Genus Cedusa Fowler, 1904

[back to Classification of the Derbidae]
[back to North American Derbidae]

Family Derbidae Spinola, 1839

Subfamily Cedusinae Emeljanov, 1992

Tribe Cedusini Emeljanov, 1992

Cenchreini Muir 1917 sensu Fennah 1952, Broomfield 1985 in part; status by Emeljanov 1996.

Genus: Cedusa Fowler, 1904

Type species: Cedusa funesta Fowler, 1904.




Widespread in the New World; Plausibly Old World species currently placed in this genus – or at least those from Africa – do not belong (see below)

Distribution of Cedusa

Distribution of Cedusa from FLOW (as of 21 June 2017)

Recognized species

There are about 179 recognized Cedusa species (according to FLOW; I list 180 below).  North of Mexico, 34 have been reported (including those reported in error) as follows (Metcalf 1945: 127):
Cedusa arizonensis Flynn & Kramer, 1983 – USA: AZ; Mexico (state not specified)
Cedusa australis (Metcalf, 1923) – USA: IL, LA, MI, MO, MS, TX; El Salvador, Honduras, Panama
Herpis australis Metcalf, 1923: 196.
Cedusa praecox (Van Duzee, 1912a: 502); syn. by McAtee 1924: 180 (error); removed from syn. by Flynn & Kramer 1983: 194-195.
Cedusa australis (Metcalf, 1923); comb. by Flynn & Kramer 1983: 194.
3 Cedusa balli Flynn & Kramer, 1983 – USA: LA
4 Cedusa beameri Flynn & Kramer, 1983 – USA: AZ, NM, UT
Cedusa bedusa McAtee, 1924 – USA: AR, CA, FL, IL, LA, MS, NC, OH, VA
Cedusa californica (Van Duzee, 1891) – USA: AZ, CA, CO, ID, OK, OR, TX, UT (reported in error: USA: MI)
Cedusa carolinensis Flynn & Kramer, 1983 – USA: DC, DE, FL, GA, MD, NC, SC
Cedusa cedusa McAtee, 1924 – USA: DC, FL, MD, MI, MN, NY, OH, VA, WI
Cedusa chuluota Ball, 1928 – USA: FL, GA, NC, NJ
10 Cedusa edentula (Van Duzee, 1912a) – USA: DC, GA, IL, MD, MS, NC, NJ, OH, TN, VA (reported probably in error Puerto Rico)
Cedusa hedusa McAtee, 1924: 184; syn. by Ball 1928: 200 (error); removed from syn. by Flynn & Kramer 1983: 194-195
11 Cedusa flavida (Van Duzee, 1907) – Jamaica (reported in error: USA: FL)
12 Cedusa gedusa McAtee, 1924 – USA: FL, GA, MD, MS, NJ, NY, PA, TN
13 Cedusa hedusa McAtee, 1924 – USA: AL, FL, GA, MD, ME, NY, OH, SC, VA; CAN: NB, ON, QC
Cedusa hedusa McAtee, 1924: 184.
Cedusa edentula (Van Duzee, 1912); syn. by Ball, 1928: 200 (error); removed from syn. by Flynn & Kramer 1983: 194-195
14 Cedusa incisa (Metcalf, 1923) – USA: CT, FL, IA, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, WI; CAN: MB, NB, ON, QC
15 Cedusa inflata (Ball, 1902b) – USA: FL; Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico
= Cedusa santaclara Myers 1928: 13; syn. by Flynn & Kramer 1983: 241.
16 Cedusa kedusa McAtee, 1924 – USA: AL, AZ, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, MD, MI, MO, NC, NJ, OH, TN, VA, WI; CAN: BC, ON, QC
17 Cedusa maculata (Van Duzee, 1912a) – USA: FL, GA, IL, IN, MD, MN, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, TN, TX; CAN: ON, QC; Costa Rica, Honduras
18 Cedusa mallochi McAtee, 1924 [Metcalf 1945: 132] – USA: DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, LA, MD, MS, NC, OH, SC, TN, VA; Honduras
19 Cedusa metcalfi Flynn & Kramer, 1983 – USA: GA, NC
20 Cedusa minuenda Ball, 1928 [Metcalf 1945: 132] – USA: FL, GA, NC
21 Cedusa neomaculata Caldwell, 1944b – USA: FL; Mexico (Oaxaca)
22 Cedusa obscura (Ball, 1902b) – USA: AR, CA, CO, CT, DC, FL, GA, IL, KS, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MS, NC, NJ, NY, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI; CAN: MB, ON, QC; Cuba, Guyana?
Cedusa fedusa McAtee 1924: 185; syn. by Ball 1928: 200.
Cedusa tedusa McAtee 1924: 185; syn. by Ball 1928: 200 (error); syn. with C. vulgaris (Fitch 1851) by Flynn & Kramer 1983: 184.
23 Cedusa olseni Flynn & Kramer, 1983 – USA: NC, NY, TN, WV
24 Cedusa plummeri Caldwell, 1944c – USA: AZ, TX; Costa Rica; Mexico (Federal District)
25 Cedusa praecox (Van Duzee, 1912a) – USA: AZ (reported in error: USA: TX)
Herpis australis Metcalf, 1923: 196; syn. by McAtee 1924: 180; removed from syn. by Flynn & Kramer 1983: 194-195.
26 Cedusa redusa McAtee, 1924 – USA: DE, FL, GA, KY, MD, NC, VA
27 Cedusa shawi Flynn & Kramer, 1983 – USA: GA, MD, NC, TX
28 Cedusa siopa Kramer, 1986 – USA: TX; Mexico (San Luis Potosí)
29 Cedusa vanduzeei Flynn & Kramer, 1983 – USA: TX
30 Cedusa vulgaris (Fitch, 1851) – USA: AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, KS, MD, ME, MI, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, TN, TX, VA; CAN: ON, QC
Lamenia vulgaris (Fitch, 1851); lapsus by Proctor 1946: 95.
Cedusa tedusa McAtee 1924: 185; syn. by Flynn & Kramer 1983: 184
31 Cedusa widisca Kramer, 1986 – USA: TX
32 Cedusa woodsholensis Flynn & Kramer, 1983 – USA: MA, NC
33 Cedusa xenga Kramer, 1986 – USA: FL, TX
34 Cedusa zaxoza Kramer, 1986 – USA: FL

