Genus Melormenis Metcalf 1938

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Family Flatidae Spinola, 1839

Subfamily Flatinae Spinola, 1839

Tribe Nephesini Melichar, 1923

Genus Melormenis Metcalf 1938: 395; replacement name for Ormenis Melichar 1923: 71 [nec Stål 1862: 68].

Type species (in original combination): Cicada quadripunctata Fabricius, 1794: 30;nec. Cicada quadripunctataDe Villers, 1789: 473; replaced by Ormenis antillarumKirkaldy 1909: 32; jr syn. of Flatoides basalisWalker 1851: 419 (by Fennah 1965: 107), nec Melormenis basalis Caldwell, 1951: 240.




Neotropical, adventive to Florida and Hawaii.

Distribution of Melormenis according to FLOW (1 Oct. 2018)

Recognized species

There are 7 species currently assigned to this genus:

Melormenis basalis (Walker 1851: 419) – USA: FL, HI (adventive); Puerto Rico (Inc. Vieques Island, Mona Island, Caja de Muertos), Leeward Islands (Anguilla, Antigua, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Bartholomew, St. Kitts), Virgin Islands (St. Thomas, St. Croix, Jost Van Dyke, Tortola, Virgin Gorda (reported in error: India).
= Cicada quadripunctata Fabricius, 1794: 30 [nec De Villers 1789: 473]
Flata 4-punctata (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Fabricius 1798: 519 (also Fabricius 1803: 52)
Poeciloptera 4-punctata (Fabricius 1794); comb. by Schaum 1850: 72.
Ormenis quadripunctata (Fabricius 1794); comb. by Stal, 1869: 110.
Ormenis antillarum Kirkaldy 1909: 32; replacement name for unavailable Cicada quadripunctata Fabricius, 1794 [nec. De Villers].
Melormenis quadripunctata (Fabricius 1794); comb. by Metcalf, 1938: 395.
Melormenis antillarum (Kirkaldy 1909); comb. by Ramos 1947: 19.
Flatoides basalis Walker 1851: 419; syn. by Fennah 1965: 107.
Melormenis basalis (Walker 1851) (nec Caldwell 1951); new comb. by Fennah 1965: 107.

Melormenis dipuncta Caldwell & Martorell, 1951: 239 – Caja de Muertos (Coffin Island, off Puerto Rico)

Melormenis infuscata (Stål 1864: 55) – USA (CA, AZ); Mexico (Guerrero), Puerto Rico (Bermuda record appears to be in error
Ormenis infuscata Stål 1864: 55.
Melormenis infuscata (Stål 1864); comb. by Metcalf 1957: 332.
= Melormenis infuscata domingensis (Russo, 1930: 509) – Dominican Republic
Ormenis infuscata domingensis Russo, 1930: 509
= Melormenis infuscata domingensis (Russo, 1930: 509); comb. by Metcalf 1957: 333.

Melormenis leucophaea (Stål 1864: 55) – Mexico (“Salle”; ? Federal District
Ormenis leucophaea Stål 1864: 55.
Melormenis leucophaea (Stål 1864); comb. by Metcalf 1957: 333.

Melormenis pallidicosta (Walker 1858: 115) – Mexico(Veracruz)
Poeciloptera pallidicosta Walker, 1858: 115.
Ormenis pallidicosta (Walker, 1858); comb by Stål, 1862: 490.
Melormenis pallidicosta (Walker, 1858); comb. by Metcalf 1957: 334.

Melormenis similis (Melichar 1902 :85) – Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) (“South America”)
Ormenis similis Melichar 1902: 85.
Melormenis similis (Melichar 1902); comb. by Metcalf 1957: 334.

Melormenis viridifusca (Melichar 1902 :93) – Colombia (Cundinamarca)
Ormenis viridifusca Melichar 1902 :93.
Melormenis viridifusca (Melichar 1902 :93); comb. by Metcalf 1957: 334.

