Genus Scolops Schaum, 1850

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Family Dictyopharidae Spinola, 1839

Subfamily Dictyopharinae Spinola, 1839

Tribe Scoloptini Emeljanov, 1983

Genus Scolops Schaum, 1850
Type species: Fulgora sulcipes Say, 1825 (original combination).
Generic synonym:

= Ornithissus Fowler, 1904: 121 (Type species O. cockerelli Fowler, 1904); genus synonymy by Kirkaldy, 1907: 248.


North America, including northern Mexico and southern Canada.

Distribution of Scolops from FLOW (4 Oct. 2018)


    Belonocharis Uhler, 1891 (Type species Belanocharis fumida Uhler, 1891).

    Scolops Schaum, 1850 (Type species Fulgora sulcipes Say, 1825).

Recognized species

There are 32 species plus 4 subspecies or varieties of Scolops as follows [Genus begins on p. 120 of the Metcalf catalog]:

Subgenus Belonocharis Uhler, 1891 [check endings; Metcalf, 1946 ends all “-a”]

  • Scolops abnormis Ball, 1902 – USA: CA, OR, WA; CAN: BC
  • Scolops californicus Lawson and Beamer, 1930 – USA: CA
  • Scolops fumidus (Uhler, 1891) – USA: CA
  • Scolops pallidus Uhler, 1900 – USA: CA, CO, UT; Mexico
  • Scolops pallidus var. punctatus Lawson and Beamer, 1930 – USA: CA

Subgenus Scolops Schaum 1850 

  • Scolops angustatus Uhler, 1876 [Metcalf 1946: 124] – USA: AZ, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, LA, MA, MD, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NM, NJ, OR, TN, TX, UT, VA; CAN: AB, BC, MB, ON, SK
  • Scolops austrinus Breakey, 1928 – USA: AZ
  • Scolops cockerelli (Fowler, 1904) – USA: AZ, NM, TX
  • = Ornithissus cockerelli Fowler, 1904, original combination.
    = Scolops cockerelli Fowler, 1904; comb. by Kirkaldy 1907b: 249.
  • Scolops excultus Lawson and Beamer, 1930 – USA: TX
  • Scolops flavidus Breakey, 1928 – USA: OR
  • Scolops flavidus var. pellos Breakey, 1928 – USA: OR
  • Scolops graphicus Ball, 1930: 9 – USA: AZ
  • Scolops grossus Uhler, 1876 – USA: CA, CO, IA, ID, KS, TX; CAN: AB (NJ probably error)
  • Scolops hesperius Uhler, 1872 – USA: CA, CO, ID, KS, MT, ND, NM, NV, SD, TX, UT; CAN: AB, MB, SK
  • Scolops immanis Breakey, 1928 – USA: KS, NM
  • Scolops luridus Breakey, 1928 – USA: KS, UT
  • Scolops maculosus Ball, 1902 – USA: AZ, CO, KS, NM
  • Scolops neomexicanus Lawson and Beamer, 1930 – USA: AZ, CO, NM, TX
  • Scolops nicholi Ball, 1937 – USA: AZ
  • Scolops osborni Ball, 1902 – USA: IA, KS, NE
  • Scolops perdix Uhler, 1900 – USA: CO, DC, DE, FL, IL, KS, MA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, UT, VA
  • Scolops pruinosus Breakey, 1928 – USA: CO
  • Scolops pungens (Germar, 1830) – USA: AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, IA, IL, KS, LA, KY, MD, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TX, WI; CAN: MB?, ON, SK?
  • = Flata pungens Germar, 1830, original combination.
    = Pseudophana pungens (Germar, 1830); comb. by Burmeister, 1835: 160.
    = Dictyophora [sic] pungens (Germar, 1830); comb. by Walker, 1851: 309.
    = Scolops pungens (Germar, 1830); comb. by Uhler, 1900: 403.
    = Scolops spurcus Uhler, 1900: 403; syn. by Breakey 1929: 438.
    = Scolops desiccatus Uhler, 1900: 407; syn. by Breakey 1929: 438.
    = Scolops parvulus Dozier, 1928: 38; syn. by Breakey 1929: 438.
  • = Scolops punjens (Germar, 1830); missp. by Lew, 1959: 146.
  • Scolops robustus Ball, 1902 – USA: AZ, CO, KS, NE, TX, UT
  • Scolops socorroensis Lawson and Beamer, 1930 – USA: NM
  • Scolops snowi Breakey, 1928 – USA: AZ, UT
  • Scolops stonei Breakey, 1928 – USA: AZ (error), FL, GA, MS, NC
  • Scolops sulcipes (Say, 1825) – USA: AR, AZ, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NM, NV, OR, PA, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WI; CAN: BC, MB, NB, ON, QC, SK
  • Scolops tanneri Ball, 1937 – USA: UT
  • Scolops texanus Lawson and Beamer, 1930 – USA: TX
  • Scolops uhleri Ball, 1902 – USA: AZ, CO, NV, UT
  • Scolops uhleri marginatus Ball, 1930: 10 – USA: AZ, NV, UT
  • Scolops vanduzei Ball, 1902 – USA: CO, IA, NE, NM, TX
  • Scolops virescens Ball, 1937 – USA: AZ
  • Scolops virescens var. salsus Ball, 1937 – USA: AZ
  • Scolops viridis Ball, 1902 – USA: CA, CO, UT

