Classification of the Dictyopharidae

[formative draft]

Members of Dictyopharidae are found in every part of the world, excluding Arctic and Antarctic regions, with highest diversity in the tropical and subtropical zones.  The Dictyopharidae are moderate to small in size (compared to Fulgoridae, their sister group) and usually bear an elongate head process. The head process is common to both families, but not unique.   Most dictyopharines are dicot feeders, with a few economically important agricultural pests.

The Dictyopharidae have a long taxonomic history, with some species described by Linnaeus (1758, 1767); however, most were described between the mid 19th and 20th century. Spinola (1839) first recognized dictyopharids as a subfamily (as “Dyctiophoroïdes”) of Fulgoridae (as “Fulgorites”). Fieber (1872) segregated the Orgeriinae from Dictyopharinae (nomw treated as subfamilies; Orgeriinae are brachypterous and associated with arid environments whereas most Dictyopharinae are macropterous, with some important exceptions).  Melichar (1912) conducted the first major study focused on the World Dictyopharidae, describing 76 genera and 305 species, and defined several tribes (he recognized 1 subfamily and 5 tribes).  Metcalf (1946) published the first catalogue of Dictyopharidae, containing 119 genera and 489 species and detailed synonymies, and utilized the following classification.

Metcalf catalog 1946 dictyopharid classification

Classification of Dictyopharidae adopted in the Metcalf (1946) catalog.

Emeljanov (1969) revised the higher classification of Orgeriinae, and presented a detailed hypothesis concerning the origins of this group.  He excluded from the Orgeriinae several superficially similar micropterous taxa, functionally defining the Orgeriinae as being in the arid regions of the northern hemisphere. In so doing, he transferred the curious fauna from southern Africa (viz. Fennah 1962, 1967), into Dictyopharinae, then to the Fulgoridae.

Little substantive change occurred in the higher classification of the Dictyopharinae until Emeljanov (1979) began to investigate features that differentiated Dictyopharidae from Fulgoridae, and moved several groups into the later taxa.  He subsequently moved several additional taxa from Dictyopharidae to Fulgoridae and changed classification schemes several times (only the current schema is presented below).   Emeljanov (1983) described the fossil tribe Netutelini, and suggested that the Dictyopharini (sensu Metcalf, 1946) was not a natural group. He further defined 7 additional tribes: Orthopagini, Lappidini, Nersiini, Hastini, Taosini, Scoloptini, and Phylloscelini. He subsequently revised his tribal classification for the Dictyopharinae in Emeljanov (2008, 2011b). In addition, Emeljanov (1997) described a micropterous tribe Cleotychini from Australia, and Szwedo (2008) added the second extinct tribe Worskaitini in Dictyopharinae.  Emeljanov (2014) described the third micropterous tribe Rancodini from Chile, and Song et al., (2016d) separated a new tribe Arjunini from Aluntiini based on a quantitative phylogenetic phylogeny inferred from morphological data.

The Orgeriinae are currently comprised of 4 tribes (Almanini, Colobocini, Orgeriini, and Ranissini); Dictyopharinae 13 extant tribes (Aluntiini, Arjunini, Capenini, Cleotychini, Dictyopharini, Hastini, Lappidini, Nersiini, Orthopagini, Phylloscelini, Rancodini, Scoloptini, and Taosini) and two extinct tribes (Netutelini and Worskaitini).  Most of the recent tribes were erected by Emeljanov (1969, 1983, 1997, 2014). Most Dictyopharinae tribes are macropterous or brachypterous; however, some taxa, such as Capenini, Cleotychini, and Rancodini, are micropterous, like the Orgeriinae.

Little quantitative phylogenetic work has been published on the Dictyopharidae, with most of that morphological work conducted on a single tribe or genus.   There have been no published molecular phylogenies for the Dictyopharidae.   Recent phylogenetic analyses (based on morphology) has been conducted (primarily by Zhi-Shun Song and colleagues) on Miasa, Aluntiini, Orthopagini, and Centromeria (additional work in press at this time).  The Aluntiini s.l. was shown to be distinctly paraphyletic and was separated two tribes, including the new tribe Arjunini (Song et al., 2016d).