Species removed from Melormenis:

  • Melormenis asymmetrica Metcalf & Bruner, 1948; see Melormenoides (Metcalf & Bruner, 1948; (Metcalf 1957: 353)
  • Melormenis basalis Caldwell, 1951: 240 (nec Walker 1851); see Capistra Fennah, 1965 (Widespread in Caribbean)
  • Melormenis conformis (Melichar 1902: 73); syn. of Ketumala bisecta (Kirby, 1891) (from Sri Lanka; syn. by Medler 2003: 594).
  • Melormenis frigida Metcalf & Bruner, 1948; see Metcalfa frigida (Metcalf & Bruner, 1948) by Metcalf (1957)
  • Melormenis inconspicua Metcalf & Bruner, 1948; see Melormenoides (Metcalf & Bruner, 1948; (Metcalf 1957: 353).
  • Melormenis magna Caldwell, 1951: 242; see Capistra Fennah, 1965.
  • Melormenis maestralis Metcalf & Bruner, 1948; see Melormenoides maestralis (Metcalf & Bruner, 1948) (Metcalf 1957: 353).
  • Melormenis persea Metcalf & Bruner, 1948; see Metcalfa persea (Metcalf & Bruner, 1948) by Metcalf (1957).
  • Melormenis pruinosa (Say) and M. p. cubana Metcalf & Bruner, 1948; see Metcalfa (Metcalf 1957).
  • Melormenis roscida Caldwell, 1951: 239; see Capistra Fennah, 1965.
  • Melormenis siboney Metcalf & Bruner, 1948; see Metcalfa siboney (Metcalf & Bruner, 1948) (Metcalf 1957).
  • Melormenis variegata Metcalf & Bruner, 1948; see Melormenoides Metcalf & Bruner, 1948; (Metcalf 1957: 353).
  • Melormenis zyxa Caldwell, 1951: 240; see Capistra Fennah, 1965.

List compiled primarily from FLOW, also Metcalf (1957) and an unpublished list by Lois O’Brien.

Economic Importance:

Melormenis basalis (Walker) is widespread and common on the Caribbean, but has not been reported to be economically important.

Plant associations:

Melormenis basalis (Walker) – Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape, Plygonaceae) (Fennah 1965); polyphagous (as antillarum, Wilson et al. 1994); Acacia Mill. (Fabaceae).

Hosts from Fennah (1965), Wilson et al. (1994); plant names from USDA PLANTS or Tropicos.  See also hosts listed in FLOW.


This genus was described by Metcalf 1938: 395 as follows (OCR, edited, from BHL):

“For the genus Ormenis Melichar (nec Stal) I would propose the nomen novum Melormenis. Orthotype Cicada quadripunctata Fabricius. This genus has a wide distribution from Eastern North America through Mexico, Central America and the West Indies to Brazil and Argentina. This genus may be characterized as follows : Face longer than broad, with a fairly distinct median carina; tegminte with a single subapical line. This genus includes the common North American species Flata pruinosa Say and Flata regularis Fowler from Central America.”

[note: Flata pruinosa is now in Metcalfa.]

There is considerable confusion in the literature and elsewhere between Melormenis basalis (Walker) and Capistra basalis Caldwell (including by yours truly) because of the species homonymy, which (despite the comments of Fennah 1965) needs to be fixed.


Melormenis leucophaca from Mexico.  Photos by Kimberley Shropshire (Dept. Entomology, University of Delaware)

Melormenis leucophaca from Mexico.  Photos by Kimberley Shropshire (Dept. Entomology, University of Delaware)

Melormenis leucophaea from Medler 1994.

Melormenis leucophaea from Medler 1994.

Melormenis viridifusca from Medler 1994.

Melormenis viridifusca from Medler 1994.

Online resources:

Discover Life.
Encyclopedia of Life
Melormenis is not present on Bugguide.

Assorted online photos of Melormenis basalis:


Melormenis, like many flatids can be taken by inspection, sweeping/beating or sometimes at lights.

Molecular resources: 

Melormenis on GenBank (basalis only) and Barcode of Life (M. basalis and M. leucophaea; a third entry ‘fusca’ is clearly Metcalfa) (still the case 7 June 2017).

Selected references:

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Bourgoin, T. 2018. FLOW (Fulgoromorpha Lists on The Web): a world knowledge base dedicated to Fulgoromorpha.  Version 8, updated 1 Oct 2018.

Caldwell, J. S. and L. F. Martorell. 1951 [dated 1950]. Review of the Auchenorynchous [sic] Homoptera of Puerto Rico. Part II. The Fulgoroidea except Kinnaridae. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 34(2): 133-269.

Fabricius, J. C. 1803Rhyngota. Systema rhyngotorum: secundum ordines, genera, species: adiectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. C. Reichard, Brunsvigae (=Brunswick), Germany. Pp. 1-101.