Plant associations:

Host data from Wilson et al. 1994 (except  label data for Scolops flavidus and S. maculosus) with scientific name authorship and common names from the USDA Plants database.

(S.g. Belonocharis)

  • Scolops abnormis Asclepias eriocarpa Benth. (woollypod milkweed) (Asclepiadaceae)
  • Scolops pallidus : Ambrosia confertiflora DC. (weakleaf bur ragweed) (Asteraceae)

(S.g. Scolops)

  • Scolops flavidus : Grindelia camporum Greene (Great Valley gumweed) (Asteraceae)
  • Scolops graphicus : Gutierrezia californica (DC.) Torr. & A. Gray (San Joaquin snakeweed) (Asteraceae)
  • Scolops grossus : Melilotus Mill. (sweetclover) (Fabaceae)
  • Scolops luridus Artemisia L. (sagebrush) (Asteraceae)
  • Scolops maculosus Bidens sp. (beggarticks, Asteraceae) (from label, photographed below)
  • Scolops osborni : Silphium laciniatum L. (compassplant) (Asteraceae)
  • Scolops perdix : Helianthus angustifolius L. (swamp sunflower) (Asteraceae)
  • Scolops pungens : Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (annual ragweed) (Asteraceae)
  • Scolops robustus Ambrosia psilostachya DC. (Cuman ragweed) (Asteraceae)
  • Scolops snowi : Solidago velutina DC. (as Solidago trinervata Greene; (threenerve goldenrod) (Asteraceae)
  • Scolops stonei Stillingia sylvatica L. ssp. sylvatica (as Stillingia angustifolia (Müll. Arg.) Engelm. ex S. Watson; queen’s-delight) (Euphorbiaceae)
  • Scolops sulcipes : Convolvulus L. (bindweed) (Convolvulaceae)
  • Scolops uhleri Suaeda calceoliformis (Hook.) Moq.(as Dondia depressa auct. non (Pursh) Britton; Pursh seepweed) (Chenopodiaceae)
  • Scolops uhleri marginatus : Suaeda moquinii (Torr.) Greene (as Dondia torreyana (S. Watson); Mojave seablite) (Chenopodiaceae)
  • Scolops viridis : Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. (fourwing saltbush) (Chenopodiaceae)

Reported eaten by bobwhite quail (Judd 1905: 50, Osborn 1912: 27), and starlings (Kalmbach & Gabrielson 1921: 64), and California quail (Osborn 1912: 27).

Tanyoprymnus moneduloides (Packard) (Crabonidae) has been reported collecting Scolops sulcipes, Scolops sp. and Rhynchomitra microrhina (Krombien 1979: 1699).