Relationships among Orthopagini by Song et al. 2014

Phylogenetic tree from Song et al. 2016

Below is an overview of the classification of the Dictyopharidae, including taxa transferred elsewhere.  This is primarily based on FLOW (and will soon need to be updated).

The following list is supposed to include all described genera and subgenera; however, some subgenera may have been inadvertently omitted and I have not fully reviewed synonomies.

Dictyopharidae Spinola, 1839: 202

Subfamily DICTYOPHARINAE Spinola, 1839 (Onuki, 1901)
Tribe Aluntiini Emeljanov, 1979 (new status – from subfamily of Fulgoridae – by Emeljanov 2008)
Aluntia Stål, 1866
Dictyomorpha Melichar, 1912 (= Amboina Kirkaldy, 1913; syn. Em., 2011: 1144) (to Aluntiini by Emeljanov 2008)
Dendrophora Melichar, 1903
Indodictyophara Liang & Song, 2012
Madagascaritia Song & Liang, 2016

Tribe Arjunini Song & Szwedo, 2016
Arjuna Muir, 1934 (see also Emeljanov 2008)
Pippax Emeljanov, 2008

 Tribe Capenini Emeljanov 1979
= CAPENINAE Emeljanov, 1979; new status (tribe) by Emeljanov 2011: 1125.
Capena Stål, 1866
Diasphax Fennah, 1962
Menenches Fennah, 1962

Tribe Cleotychini Emeljanov, 1997b
Cleotyche Emeljanov, 1997b

Tribe Dictyopharini Spinola, 1839 (also Melichar, 1912: 28
Aethiocera Emeljanov 2008
Afronersia Fennah, 1958
Subgenus Afronersia Fennah, 1958
Subgenus Cryptophanella Emeljanov, 2011
Subgenus Mesophanella Emeljanov, 2011
Subgenus Oxyphanella Emeljanov, 2011
Aselgeia Walker, 1851
Avephora Bierman, 1910 (= Indagnia Emeljanov, 2008; = Avephore missp. by Em., 2011: 1144; = Electryone Kirkaldy, 1913)
Callodictya Melichar, 1912
Carphotoma Emeljanov, 2008
Chiltana Mushtaq and Akbar, 1995
Cormophana Emeljanov 2011
Daploce Emeljanov 2008
Dictyophara Germar, 1833 (=Togaphora Matsumura, 1940)
Subgenus Ancylocrius Emeljanov, 2003
Subgenus Chanithus Kolenati, 1857
Subgenus Conopenchus Emeljanov, 2003
Subgenus Dictyophara Germar, 1833
Subgenus Euthremma Emeljanov, 2003
Doryphorina Melichar, 1912 (= Tropidophara Bierman, 1910; syn. Em. 2011: 1144)
Emeljanovina Xing & Chen, 2013 (=Glochina Emeljanov, 2011 nomen praeoccupatum replaced by Emeljanovina Xing & Chen, 2013: 68)
Engela Distant, 1906
Gilgitia Mushtaq, 1991
Indrival Fennah, 1978
Mathertris Emeljanov 2011
Neodictya Synave, 1965
Neodictyophara Distant, 1910
Neomiasa Fennah, 1947
Paradictya Melichar, 1912
Paradictyopharina Song & Liang, 2011
Paranagnia Melichar, 1912
Philotheria Melichar, 1912
Pseudophanella Fennah, 1958
Putala Melichar, 1903
Raivuna Fennah, 1978
Raphiophora Schaum, 1851
Rhaba Distant, 1906
Sinodictya Matsumura, 1940
Symplana Kirby, 1891
Tenguella Matsumura, 1910
Tupala Stroinski & Szwedo, 2015
Tylacra Emeljanov 2008
Zaputala Emeljanov 2008
Zedochir Fennah, 1978