Fennah, R. G. 1965. New Species of Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from the West Indies. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 117(4): 95-126.

Fowler, W. W. 1900. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). In: Biologia Centrali-Americana. Porter, London. 1: 44-76.

Kirby, W. F. 1891. Catalogue of the described Hemiptera Heteroptera and Homoptera of Ceylon, based on the collection formed (chiefly at Pundaloya) by Mr. E. Ernest Green. Journal of the Linnean Society. Zoology 24: 72-176.

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1909c. Hemiptera: new and old. — No. I. Canadian Entomologist 41:30-32.

Medler, J. T. 1993. Types of Flatidae (Homoptera) XIX. Lectotype designations and taxonomic notes on species in the Budapest Museum part 2. Annales Historic-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 85: 37-45.

Medler, J. T. 1994. Types of Flatidae (Homoptera) in the Stockholm Museum with lectotype designations. Part 2. Entomologica Scandinavica 25(2): 215-225.

Medler, J. T. 2003. Types of Flatidae. XXIV. Type designations and taxonomic notes on species in the Natural History Museum of Geneva (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoroidea). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110: 591-597.

Melichar, L. 1902a. Monographie der Acanaloniiden und Flatiden (Homoptera) (Fortsetzung.). Annalen des k. k. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums. 17 :1-253. Plate(s): 1-9.

Melichar, L. 1923a. Homoptera, fam. Acanaloniidae, Flatidae et Ricaniidae. Genera Insectorum. Bruxelles 182: 1-185.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1938a. The Fulgorina of Barro Colorado and other parts of Panama. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College 82: 277-423.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1945 Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) of Kartabo, Bartica District, British Guiana. Zoologica [Scientific contributions of the New York Zoological Society] 30(3): 125-143.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1957. General Catalogue of the Homoptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 13, Flatidae and Hypochthonellidae. North Carolina State College, Raleigh, North Carolina. Pp. 1-565.

Metcalf, Z. P. and S. C. Bruner. 1948. Cuban Flatidae with new species from adjacent regions. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 41: 63-118.

Russo, G. 1930. Ormenis infuscata var. n. domingensis. L’Agricoltura Coloniale 24: 509.

Schaum, H. R. 1850. Fulgorellae. Allegemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften und Kunste in alnhaberischen folge von Genannten Schriftstellern bearbeitet und herausgegeben von I. S. Ersch und I. G. Gruber mit Kupfern und Charten. Erster Section A -G. 51:58-73.

Spinola, M. 1839. Essai sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. (Suite). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 8: 339-454.

Stål, C. 1862b. Synonymiska och systematiska anteckningar öfver Hemiptera. Öfversigt af Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 19: 479-504.

Stål, C. 1862e. Bidrag till Rio Janeiro-traktens Hemipter-fauna. II. Svenska vetenskaps-akademiens handlingar 3 (6):1-75.

Stål, C. 1864a. Hemiptera mexicana enumeravit speciesque novas descripsit. (Continuatio). Entomologische Zeitung. Herausgegeben von dem entomologischen Vereine zu Stettin 25:49-86.

Stål, C. 1869a. Hemiptera Fabriciana. Fabricianska Hemipterarter, efter de i Köpenhamn och Kiel förvarade typexemplaren granskade och beskrifne. 2. Svenska vetenskaps-akademiens handlingar 8 (1):1-130.

De Villers, C. J. 1789. Insecta Hemiptera. In: Caroli Linnæi Entomologia, faunæ suecicæ descriptionibus aucta; DD. Scopoli, Geoffroy, de Geer, Fabricii, Schrank, etc.., speciebus vel in systemate non enumeratis, vel nuperrime detectis, …rariorum iconibus ornata. Sumptibus Piestre et Delamolliere, Lugduni. 1: 1-765.

Walker, F. 1851. List of the specimens of Homopterous Insects in the collection of the British Museum. British Museum, London. 2: 261-636.

Walker, F. 1858b. Supplement. List of the specimens of Homopterous Insects in the collection of the British Museum 1858: 1-307.

Wilson, S. W., C. Mitter, R. F. Denno and M. R. Wilson. 1994. Evolutionary patterns of host plant use by delphacid planthoppers and their relatives. In: R. F. Denno and T. J. Perfect, (eds.). Planthoppers: Their Ecology and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York. Pp. 7-45 & Appendix.

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