Bembecinus neglectus (Cresson) (Crabonidae)-  (“Scolops sp. nymphs”) – Krombein (1979: 1703).

Bembecinus nanus strenuus (Mickel)  – Scolops sp. (immatures), Scolops maculosus (adults) (Evans & O’Neill 1986: 630).

Harpactostigma (Arcesilas) laminiferum (Fox) (Idaho, Utah) – Prey: Scolops sp., possibly hesperius Uhler, nymphs and adults. (Gittins 1958: 142; Krombein & Burks 1967: 407)

Microbembex hirsuta Parker (Sphecidae) – Scolops sp. (Evans 1976: 187).

Economic Importance:

Limited.  Listed as injurious to cotton in Titus and Pratt (1904: 45).



Description by Dozier 1928: 35.

Head behind the eyes distinctly calloused; the vertex very long and narrow, much produced, the lateral margins slightly dilated and reflexed, the cephalic process arched upwards. Frons long and narrow, tricarinate; clypeus long, with a prominent median keel, and obliquely striated on the sides. Pronotum produced in front between the eyes, the hind margin emarginate, tricarinate. Scutellum distinctly tricarinate. Elytra either brachypterous or macropterous, usually grayish with coarse nervures interrupted with fuscous. In the brachypterous form the elytra are usually long oval, barely longer than the abdomen, and rounded at the tips. Posterior tibiae armed with five to eight thick spines. Type of the genus: Scolops sulcipes Say.

Scolops sulcipes, Photo by Dave Funk of Stroud Water Resources Center.

Scolops sulcipes, Photo by Dave Funk of Stroud Water Resources Center.


Scolops (Belonocharis) abnormis (Male) (dorsal view taken from specimen collected 18 July 1986, same locality)

Scolops (Belonocharis) abnormis (Male) (dorsal view taken from specimen collected 18 July 1986, same locality)


Scolops augustatus (male, New Jersey) (bottom photo is hind tarsus, ventral aspect)

Scolops augustatus (male, New Jersey) (bottom photo is hind tarsus, ventral aspect)


Scolops (Belonocharis) californicus (female)

Scolops (Belonocharis) californicus (female)


Scolops (Belonocharis) californicus (male, parasitized with Strepsipteran)

Scolops (Belonocharis) californicus (male, parasitized with Strepsipteran)


Scolops flavidus (male)

Scolops flavidus (male)


Scolops (Belonocharis) fumidus (male)

Scolops (Belonocharis) fumidus (male)


Scolops graphicus (male)

Scolops graphicus (male)


Scolops grossus (female; Julesburg, Colorado)

Scolops grossus (female; Julesburg, Colorado)


Scolops maculosus (male) (note maculations on costa; this is contrary to Breakey's 1928 key; specimens possibly misidentified or this feature variable for this species)

Scolops maculosus (male) (note maculations on costa; this is contrary to Breakey’s 1928 key; specimens possibly misidentified or this feature variable for this species)


Scolops nicholi (male)

Scolops nicholi (male)


Scolops neomexicanus (male) (O'Brien det.)

Scolops neomexicanus (male) (O’Brien det.)


Scolops osborn (male)

Scolops osborn (male)


Scolops pallidus var. punctatus (female), paratype

Scolops pallidus var. punctatus (female), paratype


Scolops pallidus var. punctatus (male), paratype

Scolops pallidus var. punctatus (male), paratype


Scolops perdix (male) (Cape May Co., NJ)

Scolops perdix (male) (Cape May Co., NJ)


Scolops pruinosus? (female)

Scolops pruinosus? (female)


Scolops pungens (male) (Warrenville, ILL.)

Scolops pungens (male) (Warrenville, ILL.)