Neotropical taxa (may include species also reported above) (list adopted from unpublished list compiled by Lois O’Brien)

Cedusa albolineata Fennah 1952:144 – Panama, Venezuela
Cedusa alexanderi Flynn & Kramer 1983:209 – Brazil
Cedusa andara Kramer 1986:289 – Panama
Cedusa apicata Caldwell 1944:448 – Mexico
Cedusa arizonensis Flynn & Kramer 1983:217 – USA, Mexico
Cedusa australis (Metcalf 1923:196) – USAHonduras, Panama
Cedusa aziza Kramer 1986:277 – Mexico
Cedusa balloui Flynn & Kramer 1983:242 – Cuba

     Cedusa baylissae† Szwedo & Ross, 2003 – Mexico (from Amber)
Cedusa belma Kramer 1986:263 – Panama
Cedusa blantoni Flynn & Kramer 1983:223 – Panama
Cedusa bolopa  Kramer 1986:309 – Brazil
10 Cedusa braziliensis Flynn & Kramer 1983:205 – Argentina, Brazil
11 Cedusa bruneri Flynn & Kramer 1983:153 – Cuba
12 Cedusa caldwelli Flynn & Kramer 1983:189 – Mexico
13 Cedusa carranzensis Caldwell 1944:449 – Belize, Guatemala, Mexico
14 Cedusa carropia  Kramer 1986:281 – Panama
15 Cedusa caribbensis Caldwell 1950:205 – Puerto Rico
16 Cedusa catasia  Kramer 1986:264 – Panama
17 Cedusa colona Caldwll 1950:205 – Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico
18 Cedusa costaricensis F & K 1983:140 – Costa Rica