Tribe Hastini Emeljanov, 1983a
Anasta Emeljanov, 2008
Articrius Emeljanov, 2008
Dorimargus Melichar, 1912
Eudictya Melichar, 1912
Hasta Kirkaldy, 1906
Lucinda Kirkaldy, 1906
Niculda Kirkaldy, 1906
Thanatodictya Kirkaldy, 1906
Subgenus Lucinda Kirkaldy, 1906
Subgenus Niculda Kirkaldy, 1906
Subgenus Thanatodictya Kirkaldy, 1906

Tribe Lappidini Emeljanov, 1983a
= Lappidina Emeljanov; status by Emeljanov 2008; returned to tribal status Emeljanov 2011: 1122.
Hydriena Melichar, 1912
Igava Melichar, 1912
Lappida Amyot and Serville, 1843
Neomiasa Fennah, 1947 (moved to Dictyopharini by ?)
Toropa Melichar, 1912

Tribe Nersiini Emeljanov, 1983a
Coronesia Emeljanov 2011
Crocodictya Emeljanov, 2008
Deltoplana Emeljanov 2011
Dictyopharoides Fowler, 1900 (= Paramisia Melichar, 1912 synonym by Metcalf 1938)
Digitocrista Fennah, 1944c [Metcalf, 1946:66]
Hyalodictyon Fennah, 1944c
Malogava Emeljanov, 2008
Megadictya Melichar, 1912
Melicharoptera Metcalf, 1938
Mitrops Fennah, 1944c
Neoterpe Emeljanov 2011
Neonotostrophia Xing & Chen, 2013 (= Notostrophia Emeljanov, 2011 [preoccupied?] replaced by  Neonotostrophia Xing & Chen, 2013: 68)
Nersia Stål, 1862
Nersiella Emeljanov, 2008
Parahasta Melichar, 1912
Paralappida Melichar, 1912
Pharodictyon Fennah, 1944c
Plegmatoptera Spinola, 1839
Pteroplegma Melichar, 1912
Pukuakanga Baptista, Serrão & Da-Silva, 2010
Retiala Fennah, 1944c
Rhynchomitra Fennah, 1944c
Sicoris Stål, 1866
Trimedia Fennah, 1944c
Trigava O’Brien, 1999
Xenochasma Emeljanov, 2011

Tribe Netutelini† Emeljanov, 1983
Netutela† Emeljanov, 1983

Tribe Orthopagini Emeljanov, 1983a
Alicodoxa† Emeljanov & Shcherbakov, 2011
Centromeria Stål, 1870
Centromeriana Melichar, 1912
Dictyomeria Song, Webb & Liang, 2016
Dictyotenguna Song & Liang, 2012
Dictyopharina Melichar, 1903
Ellipoma Emeljanov, 2008
Fernandea Melichar, 1912
Indomiasa Song, Webb & Liang, 2014
Leprota Melichar, 1912 (= Orodictya Kirkaldy, 1913; syn by Em., 2011: 1144)
Litocras Emeljanov 2008
Macronaso Synave, 1960 (to Orthopagini by Emeljanov 2008: 312)
Medeusa Emeljanov 2011
Metaurus Stål, 1866
Miasa Distant, 1906 (= Putalamorpha Bierman, 1910: 9. Type species. Stenocranus  productus Lethierry, 1888; by original designation. Synonymized by Melichar1912: 79)
Nesolyncides Fennah, 1958
Orthopagus Uhler, 1896
Phaenodictyon Fennah, 1958
Protolepta Melichar, 1912
Saigona Matsumura, 1910 (=Piela Lallemand, 1942 syn by. Liang & Song 2006: 28).
Tenguna Matsumura, 1910
Truncatomeria Song & Liang, 2011

Tribe Phylloscelini Emeljanov 1983: 83 (Emeljanov, 2011: 1125?)
Phylloscelis Germar, 1839

