum. Report of the [United States] Commissioner of Agriculture. 1876:17-46, Fig(s). 1-59.

Gnezdilov, V. M. and E. S. Sugonyaev. 2009. First record of Metcalfa pruinosa (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Flatidae) from Russia. Zoosystematica Rossica 18: 260-261.

Gogan, A., I. Grozea and A. M. Virteiu. 2010Metcalfa pruinosa Say (Insecta: Homoptera: Flatidae) – first occurrence in western part of Romania. Research Journal of Agricultural Science 42(4): 63-67.

Greatti, M. and V. Girolami. 1994. Efficacia di soluzioni dilavanti nel controllo degli stadi giovanili di Metcalfa pruinosa (Say). Informatore Agrario 50(21): 77-79.

Grozea, I., A. Gogan, A.M. Virteiu, A. Grozea, R. Stef, L. Molnar, A. Carabet and S. Dinnesen. 2011. Metcalfa pruinosa Say (Insecta: Homoptera: Flatidae): A new pest in Romania. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(27): 5870-5877. pdf . DOI: 10.5897/AJAR11.478 ISSN 1991-637X.

Grozea, I., A. Gogan, M. Vlad, A.M. Virteiu, R. Stef, A. Carabet, S. Damianov and T. Florian. 2015. A new problem for western Romania: Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Flatidae). Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Horticulture 72(1): 74-80.

Grozea, I. I., M. Vlad, A. M. Virteiu, R. Stef, A. Carabet, L. Molnar and V. Mazare. 2015. Biological control of invasive species Metcalfa pruinosa Say (Insecta: Hemiptera: Flatidae) in ornamentals plants by using Coccinelids. Journal of Biotechnology, 208S112. [here]

Haws, B.A., D.L. Nelson and A.H. Roe. 1988. Index to information on insects associated with western wildland shrubs. General technical report INT 248. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. 296 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.100137 pdf

Held, T., M. L. Zoratti and G. Vorwohl. 2003. Presenza naturale di destrine nella melata di Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera, Flatidae). Apicoltore Moderno 88(4): 175-182.

Heller, F. R. 1991Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera, Flatidae). Mitteilungen Entomologischer Verein Stuttgart 26: 60.

Hellrigl, K. and S. Minerbi. 2001. Amerikanische Obstbaum-Zikade Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830). Gredleriana 1: 468-470.

International Institute of Entomology. 1992Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) Homoptera: Flatidae. International Institute of Entomology Distribution Maps of Pests Series A Agricultural 529: 2pp., Unpaginated.

Jermini, M., R. Brunetti and M. Bonavia. 2000. Introduzione di Neodryinus typhlocybae per il conteniment biologico di Metcalfa pruinosa: prime esperienze in Svizzera. In: Metcalfa pruinosa: Diffusione nel Continente Europeo e Prospecttive di Controllo Biologico. Atti del Convegno Tenuto a S. Donato, Milanese 21 Ottobre 1999. Pp. 18-20.

Jurc, M., G. Csóka and B. Hrašovec. 2016. Potentially important insect pests of Celtis australis in Slovenia, Croatia and Hungary. Šumarski List, 140(11/12): 577-588. (Metcalfa pruinosa reported on Celtis australis)

Kahrer A. and R. Moosbeckhofer. 2003. Ein neuer Schädling – Metcalfa pruinosa – in Österreich eingeschleppt. Bienenvater 124(10): 16-19.

Karsavuran, Y. and S. Güçlü. 2004. A new pest for Turkey, Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Homoptera: Flatidae). Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 28(3): 209–212. pdf

Kim Y., M. Kim, K.-J. Hong and S. Lee. 2011. Outbreak of an exotic flatid, Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Hemiptera: Flatidae), in the capital region of Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 14(4): 473–478.

Kim, J., I. Jeong, Y. Lee and S. Lee. 2015. Insecticidal activity of cinnamon essential oils, constituents, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde analogues against Metcalfa pruinosa Say (Hemiptera: Flatidae) nymphs and adults. Korean Journal Of Applied Entomology54(4): 375-382.

Kim, M., D. Kwon, H. Kim and S. Lee. 2015. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci from Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Flatidae). Applied Entomology And Zoology 50(1): 131-135.

Krombein, K. V. and R. D. Burks. 1967. Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico : synoptic catalog, second supplement. US Department of Agrigulture, Washington DC. 584 pp. [see p. 321]

Krombein, K. V. 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico, vol. 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC. Pp. i-xvi + 1199-2209.

Kwon, D., M. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lee, K. Hong, S. H. Lee and S. Lee. 2015. Estimation of genetic divergence based on mitochondrial DNA variation for an invasive alien species, Metcalfa pruinosa (Say), in Korea. Journal Of Asia-Pacific Entomology 18(3): 447-451. doi:10.1016/j.aspen.2015.03.009.

Kwon, D. H., M. Y. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. R. Lee, K J. Hong, S. H. Lee and S. W. Lee. 2014 Population genetic study to trace migration routes in Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Flatidae). Proceedings of the Korea Society of Applied Entomology 2014(4): 28.