Cedusa credula† Emeljanov & Shcherbakov, 2000 – Dominican Republic
19 Cedusa cubensis Flynn & Kramer 1983:190 – Cuba
20 Cedusa cyanea Fennah 1952:174 – Trinidad
21 Cedusa dampfi Caldwell 1944:453 – Mexico, Panama
22 Cedusa delongi Caldwell 1944:449 – El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama

23 Cedusa dilbata  Kramer 1986:257 – Panama
24 Cedusa dietzi Flynn & Kramer 1983:221 – Panama
25 Cedusa digitata Caldwell 1944:451 – Belize, Mexico
26 Cedusa drilda  Kramer 1986:262 – Guatemala
27 Cedusa dubiata Caldwell 1944:450 – Mexico
28 Cedusa ecuadorensis Flynn & Kramer 1983 – Ecuador
29 Cedusa edox Kramer 1986:261 – Panama
30 Cedusa elongata Caldwell 1944:450 – Mexico
31 Cedusa enosala Kramer 1986:269 – Panama
32 Cedusa febora Kramer 1986:260 – Panama
33 Cedusa fennahi Flynn & Kramer 1983:252 – French Guiana
34 Cedusa fitchiella Flynn & Kramer 1983:250 – Brazil
35 Cedusa flavida (Van Duzee 1907:36) – Jamaica
36 Cedusa flynni  Kramer 1986:287 – Argentina
37 Cedusa fowleri Flynn & Kramer 1983:224 – Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama
38 Cedusa funesta Fowler 1904:112 – Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama
Cedusa tropicalis Caldwell 1944:452 (syn. by Flynn & Kramer 1983:239)
39 Cedusa furcata Caldwell 1944:450 – Belize, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama
40 Cedusa fuscata Caldwell 1944:448 – Mexico
41 Cedusa gonuga  Kramer 1986:264 –  Panama
42 Cedusa grancara Kramer 1986:303 – Mexico
43 Cedusa hampora  Kramer 1986:283 – Panama
44 Cedusa hyola Kramer 1986:293 – Mexico
45 Cedusa impada  Kramer 1986:254 – Panama
Cedusa inflata (Ball 102:262) – USA, Cuba, Dominican Republic Puerto Rico,
Cedusa santaclara Myers 1928:13, (syn. by Flynn & Kramer 1983:241)
Cedusa inflata dominica Fennah 1952:145 – Dominica
46 Cedusa insularis Flynn & Kramer 1983:192 – Cuba
47 Cedusa irengana Fennah 1944:9 – Brazil, Panama, Trinidad
Cedusa rubiventris Fennah 1945:446 (syn. by Flynn & Kramer 1983:231)
48 Cedusa isinara Kramer 1986:299 – Mexico
49 Cedusa isthmusensis Flynn & Kramer 1983:202 – Panama
50 Cedusa janola  Kramer 1986:272 – Costa Rica, Panama
51 Cedusa jarata Kramer 1986:274 – Mexico
52 Cedusa jinwista Kramer 1986:290 – Guyana
53 Cedusa kalala Kramer 1986:274 – Mexico
54 Cedusa kinoxa  Kramer 1986:295 – Panama
55 Cedusa kulashi F&K 1983:158 – Mexico
56 Cedusa ledusa McAtee1924:184 – Brazil
57 Cedusa lineata Caldwell 1944:448 – Mexico
58 Cedusa lugubrina (Stål 1862:8) – Brazil
59 Cedusa lumeda  Kramer 1986:283 – Panama
60 Cedusa macateei Flynn & Kramer 1983:181 – Brazil
Cedusa maculata (Van Duzee 1912:503) –  USA, Canada, Costa Rica, Honduras
61 Cedusa mallochi McAtee 1924:184 – Honduras
62 Cedusa marlota  Kramer 1986:255 – Panama
63 Cedusa martini Flynn & Kramer 1983:155 – Mexico
64 Cedusa medusa McAtee 1924:184 – Belize, Honduras, Mexico