Tribe Rancodini Emeljanov, 2014
Rancoda Emeljanov, 2014

Tribe Scoloptini Emeljanov, 1983a
Scolops Schaum, 1850

Tribe Taosini Emeljanov, 1983 (sensu Emeljanov 2011)
= Taosina Emeljanov; new status by Emeljanov 2008; returned to tribe by Emeljanov 2011: 1124.
Brachytaosa Muir, 1931
Netaosa Emeljanov, 2011
Phormotegus Emeljanov 2011
Sicorisia Melichar, 1912
Taosa Distant, 1906
Subgenus Taosa Distant, 1906
Subgenus Cuernavaca Kirkaldy, 1913

Tribe Worskaitini† Szwedo, 2008
Worskaito† Szwedo, 2008

Dictyopharinae – incertae sedis
Chondrodire Emeljanov, 2011 (replacement name for Chondrodera Melichar, 1912 nec Karsch 1890; = Taractellus Metcalf, 1948 (Fennah 1947: 10; restored Fennah 1965: 260))
Viridophara Mushtaq, Mahmood and Ahmed, 1992 (Shakila, 1984?)
Mitropodes Baptista, Ferreira & Da-Silva, 2006
Mozzela Baptista, Ferreira & Da-Silva, 2006

Subfamily OGERIINAE Fieber, 1872: 4 (as Orgeriae)
Tribe Almanina Kusnetzov, 1936 [1933?]
Almana Stål, 1861
Bursinia Costa, 1862
Subgenus Bursinia Costa, 1862
Subgenus Struthionia Emeljanov, 2009
Cnodalum Emeljanov, 1978 (to Almanini Kusnezov, 1936 by .. ?)
Coppa Emeljanov, 1969
Coppidius Emeljanov, 1969
Haumavarga Oshanin, 1907
Iphicara Emeljanov, 1978
Mesorgerius Kusnezov, 1933
Nymphorgerius Oshanin, 1913
Orgamarella Emeljanov, 1969
Parorgerioides de Bergevin, 1928
Scirtophaca Emeljanov, 1969
Sphenarchus Emeljanov, 2003 (missing in FLOW as of 5 Feb. 2018)
Tachorga Emeljanov, 1969
Tigrahauda Oshanin, 1891
Tilimontia Emeljanov, 1969

Tribe Colobocini Emeljanov, 1969
Colobocus Emeljanov, 1969

Tribe Orgeriini Fieber, 1872: 4
Subtribe Orgeriina Fieber, 1872 (see also Fennah, 1962; Emeljanov 2006)
Acinaca Ball and Hartzell, 1922
Almanetta Emeljanov, 1999
Aridia Ball and Hartzell, 1922
Austrorgerius Woodward, 1960
Deserta Ball and Hartzell, 1922
Orgamara Ball, 1909
Orgerius Stål, 1859
Ticida Uhler, 1891 (= Loxophora Van Duzee, 1908)
Subgenus Heicophora Emeljanov, 2006
Subgenus Timodema Ball, 1909
Ticrania Emeljanov, 2006
Timonidia Ball and Hartzell, 1922
Yucanda Ball and Hartzell, 1922

Subtribe Ototettigina Emeljanov, 1969
Kumlika Oshanin, 1913
Ototettix Oshanin, 1913

Tribe Ranissini Emeljanov, 1969
Elysiaca Emeljanov, 1969
Subgenus Elysiaca Emeljanov, 1969
Subgenus Eupolia Emeljanov, 2009
Subgenus Sebasma Emeljanov, 2009
Parorgerius Melichar, 1912
Phyllorgerius Kusnezov, 1928
Ranissus Fieber, 1866 (= Schizorgerius Kusnezov, 1930, Palaeorgerius Fennah, 1944; synonyms by …?)
Subgenus Antherus Emeljanov, 2003
Subgenus Ranissus Fieber, 1866
Sphenocratus Horvath, 1910
Subgenus Calladrus Emeljanov, 2009
Subgenus Lentisca Emeljanov, 2009
Subgenus Sphenocratistus Emeljanov, 2009
Subgenus Sphenocratus Horváth, 1910

Fulgoridae (transferred from Dictyopharidae by Emeljanov 1979 etc.)