Scolops snowi (female; Sevier Utah, Sevier Co. VIII-26-1960 G.F. Knowlton)

Scolops snowi (female; Sevier Utah, Sevier Co. VIII-26-1960 G.F. Knowlton)


Scolops snowi (male)

Scolops snowi (male)


Scolops socorroensis (male) Paratype

Scolops socorroensis (male) Paratype


Scolops sulcipes (female)

Scolops sulcipes (female)


Odd specimen of Scolops sulcipes (male) from Montana

Odd specimen of Scolops sulcipes (male) from Montana


Odd specimen of Scolops sulcipes (male) from Texas

Odd specimen of Scolops sulcipes (male) from Texas


Scolops tanneri (male)

Scolops tanneri (male)


Scolops uhleri var marginatus (male)

Scolops uhleri var marginatus (male)


Scolops virescens (male)

Scolops virescens (male)

Molecular resources: 

GenBank has data for Scolops fumida, Scolops sulcipes, and Scolops sp. (viz. here and here).  Barcode of Life has sequence data for 17 species of Scolops.

Selected references:

Ball, E. D. 1902c. Some new North American Fulgoridae. Canadian Entomologist 34: 147-157. [From Smithsonian Biodiversity Heritage Library]

Ball, E. D. 1930b. A new species and variety of Scolops with notes on others (Rhynchota, Fulgoridae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 7: 9-11. [Scolops graphicus and S. uhleri marginatus]

Ball, E. D. 1937c. Some New Fulgoridae from the Western United States. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 32(5): 171-183.

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Beamer, R. H. 1929c. Scolops osborni in Kansas (Homoptera, Fulgoridae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 2(3): 70-71.

Breakey, E. P. 1928. The Genus Scolops (Homoptera, Fulgoridae). The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 18 (6): 417-455.

Burmeister, H.C.C. 1835a. Schnabelkerfe. Rhynchota. Handbuch der Entomologie 2(1):1-396. [Planthoppers only, pp. 144-171]

Dozier, H. L. 1928a [dated 1922 or 1926]. The Fulgoridae or planthoppers of Mississippi, including those of possible occurrence. Technical Bulletin of the Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station 14: 1-152.

Emeljanov A. F. 1983. Cretaceous planthopper from Taimyr (Homoptera, Dictyopharidae). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 3: 79-85. [Russian Translated in: Paleontological Journal 17(3): 77-82]

Evans, H. E. 1976. Nesting behavior of Microbembex hirsuta Parker, with notes on related species (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 78(2): 185-189. (Scolops noted)

Evans, H. E. and K. M. O’Neill. 1986.  Reproductive and nesting biology of Bembecinus nanus strenuus (Mickel) (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 78(2): 185-189.

Fennah, R. G. 1944. New Dictyopharidae from the New World (Homoptera : Fulgoroidea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 57: 77-94. (genus noted)

Fowler, W. W 1904c. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). Biologia Centrali-Americana; or, Contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. Vol./pp.: 1: 109-124. Plate(s): 12.

Germar, E. F. 1830a. Species Cicadarium enumeratae et sub genera distributae. Thon’s Entomologisches Archiv. Vol./pp.: 2 (2): 1-8 [i.e. 37-44], 45-57.

Gittins, A. R. 1958. Nesting habit and prey record of Harpactostigma (Arcesilas) Laminiferum (Fox) (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 34(3): 142. (Scolops hesparius)

Hall, W.E., C. A. Olson and T. R. Van Devender. 1989. Late Quaternary and Modern Arthropods from the Ajo Mountains of Southwestern Arizona.  Pan-Pacific Entomologist 65(3): 322-347. [Scolops noted]

Haws, B. A., D. L. Nelson and A. H. Roe. 1988. Index to information on insects associated with western wildland shrubs. General technical report INT 248. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. 296 pp. pdf

Heaton, R. R. 1934a. An annotated list of the Fulgoridae (Homoptera) of Indiana. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 29: 107-115.

Jaques, H. E. 1941. How to know the insects; an illustrated key to the more common families of insects, with suggestions for collecting, mounting and studying them. Mt. Pleasant, Ia., by Harry Edwin Jaques. 140 pp. [Scolops sulcipes (p. 84) illustrated and briefly described]

Judd, S. D. 1905. The bobwhite and other quails of the United States and their economic relations. USDA, Bureau of Biological Survey, Bulletin number 21: 1-66 pp.