65 Cedusa mexicana Caldwell 1944:449 – El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico
66 Cedusa morrisoni Flynn & Kramer 1983:149 – British Guiana
67 Cedusa muiri Flynn & Kramer 1983:146 – Costa Rica
68 Cedusa mutilata Caldwell 1944:451 – Mexico
69 Cedusa nedusa Caldwell 1944:453 – Belize, Honduras, Mexico
70 Cedusa neodigitata Caldwell 1944:105 – Costa Rica, Nicaragua
Cedusa neomaculata Caldwell 1944:447 – USA, Mexico
71 Cedusa nortoma  Kramer 1986:253 – Panama
72 Cedusa noxora Kramer 1986:299 – Mexico
Cedusa obscura (Ball 1902:262), comb. (from Lamenia) by Flynn & Kramer 1983:212 -USA, Canada, Cuba
73 Cedusa olasca Kramer 1986:266 – Panama
74 Cedusa ozda Kramer 1986:290 – Mexico
75 Cedusa pacuta Kramer  1986:301 – Brazil
76 Cedusa panamensis Flynn & Kramer 1983 – Panama
77 Cedusa pedusa McAtee 1924:186 – Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala., Hond., Panama
78 Cedusa peruensis Flynn & Kramer 1983:246 – Peru
79 Cedusa pipsewa   Kramer 1986:266 – Panama
80 Cedusa plaumani Flynn & Kramer 1983:144 – Brazil
Cedusa plummeri Caldwell 1944:452 -USA, Costa Rica, Mexico
81 Cedusa poochia Kramer 1986:269 – Costa Rica
82 Cedusa pseudomaculata Caldwell 1944:447 – Guatemala, Mexico
83 Cedusa quimata Kramer 1986:293 – Mexico
84 Cedusa quinteca Kramer 1986:278 – Dominican Republic
85 Cedusa remetti Flynn & Kramer 1983:188 – Brazil
86 Cedusa reota Kramer 1986:256 – Panama
87 Cedusa roseifrons Kramer 1986:302 – Mexico
Cedusa sanctaecatharinae Flynn & Kramer 1983 – Brazil
89 Cedusa senbara Kramer 1986:286 – Panama
90 Cedusa serrata Caldwell 1944:451 – Mexico
91 Cedusa similis Caldwell 1944:452 – Mexico
92 Cedusa simplex Flynn & Kramer 1983:182 – Brazil
Cedusa siopa Kramer 1986:311 – Mexico
93 Cedusa stali Flynn & Kramer 1983:204 – Argentina, Brazil
94 Cedusa tincta Caldwell 1944:451 – Belize, Mexico
95 Cedusa tuvaga Kramer 1986:258 – Panama
96 Cedusa ulora Kramer 1986:292 – Ecuador
97 Cedusa unsera Kramer 1986:293 – Panama
98 Cedusa uzama Kramer 1986:308 – Mexico
99 Cedusa varopa Kramer 1986:307 – Brazil
100 Cedusa vedusa McAtee 1924:185 – Mexico
101 Cedusa venosa Fowler 1904:112 – Mexico
102 Cedusa vidola Kramer 1986:310 – Panama
103 Cedusa whitei Flynn & Kramer 1983:173 – Belize, Guatemala
104 Cedusa wontula Kramer 1986:280 – Panama
105 Cedusa woodyga Kramer 1986:268 – Panama
106 Cedusa wolcotti Muir, 1924 – Puerto Rico  (*Flynn & Kramer say this species is not a Cedusa, but do not place it in another genus.)
107 Cedusa xipola Kramer 1986:284 – Panama
108 Cedusa xumara Kramer 1986:296 – Ecuador
109 Cedusa yarosa Kramer 1986:286 – Argentina
110 Cedusa yipara Kramer 1986:276 – Brazil
111 Cedusa yowza Kramer 1986:275 – Panama
112 Cedusa zantata Kramer 1986:307 – Panama
113 Cedusa zedusa Caldwell 1944:450 – Mexico
114 Cedusa zeteki Flynn & Kramer 1983:177 – Panama