Subfamily DICHOPTERINAE Melichar, 1912: 15 (as tribe;
Tribe Cladodipterini Metcalf, 1938 (subfamily in Emeljanov 2011: 1122[1])
= Cladyphini Melichar, 1912: 7 (Cladyphinae)
Cladodiptera Spinola, 1839
Diacira Walker, 1858
Sclerodepsa Emeljanov, 2011

Tribe Dichopterini Melichar 1912
Dichoptera Spinola, 1839 (= Awaramada Distant, 1914)
Wedelphus† Szwedo & Wappler, 2006

Tribe Dorysarthrini Emeljanov, 1979b
Dorysarthrus Puton, 1895
Pibrocha Kirkaldy, 1902

Tribe Protachilini Emeljanov, 2013
Protachilus Fennah, 1944a

Subfamily Lyncidinae Schmidt, 1915: 345, 358 (as tribe) (
Tribe Lyncidini Schmidt, 1915
= Bursini Melichar 1912: 175 (; repalced by Lyncidini by Schmidt 1915: 245
Lyncides Stål, 1866

Tribe Risiini Fennah, 1962
Risius Stål, 1859

Subfamily Strongylodematinae Fennah, 1962 (see Emeljanov, 1979)
Tribe Capocleini Emeljanov, 2004b
Capocles Emeljanov, 2004b

Tribe Strongylodematini Fennah, 1962
Capenopsis Melichar, 1912
Codon Fennah, 1962
Strongylodemas Stål, 1853
Tecmar Fennah, 1962

Other transfers out of Dictyopharidae

Family Achilidae
Myrophenges Fennah, 1965 to Achilidae by ….
Issomimus Jacobi, 1910 to Cixiidae by …

Family Tropiduchidae
Bananellodes Strand, 1928. To Tropiduchidae by … [Zoo record 1958]
Euhiracia Melichar, 1908 (transferred from Dictyopharidae, Orgeriinae, Lyncidini to Tropiduchidae, Eutropistini, Duriina according to Fennah 1982: 640)
Intandela Hesse, 1925
Lagoana Melichar, 1905 (transferred from Dictyopharidae, Orgeriinae, Lyncidini to Tropiduchidae, Eutropistini, Duriina according to Fennah 1982: 640)
Montrouzierana Signoret, 1861 to Tropiduchidae by … ?

Family Cicadellidae
Daridna Walker, 1858 [Metcalf, 1946:29 in Dictyopharidae; 1964(VI:11):46, 56, 77 as jr. syn. of Coelidia] [by Evans, 1947:194. Status restored by Nielson, 1982:229.]

[1] Pagination of English version of text.


Literature for Dictyopharidae

This list of references should include al those that had a nomenclatural act that impacted higher taxa and genera, but may also include some that provided species descriptions, notes on biology, etc.  The list is probably incomplete (but also may have duplicates).

Amyot, C. J. B. & Audinet-Serville J. G. 1843. Deuxième partie. Homoptères. Homoptera Latr. Histoire Naturelle des insectes. Hemiptères 1843: 1-676.

Ball, E. D. 1902. Some new North American Fulgoridae. The Canadian Entomologist, 34, 147–157.

Ball, E. D. 1909. Some remarkable new leaf-hoppers of the family Fulgoridae. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, D. C 22: 197-204.

Ball, E. D. 1937. Some new Fulgoridae from Western United States. Bulletin of the Brooklin Entomological Society 32: 171-183.

Ball, E. D. and A. Hartzell. 1922. A review of the desert leafhoppers of the Orgerini (Rhynchota Fulgoridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Columbus, Ohio 15: 137-152 [146].