Laudonia, S., P. Mancini and D. Carella. 2004Neodrynus typhlocybae per il controllo biologico di Metcalfa pruinosa in Campania [Neodrynus typhlocybae for biological control of Metcalfa pruinosa in Campania]. Informatore Agrario 60(47): 55-58

Lauterer, P. 2002. Citrus flatid planthopper, Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Flatidae), a new pest of ornamental horticulture in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science 38(4): 145-148.

Lauterer, P. and I. Malenovsky. 2002Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) introduced into the Czech Republic (Hemiptera, Flatidae). Beiträge zur Zikadenkunde 5: 10-13.

Lee H.-S. and S. W. Wilson. 2010. First Report of the Nearctic Flatid Planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) in the Republic of Korea (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). Entomological News 121(5): 506-513.

Lee, W., C. Park, B. Seo and S. Lee. 2016. Development of an emergence model for overwintering eggs of Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Flatidae). Korean Journal Of Applied Entomology 55(1): 35-43. [link (an aggregator site)]

Lichou, J. 2001Metcalfa pruinosa en vergers: etude sur les degats et les moyens de protection, une action de recherche interinstituts [Metcalfa pruinosa in orchards: a study on damages and control means]. Bulletin Technique Apicole (France) 28(2): 81-82

Lucchi, A. (ed.). 2000. La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani; Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera: Flatidae): biologia, morfologia, dannosita, controllo. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. 163 pp.

Lucchi, A. 1994. The egg-burster of the flatid planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 96(3): 548-552.

Lucchi, A. 1997. Metcalfa pruinosa and honey production in Italy American Bee Journal 137(7): 532-535.

Lucchi, A. 2000. Interesse apistico.[Metcalfa and honey production in Italy.] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 51-65.

Lucchi, A. and E. Mazzon. 2004. Wax production in adults of planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) with particular reference to Metcalfa pruinosa (Flatidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97(6): 1294-1298.

Lucchi, A. and L. Santini. 1993. Note morfo-biologiche sugli stadi preimmaginali di Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Hemiptera, Flatidae). Frustula Entomologica (N.S.) 16(29): 175-185.

Lucchi, A. and L. Santini. 2000. Aspetti Biologici e morfologici in Metcalfa pruinosa (Say)(Homoptera Flatidae). In: Metcalfa pruinosa: Diffusione nel Continente Europeo e Prospecttive di Controllo Biologico. Atti del Convegno Tenuto a S. Donato, Milanese 21 Ottobre 1999. Pp.6-8.

Lucchi, A. and L. Santini. 2002. Aspetti fisiologici e morfo-funzionali in Metcalfa pruinosa (Hom. Fulgoroidea) con riferimento agli effetti prodotti sulle produzioni agricole e sulle alberature ornamentali. Atti della Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia Rendiconti 49: 131-147.

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Metcalf, Z. P. 1954. Homoptera from the Bahama Islands. American Museum Novitates 1698: 1-46.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1957. General Catalogue of the Homoptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 13, Flatidae and Hypochthonellidae. North Carolina State College, Raleigh, North Carolina

Metcalf, Z. P. and S. C. Bruner. 1948. Cuban Flatidae with new species from adjacent regions. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 41: 63-118.

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Olmi, M. 2000. Bio-ecologia degli imenotteri driinidi e loro impiego in programmi di lotta biologica.[Biology and ecology of dryinid wasps and their use in biological control (Hymenoptera Dryinidae)] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 93-117.

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Pantaleoni, R. A. 1989. Modalita d’invasione di un nuovo areale in Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Auchenorrhyncha, Flatidae). [Ways of invasion of a new area byMetcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Auchenorrhyncha, Flatidae)]. Bollettino dell’Istituto di Entomologia dell’Universita degli Studi di Bologna 43: 1-8.

Pantaleoni, R. A., C. Cesaroni, C. S. Cossu, S. Deliperi, L. Fadda, X. Fois, A. Lentini, A. Loi, L. Loru, A. Molinu, M. T. Nuvoli, W. Ramassini, A. Sassu, G. Serra and M. Verdinelli. 2012. Impact of alien insect pests on Sardinian landscape and culture. Biodiversity Journal 3 (4): 297-310. [Metcalfa pruinosa discussed]

Park, Chang-Gyu, Sujeong Min, Gwan-Seok Lee, Sora Kim, Yerim Lee, Seunghwan Lee, Ki-Jeong Hong, S. W. Wilson, Shin-Ichi Akimoto and Wonhoon Lee. 2016. Genetic variability of the invasive species Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Flatidae) in the Republic of Korea. Journal Of Economic Entomology 109(4): 1897-1906. [abstract]

Pencheva, A., and M. Yovkova. 2016. New data on alien insect pests of ornamental plants in Bulgaria. Forestry Ideas, 22(1): 17-33. [distribution and ghosts on Metcalfa in Bulgaria]]

Pons, X., B. Lumbierres, S. Garcia and P. L. Manetti. 2002Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera: Flatidae), ¿una plaga potencial de plantas ornamentales en espacios verdes urbanos de Cataluna? Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal Plagas 28(2): 217-222.