Old World Cedusa (list adopted from FLOW) (distribution data to be added later) (Some of these species – the African ones – may have been moved to Malenia Haupt, 1924 by implication)

Note regarding African “Cedusa“:

Fennah 1961: 314 stated

“This genus [Malenia] differs from Cedusa Fowler in the position of the Sc + H fork and Cu 1 fork in relation to the union of the claval veins, and also in the transversely oblique carina across the gena between the subantennal process and the lateral carina of the frons being not longer than half the basal width of the process, and, indeed, frequently confluent with the process as a broad flange. In Cedusa this structure is developed as a carina quite distinct from the subantennal process, and as long as the basal width of the process. From Eocenchrea it is separated by the absence of a median frontal carina, and usually by the discal area of the pronotum being smooth or obscurely carinate, as opposed to distinctly tricarinate. These two genera, however, are best recognised by the proportionate size of the pregenital sternite of the female, that in Eocenchrea being much larger.
All the African species so far referred to Cedusa belong in Malenia.”

Szwedo (2006: 328), provided a key to genus for members of Cedusini and commented that:

“… The taxonomic status of the genus Malenia Haupt, 1929 (synonym of Cedusa or
distinct genus) remained controversial for a long time. Fennah [1961] discriminated those two genera on the basis of venation features. Yang & Wu [1993] separated Taiwanese species ascribed to genera Cedusa and Malenia on the basis of hind leg femorotarsal formula and structure of the male genital block. All African species of Cedusa have been referred to Malenia by Fennah [1961], and such action was followed by Synave [1973], Van Stalle [1984] and Wilson [1987]. All American species are assigned to the genus Cedusa by Flynn & Kramer [1983] and Kramer [1986]. According to their opinion “the morphological differences between Cedusa and Malenia are slight but convenient in light of the zoogeographical considerations”. It seems that the only feature which could differ American species from the others is, that styles of American species are slightly asymmetrical, with the inner margin very variable: produced, lobed, incised or notched, or entire and sometimes convex, concave, or subparallel to the outer ventral margin, [Flynn & Kramer, 1983; Kramer, 1983]. One species, Cedusa wolcotti Muir, 1924 seems not to be congeneric with the other American species ascribed to Cedusa, as it is the only member of the genus with the posterior prolongation of the pygofer and is very unique possessing a ventral plate [Caldwell & Martorell, 1951, Flynn & Kramer, 1983]. It seems that the genus Cedusa is a paraphyletic unit, and needs to be revised, as well as other taxa placed in Cedusini.”

Cedusa angolensis (Van Stalle, 1984)
Cedusa baylissae† Szwedo & Ross, 2003 (fossil)
Cedusa bicolor (Van Stalle, 1984)
Cedusa borneensis Muir, 1913
Cedusa brachycara (Van Stalle, 1986)
Cedusa cocos (Van Stalle, 1984)
Cedusa coerulea (Van Stalle, 1984)
Cedusa complicata (Van Stalle, 1984)
Cedusa consimilis (Van Stalle, 1984)
10 Cedusa credula† Emeljanov & Shcherbakov, 2000 (fossil)
11 Cedusa cydippe (Linnavuori, 1973)
12 Cedusa exiqua (Van Stalle, 1984)
13 Cedusa flava (Van Stalle, 1984)
14 Cedusa flavescens (Van Stalle, 1984)
15 Cedusa flavicephala (Van Stalle, 1984)
16 Cedusa furcifera (Van Stalle, 1984)
17 Cedusa isinica (Dlabola, 1986)
18 Cedusa jacobii Metcalf, 1945
19 Cedusa kilisica (Dlabola, 1986)
20 Cedusa kivuensis (Van Stalle, 1984)
21 Cedusa kulia (Kirkaldy, 1906)
22 Cedusa licea (Dlabola, 1979)
23 Cedusa masirica (Dlabola, 1986)
24 Cedusa mesasiatica (Dubovsky, 1965)
25 Cedusa minuta (Van Stalle, 1984)
26 Cedusa montana (Van Stalle, 1984)
27 Cedusa monticola (Van Stalle, 1984)
28 Cedusa pseudonigripes (Van Stalle, 1984)
29 Cedusa spinosa (Metcalf, 1945)
30 Cedusa striata (Van Stalle, 1984)
31 Cedusa turkestanica (Dubovsky, 1965)
32 Cedusa ussurica (Anufriev, 1968)