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Berg C. 1879. Hemiptera. Argentina. (Continuacion.). Anales de la Sociedad Cientifica Argentina. Buenos Aires 8: 178-192.

Bodenheimer, F. S. 1937. Prodromus Faunae Palestinae. Mémoires à l’Institut d’Egypte 33: 1-286.

Bourgoin, T. 2018. FLOW (Fulgoromorpha Lists on The Web), a world knowledge base dedicated to Fulgoromorpha. Version 8, updated 5 Feb. 2018. http://hemiptera–

Breakey, E. P. 1928. The genus Scolops (Homoptera, Fulgoridae). Bulletin of the University of Kansas, 18, 417–455.

Burmeister, H. C. C. 1835. Schnabelkerfe. Rhynchota. Fascicule 1. In: Burmeister H. C. C. 1835. Handbuch der Entomologie, 2. p. 99-183.

Costa, A. 1862. Rivista de’ generi e delle specie di Folgoridei e Dictioforidei dell ‘Italia meridionale continentale. Annuario del Museo Zoologico della R. Università di Napoli. Naples 1: 71-79.

de Bergevin, E. 1918. Description d’une nouvelle espèce de Bursinia. (Hém. Dictyopharinae) de la province d’Alger (massif du Zaccar). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 1918: 160-162.

de Bergevin, E. 1923. Descriptions of two new species Hemiptera Homoptera of Egypt. Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de l’Afrique du Nord. Alger XIV: 173-176 [173].

de Bergevin, E. 1931. Résultats Hémiptèrologiques in Spedizione Scientifica all’Oasi di Cufra. (Marzo-Luglio 1931). Annali del Museo civico di Storia Naturale di Genova. Genova 55: 422-430.

Distant, W. L. 1887. Rhynchota: Homoptera. Biologia Centrali-Americana; contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America 1: 33-40.

Distant, W. L. 1892. Contribution to a knowledge of the homopterous family Fulgoridae. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1892, 275–286.

Distant, W. L. 1893. Contribution to a knowledge of the homopterous family Fulgoridae. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (1892): 275-286.

Distant, W. L. 1906a. Rhynchotal notes. xl. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. (Ser. 7) 18: 349-356 [349].

Distant, W. L. 1906b. Some undescribed genera and species of South African Rhynchota. Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society, 16, 413–418.

Distant, W. L.  1906c. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Rhynchota Vol. III (Heteroptera–Homoptera). Taylor & Francis, London.

Distant, W. L. 1910. Rhynchota Philippinensia, Part I. Philippine Journal of Science. Manila 5: 57-66.

Distant, W. L. 1914. Some additions to the genera and species in the Homopterous family Fulgoridae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. (Ser. 8) 13: 409-424 [412].

Dlabola, J. & Heller F. 1962. Iranische Zikaden II (Ergebnisse der Entomologischen Reisen Willi Richter, Stuttgart, im Iran 1954 und 1956-Nr. 42). Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde 90: 1-8 [2].

Dlabola, J. (1957) Results of the Zoological Expedition of the National Museum in Prague to Turkey. 20. Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha. Acta Entomological Museum Prague, 31, 19–68.

Dlabola, J. (1979) Neue Zikadenarten aus Anatolien, Iran und südeuropäischen Länden (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 25, 235–257.

Dlabola, J. (1986) Neue arten der fulgoromorphen zikaden–familien vom mittelmeergebiet und nahen osten (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cixiidae, Meenoplidae, Derbidae, Dictyopharidae, Lophopidae und Issidae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 42, 169–193.

Dlabola, J. 1957. Results of the Zoological Expedition of the National Museum in Prague to Turkey. 20. Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha. Acta Entomological Museum Prague 31: 19-68.

