Genus Apache Kirkaldy, 1901

[Back to North American Derbidae]

Family Derbidae Spinola, 1839

Subfamily Otiocerinae Muir, 1917

Tribe Otiocerini Muir, 1917

Genus Apache Kirkaldy, 1901a
Type species (in original combination)

Hynnis rosea Burmeister 1835, jr. syn. of Otiocerus degeerii Kirby 1821.

(see Kirkaldy, 1901: 6, 219: on P. 6 Hynnis syn with Apache [“Apache n.n.= Hynnis, Burm. (nec Cuv.). Type, rosea, Burm.”], the latter explicitly makes rosea syn. with degeeri, implicitly putting degeeri into Apache).


Hynnis Burmeister, 1835: 153 [nec Cuvier] (Type species Hynnis rosea Burmeister 1835, junior syn. of Otiocerus degeerii Kirby 1821); syn. by Schaum 1850: 70.


Widespread in the Nearctic (esp. south) and Central America.

Distribution of Apache

Distribution of Apache from FLOW (14 Oct 2018)

Recognized species

There are 2 species recognized in Apache: [Metcalf 1945: 181]

Apache californicum Wilkey, 1963: 98 – USA: CA

Apache degeerii (Kirby, 1821) {Metcalf 1943: 183]  –  USA: AL, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, LA, MA, MD, ME, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK,PA, RI, TN, TX, WA, WV; CAN: AB, BC, NS, ON, QC; Cuba
= Otiocerus degeerii Kirby, 1821: 16 (original combination)
= Hynnis rosea Burmeister, 1835: 154; Syn. with Otiocerus degeeri by Schaum, 1850: 70.
= Amphiscepa coquebertii Provancher, 1890 [nec Kirby], syn. by Van Duzee, 1899: 7(!)
= Apache degeerii (Kirby 1821), comb. by implication Kirkaldy, 1901: 6, explicitly by Ball 1928: 196.

Economic Importance


Plant associations

Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures.  The significance of adult host associations are unclear.

Apache degeerii – Fagus (Beach, Fagaceae), Quercus (nymphs under bark) (Oak, Fagaceae), Acer (maple, Aceraceae), Carya (Hickory, Juglandaceae)

Hosts from Wilson et al. 1994; plant names from USDA PLANTS or Tropicos.


Pink or red-themed, fragile forms; wings greatly exceeding the abdomen; frons extremely compressed, head strongly projecting; pustules along claval vein; clavus open, antennae with appendages; in lateral view, dorsum of head sinuate and dorsal margin of wings in repose sharply angled dorsal in apical third.

Features purporting to separate the species are annotated in Wilkey (1963) (I’ll annotate them later).

Seen more often than most other the other Otiocerine genera, except for Anotia.

Description of Apache californicum Wilkey (From Wilkey 1963, edited lightly)
Length of male: 9.5 mm to 11.0 mm. Length of female 10.0-11.0 mm. General color rosaceous, varying from pale to quite dark. Thorax pale orange with a rather wide, white medial stripe. Basal segments of antenna whitish, remaining segments and subantennal process reddish, darker than other rosaceous parts. Legs white. Veins of elytra reddish, cells slightly opaque with brownish spots and markings. Head compressed laterally, forming a frontal groove, in profile rectangular, dorsal margin undulate, minutely notched along basal three-fourths (notches filled with a powdery wax), apex acute and slightly upturned. A swollen rectangular area present laterally between eye and frontal margin. Black markings present on frontal and ventral margins of head. Anal segment of the male (fig. 3), in lateral view, acutely angular, forming a direct right angle, with a pair of sclerotized teeth at apex. Segment distinctly indented at inside angle. Flagellum of aedeagus (fig. 2) with 3 sclerotized processes, one forked appearing as two. Apical process of aedaegus almost straight, acutely pointed. Flagellum with 2 pairs of basal hooks. Shaft of aedeagus with a dorsal keel, serrate along margin, and toothed laterally. Genital style in lateral view with apex upturned and very blunt, style with 2 dorsal protuberances, the larger one flattened on top, the other roundly pointed.

No appreciable difference could be detected between the female of this species and Apache degeerii Kirby which it resembles quite closely. The males also are superficially very similar. However, the difference in the male genitalia is sufficient to easily separate the two species. The 2 pairs of hooks at the base of the flagellum in A. californicum is the strongest differentiating character, A. degeerii having only a single pair. The presence of lateral teeth on the keel, the different shape of the anal segment of A. degeerii, and the different shape of apical aedeagal process (fig. 4) strengthens the position of californicum as a separate species.