Kalmbach, E. R. and I. N. Gabrielson. 1921. Economic value of the starling in the United States. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 868: 1-66.

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1907b. Notes on Central American hemipterous fauna. Canadian Entomologist 39: 248-250.

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1907i. Leaf-hoppers. Hemiptera Homoptera. Report of work of the Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association. Division of Entomology bulletin 4: 60-66.

Kramer, S. 1950. The morphology and phylogeny of Auchenorrhynchous Homoptera. The University of Illinois Press, University of Illinois Biological Monographs 20(4): 1-110. (see, e.g., 63)

Krombein, K. V. 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico, vol. 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC. Pp. i-xvi + 1199-2209.

Krombein, K. V. and R. D. Burks. 1967. Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico : synoptic catalog, second supplement. US Department of Agrigulture, Washington DC. 584 pp. [see p. 407]

Lawson, P. B. and R. H. Beamer. 1930. Some new Scolops with notes on other species. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 3(3): 67-72.

Leonard, M. D. 1928a. “Families Cercopidae, Membracidae, and Cicadellidae.” In: A list of the insects of New York with a list of the spiders and certain other allied groups. Memoir. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station 101: 1-1121. [PDF of Fulgoroidea only]

Lew, Grace Li-en. 1959. The external morphology of the last-instar nymph of Magicicada septendecim (L.) (Hemiptera: Homoptera). Entomologica Americana 39: 101-179. (Scolops pungens noted on p. 146).

Liang, A. P. and M. R. Wilson. 2002. Wax-secreting, cuticular structures in nymphs of Scolops abnormis Ball (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Dictyopharidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 75(2): 132-137.

Melichar, L. 1902a. Monographie der Acanoloniiden und Flatiden (Homoptera) (Fortsetzung.). Annalen des k. k. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums. 17: 1-253. Plate(s): 1-9. [Flata pungens syn with Fulgora sulcipes (error) on p. 231]

Melichar, L. 1912a. Monographie der Dictyophorinen (Homoptera). Abhandlungen der K. K. Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 7 (1): 1-221. Plate(s): 1-5. (Scolops begins P. 162)

Metcalf, Z. P. 1913a. The wing venation of the Jassidae. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 6: 103-115. Plate(s): 8-15.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1923a. A key to the Fulgoridae of Eastern North America with descriptions of new species. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 38(3): 139-230, plus 32 plates.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1938a. The Fulgorina of Barro Colorado and other parts of Panama. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College 82: 277-423.(p. 336 in key)

Metcalf, Z. P. 1946. General Catalogue of the Homoptera. Fascicle IV Fulgoroidea. Part 8 Dictyopharidae. Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts. (see P. 120 for genus)

Osborn, H. 1901a. Additions to the list of Ohio Hemiptera. Annual Report of the Ohio State Academy of Science 9: 36-37.

Osborn, H. 1912a. Leafhoppers affecting cereals, grasses, and forage crops. Bulletin. United States Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology. (New series) 108: 1-123.(see table p. 27)

Paiero, S. M., S. A. Marshall and K.G.A. Hamilton. 2003 New records of Hemiptera from Canada and Ontario. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario 134: 115-129. pdf (Scolops pungens)

Say, T. 1825a. Descriptions of new hemipterous insects collected in the expedition to the Rocky Mountains, performed by order of Mr. Calhoun, Secretary of War, under command of Major Long. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4: 307-345.

Schaum, H. R. 1850a.   Fulgorellae.  Allegemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften und Kunste in alnhaberischen folge von Genannten Schriftstellern bearbeitet und herausgegeben von I. S. Ersch und I. G. Gruber mit Kupfern und Charten. Erster Section A -G. 51: 58-73.

Schaum, H. R. 1851a. Hemiptera. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 17: 261-270.