Preda, C. and M. Skolka. 2011. Range Expansion of Metcalfa pruinosa (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) in Southeastern Europe. Ecologia Balkanica 3(1): 79-87.

Sacchetti, A. Guidotti and P. Braccini. 2000. Impiego di Neodryinus typhlocybae in Toscana.[Neodryinus typhlocybae in Tuscany: two years after initial introduction.] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 131-159.

Sala, A. and S. Foschi. 2000. Allevanmento e distribuzione de Neodryinus typhlocybae in Italia.[Rearing and distribution of the dryinid wasp Neodryinus typhlocybae into Italy] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 119-130.

Santini, L. 1991. Sulla comparsa in Toscana dell’omottero flatide neartico Metcalfa pruinosa (Say). Frustula Entomologica 12: 67-70.

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Say, T. 1830a. Descriptions of new North American hemipterous insects, belonging to the first family of the section Homoptera of Latreille. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6: 235-244.

Schaum, H. R. 1850a. Fulgorellae. Allegemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften und Kunste in alnhaberischen folge von Genannten Schriftstellern bearbeitet und herausgegeben von I. S. Ersch und I. G. Gruber mit Kupfern und Charten. Erster Section A -G. 51:58-73.

Seo, B. Y., J. K. Jung, C. G. Park, S. G. Lee and Y. L. Park. 2016. Plant penetration activities by the flatid planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea): an electrical penetration graph-histology analysis. Journal of Applied Entomology, 140(9): 706-714.

Spinola, M. 1839a. Essai sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 8: 133-337.

Spinola, M. 1839b. Essai sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. (Suite). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 8: 339-454.

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Strauss, G. 2010a. Pest risk analysis of Metcalfa pruinosa in Austria. Journal of Pest Science 83(4): 381-390.

Strauss, G. 2010b. Environmental risk assessment for Neodryinus typhlocybae, biological control agent against Metcalfa pruinosa, for Austria. European Journal of Environmental Sciences 2(2): 102-109. pdf

Tremblay, E. and R. Priore. 1994. La Metcalfa pruinosa e giunta in Campania. Informatore Agrario 50(34): 69-71.

Utzeri, V.J., G. Schiavo, A. Ribani, S. Tinarelli, F. Bertolini, S. Bovo and L. Fontanesi. 2018. Entomological signatures in honey: an environmental DNA metabarcoding approach can disclose information on plant-sucking insects in agricultural and forest landscapes. Scientific Reports 8(article #9996): 1-13 (ePub). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-27933-w pdf [Metcalfa pruinosa]

Virant-Doberlet, M. and I. Žežlina. 2007. Vibrational Communication of Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Flatidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 100(1): 73-82.

Vlad, M., and I. Grozea. 2016. Host plant species of the cicada Metcalfa pruinosa in Romania. Bulletin Of University Of Agricultural Sciences And Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Agriculture 73(1): 131-137.

Weber, B. C. and S. W. Wilson. 1981. Seasonal and vertical distributions of planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) within a black walnut plantation. Great Lakes Entomologist 14(2): 71-75.

Wilson, S. W. and A. Lucchi. 2000. Aspetti sistematici, corologici ed ecologici.[Notes on systematics, distribution and ecology of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say).] In: A. Lucchi, (ed.). La Metcalfa negli ecosistemi italiani. ARSIA. Regione Toscana, Italy. Pp. 13-28.

Wheeler, A. G., jr. 1975. Insects associates of Ginkgo biloba. Entomological News 86(1-2): 37-44.

Wheeler, A. G., jr. and I. C. Stocks. 2019. Ceraeochrysa lineaticornis (Fitch) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): larval plant associations and construction of debris packets from wax of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Flatidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 121(2): 299–310. https://doi.org/10.4289/0013-8797.121.2.299

Wheeler, A. G., jr. and S. W. Wilson. 1987. Life history of the Issid planthopper Thionia elliptica (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) with description of a new Thionia species from Texas. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 95(3): 440-451. pdf [Metcalfa discussed p. 450]

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Wilson, S. W. and A. Lucchi. 2007. Feeding activity of the flatid planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 80(2): 175-178.

Wilson, S. W. and J. E. McPherson. 1980. A list of host plants of the Illinois Acanaloniidae and Flatidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 73(4): 21-29.

Wilson, S. W. and J. E. McPherson. 1981. Life histories of Anormenis septentrionalis, Metcalfa pruniosa, and Ormenoides venusta with descriptions of immature stages. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 74(3): 299-311.

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Zezlina, I., L. Milevoj and V. Girolami. 2001. Osica Neodryinus typhlocybae Ashmead – tudi v Sloveniji uspesen predator in parazitoid pri omejevanju populacije medecega skrzata (Metcalfa pruinosa (Say)) [Wasp Neodryinus typhlocybae Ashmead – successful predator and parasitoid for reducing the population of flatid planthopper (Metcalfa pruinosa (Say)) also in Slovenia]. Zbornik Biotehniske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani (Slovenia), Kmetijstvo (Agronomija) 77(2): 215-225.

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