Dlabola, J. 1965. Jordanische Zikaden (Homoptera Auchenorryncha). (Bearbeitung der von J. Klapperich im Jahre 1956-9 in Jordanien, Libanon und Syrien gesammelten Ausbeute). Sborník entomologického oddelení Národního Musea v Praze 36: 419-450.

Dlabola, J. 1979. Neue Zikadenarten aus Anatolien, Iran und südeuropäischen Länden (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 25(3-4): 235-257.

Dlabola, J. 1984. Neue Zikadenarten aus Mediterraneum und dem Iran mit weiteren beitragen zur iranischen Fauna (Homoptera – Auchenorrhyncha). Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae 40B(1): 21-84.

Dlabola, J. 1986. Neue arten der fulgoromorphen zikaden-familien vom mittelmeergebiet und nahen osten (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae, Meenoplidae, Derbidae, Dictyopharidae, Lophopidae und Issidae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 42: 169-193.

Dlabola, J. 1989. Neue Issiden und Andere Zikadenarten des Mediterraneums und von Zuliegenden Eremial (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Sborník Národního muzea v Praze, Rada B Pírodní Vedy = Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, (Ser. B) 45(1): 21-59.

Doering, K. C. and H. H. Darby. 1943. A Contribution to the Taxonomy of the Genus Orgerius in America, North of Mexico (Fulgoridae, Homoptera) (Continued). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 16(3): 73-98 [85].

Donovall, L.R., III. 2008 A generic revision of the new world Dictyopharinae (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae). Masters Thesis. University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

Duffels, J.P. & Turner, H. (2002) Cladistic analysis and biogeography of the cicadas of the Indo–pacific subtribe Cosmopsaltriina (Hemiptera, Cicadoidea, Cicadidae). Systematic Entomology, 27, 235–261.

Dufour, L. 1849. Sur une nouvelle espèce du genre Dyctiophora. Annales des Sciences Naturelles. Comprenant la Physiologie animale et végétale, l’Anatomie comparée des deux règnes, la Zoologie, la Botanique, la Minéralogie et la Géologie. Paris. (Ser. 3) 11: 98-105 [98].

Emeljanov, A. F. 1964. New Cicadina from Kazakhstan (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Trudy Zool. Inst. AS USSR [Proc. Zool. Inst. Ac. Sci. USSR] 34: 3-51 [3].

Emeljanov, A. F. 1969. Reclassification of planthoppers the subfamily Orgeriinae (Homoptera, Dictyopharidae) of the palaearctic fauna. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 48(2): 324-339. [In Russian] [English translation: Entomological Review, 1969, 48(2): 189-198]

Emeljanov, A. F. 1972. New species of the subfamily Orgeriinae of palaearctic fauna (Homoptera, Dictyopharidae). Trudy VEO [Proc. Allunion Ent. Soc.] 55: 14-38.

Emeljanov, A. F. 1978. New genera and species of leafhoppers (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha) from the USSR and Mongolia. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 57(2): 316-332 [322].

Emeljanov, A. F. 1979a. Problema razgranichenhiya semeïstv Fulgoridae i Dictyopharidae (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). [The problem of family distinction between the Fulgoridae and the Dictyopharidae (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha)] Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR, 82, 3–22. [In Russian]

Emeljanov, A. F. 1979b. New species of the leafhoppers (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha) from the Asiatic part of the USSR. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 58(2): 322-332.

Emeljanov, A. F. 1980. Filogeniya i evolyutsiya podsemseïstva Orgeriinae (Homoptera, Dictyopharidae). Chteniya pamyati Kholodkovskovo, 32, 3–96.

Emeljanov, A. F. 1983. Dictyopharidae from the Cretaceous deposits on the Taymyr Peninsula (Insecta, Homoptera). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 17(3): 79-85 (In Russian; English translation: Paleontological Journal 1983, 17: 77-82).

Emeljanov, A. F. 1997a. A new genus and species of the Dictyopharidae from Australia belonging to a new tribe (Homoptera, Cicadina). Zoosystematica Rossica 6 (1-2):77-82.

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