Economic Importance

Possibly a vector of phytoplasmas associated with diseases of sugarcane and other plants (esp. in the Caribbean; e.g., Brown et al 2006); Cedusa vulgaris has been implicated as a pest of hawthorn. The role of Cedusa as a vector (if any) is unclear).

Plant associations

Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures.  The significance of adult host associations are unclear. Cedusa inflata adults have been shown to perch on palms near ‘decaying debris’, which is the habitat of the larvae (Howard et al. 2001).

  • Cedusa aburiensis – Elaeis Jacq. (oil palm, Arecaceae), Raphia vinifera P. Beauv. (West African piassava palm)
  • Cedusa californica – Salix (Willow, Salicaceae)
  • Cedusa caribbensis – Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. (elephant grass, Poaceae)
  • Cedusa cedusa – Carex (sedge, Cyperaceae), Osmunda L. (fern, Osmundaceae)
  • Cedusa chuluota – Woodwardia Sm. (chainfern, Blechnaceae)
  • Cedusa incisa – Betula (birch, Betulaceae), Andropogon (Poaceae)
  • Cedusa kedusa – Platanus occidentalis L. (American sycamore, Platanaceae)
  • Cedusa mallochi – Rosa (Rosaceae)
  • Cedusa nigripes – Palms
  • Cedusa vulgaris – Crataegus L. (hawthorn, Rosaceae)
  • Cedusa wolcotti – Palms

Hosts from Wilson et al. 1994; plant names from USDA PLANTS or Tropicos.


Sensory pits on head and on wings absent; subantennal projections well-developed, Apex of claval vein touching margin of wing, in other words vein A2. Branches of stem MA forming anterior comb (see Emeljanov 1996)

Transversely oblique carina across the gena distinct from the subantennal process, as long as basal width of the process. Antennal pedicel about as long as wide, slightly flattened. Genital styles (gonostyli) asymmetrical, New World species (Szwedo 2006)


Cedusa medleri Synave from Emeljanov 1996

Cedusa 2 wing venation

Cedusa wing venation redrawn from Metcalf 1923

Cedusa sp. (all photographs and drawings by Kimberley Shropshire, University of Delaware)

Cedusa sp. (all photographs and drawings by Kimberley Shropshire, University of Delaware)

Cedusa obscura

Cedusa obscura from Florida (Image by Susan Halbert, FSCA)

Cedusa kedusa

Cedusa kedusa (from North Carolina)

Cedusa inflata

Cedusa inflata (used by permission from Brian Bahder, University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nematology – Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center)

cedusa edentula

cedusa edentula from Flynn and Kramer

cedusa hedusa

Cedusa hedusa from Flynn and Kramer

Cedusa incisa

Cedusa incisa from Flynn and Kramer

Cedusa metcalfi

Cedusa metcalfi from Flynn and Kramer 1983

Cedusa minuenda

Cedusa minuenda from Flynn & Kramer 1983

Cedusa obscura

Cedusa obscura from Flynn & Kramer 1983

Cedusa shawi

Cedusa shawi from Flynn & Kramer 1983

Cedusa vulgaris

Cedusa vulgaris from Flynn & Kramer 1983

Cedusa woodsholensis

Cedusa woodsholensis from Flynn & Kramer 1983


Online resources

Gernot Kunz also has some photos of this genus from Costa Rica (Cedusa sp. 3.2cf  is possibly C. maculata).
Extension Education in El Paso County.
Hoppers of North Carolina.
Maryland Biodiversity Project.
Fulgores Liste des espèces Fulgoroidea Hémiptères.
Discover Life.
3I Interactive Keys and Taxonomic Databases.