Smith, J. B. 1910a. Order Homoptera. Pp. 87-130. In: A report of the insects of New Jersey. Annual Report of the New Jersey State Museum 1909:1-888. (PDF only to end of Auchenorrhyncha, p. 107; see link to BHL for whole volume) (see p. 94-98)

Spinola, M. 1839a. Essai sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 8: 133-337.

Spooner, C. S. 1938a. The phylogeny of the Hemiptera based on a study of the head capsule. University of Illinois Bulletin 35 (70): 1-102. [Scolops noted]

Titus, E. S. G. and F. C. Pratt. 1904. Catalogue of the exhibit of economic entomology at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, Mo., 1904. Bulletin. United States Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology. (New series) 47: 1-155. (Scolops sulcipes listed as injurious to cotton, p. 45)

Uhler, P. R. 1872a. IV. — Hemiptera. A list of Hemiptera collected in eastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico, by C. Thomas, during the expedition of 1869. Preliminary report of the United States Geological Survey of Wyoming, and portions of contiguous territories 1872: 471-472.

Uhler, P. R. 1876a. List of Hemiptera of the region west of the Mississippi River, including those collected during the Hayden Explorations of 1873. Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories 1 (5): 269-361. Plate(s): 19-21.

Uhler, P. R. 1877a. Report upon the insects collected by P. R. Uhler during the explorations of 1875, including monographs of the families Cydnidae and Saldae and the Hemiptera collected by A. S. Packard, Jr., M. D. Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories 3 (2): 355-475. Plate(s): 27-28. (Scolops noted p. 458)

Uhler, P. R. 1877b. Report upon the Hemiptera collected during the years 1874 and 1875, by Mr. P. R. Uhler. Annual Report upon the Geographical Surveys West of the One-hundredth Meridian in the States and Territories of California, Oregon, Nevada, Texas, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming 1877:1322-1334.

Uhler, P. R. 1891a. Remarkable new Homoptera. Transactions of the Maryland Academy of Sciences 1: 143-147.

Uhler, P. R. 1900a. Aids to recognition of some North American genera and species of the old family Fulgoridae. Transactions of the Maryland Academy of Science 1: 401-408.

Van Duzee, E. P. 1905a. List of Hemiptera taken in the Adirondacks Mountains. Bulletin of the New York State Museum 97: 546-556.

Van Duzee, E. P. 1916a. Check list of Hemiptera (excepting the Aphididae, Aleurodidae and Coccidae) of America North of Mexico. New York Entomological Society, New York. 111 pp. [see p. 78 onward]

Van Duzee, E. P. 1917b. Catalogue of the Hemiptera of America North of Mexico (excepting the Aphididae, Coccidae and Aleurodidae). University of California Publications, Technical Bulletins, vol. 2. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. i-xiv, 1-902. [from Google books] [see p. 716 onward]

Van Duzee, E. P. 1923b. Family Fulgoroidea In: The Hemiptera or Sucking Insects of Connecticut Pt IV. Guide to the Insects of Connecticut. Bulletin of Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey 34: 24-55, Pl.4.

Walker, F. 1851. List of the specimens of Homopterous Insects in the collection of the British Museum. British Museum, London. 2: 261-636. [see p. 309]

Weissmann, M. J., and B. C. Kondratieff. 1999. An Inventory Of Arthropod Fauna At Great Sand Dunes National Monument, Colorado. Pp. 69-80. In: G. W. Byers, R. H. Hagen and R. W. Brooks (eds.). Entomological Contributions in Memory of Byron A. Alexander. University of Kansas Natural History Museum Special Publication 24: iv + 251 pp. (Scolops noted p. 73)

Westwood, J. O. 1839. On the family Fulgoridae, with a monograph of the genus Fulgora of Linnaeus. The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second series. Zoology (1841) 18: 133-153. [Flata pungens noted p. 150]

Wirtner, P. M. 1904a. A preliminary list of the Hemiptera of western Pennsylvania. Annals of the Carnegie Museum. 3:183-232.

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