Common – collected frequently by sweeping; also at lights and other passive traps.

Molecular resources: 

Genbank has data for Cedusa obscura and Cedusa spp.; Barcode of Life has data for 6 species (Cedusa californica, C. hedusa, C. incisa, C. maculata, Cedusa sp., C. vulgaris)

Selected references

Anufriev, G. A. 2009. Cicadina. Pp. 52-69. In: 2009 – Insects of Lazovsky Nature Reserve., Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch, Institute of biology and soil Science, Vladivostok Dalnauka (Russia).

Arocha, Y., M. Lopez, B. Piñol, M. Fernandez, B. Picornell, R. Almeida R, I. Palenzuela, M. R. Wilson and P. Jones. 2005. Candidatus phytoplasma graminis’ and candidatus phytoplasma caricae, two novel phytoplasmas associated with diseases of sugarcane, weeds and papaya in Cuba. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 55(6): 2451-2463.

Ball, E. D. 1902. New genera and species of N. A. Fulgoridae. The Canadian Entomologist 34: 259-266 [262].

Ball, E. D. 1928. Some new genera and species of N. A. Derbidae with notes on others (Fulgoridae). Canadian Entomologist 60: 196-201.

Bartlett, C. R. and J. L. Bowman. 2004. Preliminary inventory of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee, U.S.A. Entomological News 114: 246-254.

Bartlett, C. R., E. R. Adams and A. T. Gonzon. 2011. Planthoppers of Delaware (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea), excluding Delphacidae, with species incidence from adjacent States. ZooKeys 83: 1-42.

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Benton E. P. and J. W. McCreadie. 2009. A preliminary survey of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of coastal Alabama. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 111(2): 354-360.

Brown, S. E., B. O. Been W. A.  McLaughlin. 2006. Detection and variability of the lethal yellowing group (16Sr IV) phytoplasmas in the Cedusa sp. (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Derbidae) in Jamaica. Annals of Applied Biology, 149(1): 53-62.

Caldwell, J. S. 1944. The genus Cedusa in Mexico and Central America. (Hem. Fulg.). Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas 3: 445-454 + 3 plates.

Caldwell, J. S. 1944b. The tribe Cenchreini with special references to the Cenchrea complex (Homoptera: Derbidae). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 39: 99-110.

Caldwell, J. S. and L. F. Martorell. 1951 [dated 1950]. Review of the auchenorynchous Homoptera of Puerto Rico.” Part II. The Fulgoroidea except Kinnaridae. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico [1950], 34(2): 133-269 [205].

Dlabola, J. 1979. Insects of Saudi Arabia. Homoptera. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 1: 115-139.

Dlabola, J. 1986. Neue arten der fulgoromorphen zikaden-familien vom mittelmeergebiet und nahen osten (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae, Meenoplidae, Derbidae, Dictyopharidae, Lophopidae und Issidae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 42: 169-193.

Emeljanov, A. F. and D. E. Shcherbakov. 2000. Kinnaridae and Derbidae (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea) from the Dominican amber. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatshefte 7: 438-448.

Fennah, R. G. 1944. New Neotropical Fulgoroidea. American Museum Novitates. Published by the American Museum of Natural History 1265: 1-9 [9].

Fennah, R. G. 1945. The Fulgoroidea, or lanternflies, of Trinidad and adjacent parts of South America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 95: 411-520 [445].

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