Apache californicum

Apache californicum

Apache degeerii

Apache degeerii

Apache californicum

Apache californicum from Wilkey, 1963

Apache degeerii

Apache degeerii terminalia from Wilkey 1963

Apache californicum

Apache californicum terminalia from Wilkey 1963

Otiocerus degeeri terminalia

Otiocerus degeeri terminalia from Crampton 1922

Apache degeerii from BOLD

Apache degeerii from BOLD (CC BY-NC-SA CBG Photography Group 2009; New Brunswick, Kouchibouguac NP)

Apache degeeri (Spencer Entomological Collection, Beaty Biodiversity Museum, UBC, Canada)

Apache degeerii (Spencer Entomological Collection, Beaty Biodiversity Museum, UBC, Canada)

Online resources


Maryland Biodiversity Project.


Found infrequently at lights (but more often encountered than most other Otiocerinae); occasionally found overwintering in logs.

Molecular resources

As of this writing (13 Oct. 2018), there is some molecular data for this genus on Genbank; Barcode of Life has data from 6 specimens of  Apache degeeri.

Selected references

Bartlett, C. R., E. R. Adams and A. T. Gonzon. 2011. Planthoppers of Delaware (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea), excluding Delphacidae, with species incidence from adjacent States. ZooKeys 83: 1-42.

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Benton E. P. and J. W. McCreadie. 2009. A preliminary survey of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of coastal Alabama. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 111(2): 354-360.

Britton, W. E. 1923a. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part IV. The Hemiptera or sucking insects of Connecticut. Bulletin. State of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey 34: 1-807. [See p. 24-55, also Van Duzee 1923b] (p. 43)

Burmeister, H. C. C. 1835. Schnabelkerfe. Rhynchota. Fascicule 1. Pp. p. 99-183. In: H. C. C. Burmeister. 1835. Handbuch der Entomologie, 2.

Crampton, G. C. 1922b. The genitalia of the males of certain Hemiptera (Heteroptera) and Homoptera. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 17: 46-55. Plate(s): 3-4.(plates missing from BHL copy; present at Hathitrust here)

Dozier, H. L. 1928a [dated 1922 or 1926]. The Fulgoridae or planthoppers of Mississippi, including those of possible occurrence. Technical Bulletin of the Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station 14: 1-152.

Emeljanov, A. F. 1995. On the problem of a system and a phylogeny of the family Derbidae (Homoptera, Cicadina). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 73(4): 783-811 & 946-947. [Russian] [English Transaltion: Emeljanov.1996. Entomological Review 75(2): 70-100]

Fennah, R. G. 1952. On the generic classification of Derbidae (Fulgoroidea), with descriptions of new Neotropical species. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 103(4): 109-170.

Fowler, W. W. 1904. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). Biologia Centrali-Americana 1: 57-76, 77-84. (noted p. 74)

Gonzon, A. T., Jr., C. R. Bartlett and J. L. Bowman. 2007 (dated 2006). Planthopper (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) diversity in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 132: 243-260.

Gossner, M. and C. Damken. 2018. Chapter 9. Diversity and Ecology of Saproxylic Hemiptera. p. 263-317. In: M. D. Ulyshen (ed.), Saproxylic Insects. Zoological Monographs 1. Pp. IX+904. (Springer)

Kirby, W. F. 1821. The characters of Otiocerus and Anotia, two new genera of Hemipterous insects belonging to the family of Cicadiadae : with a description of several species. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London (Second series) Zoology 13: 12-23.

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1901a. Miscellanea Rhynchotalia. The Entomologist 34: 5-6.

Maw, H.E.L., R. G. Foottit and K.G.A. Hamilton. 2000. Checklist of the Hemiptera of Canada and Alaska, NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Canada.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1923a. A key to the Fulgoridae of Eastern North America with descriptions of new species. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 38(3): 139-230, plus 32 plates.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1945. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 4, Derbidae. Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts. [p. 181]

Moore, G. A. 1950a. Catalogus des hémiptères de la province de Québec. Le Naturaliste Canadien 77: 233-271.

Moore, G. A. 1950b. Check-list of Hemiptera of the province of Quebec. Contributions de l’Institut de Biologie de l’Université de Montréal. 26: 1-49.

Muir, F. A. G. 1917. The Derbidae of the Philippine Islands. Philippine Journal of Science 12: 49-105.

Osborn, H. 1900e. Remarks on the hemipterous fauna of Ohio with a preliminary record of species. Annual Report of the Ohio State Academy of Science 8: 60-69.

Osborn, H. 1938. The Fulgoridae of Ohio. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey 6: 283-349.

Nixon, P. L. and J. E. McPherson. 1977. An annotated list of the phytophagous insects collected on immature black walnut trees in southern Illinois. Great Lakes Entomologist 10: 211-222.

Procter, W. 1946. The insect fauna with reference to methods of capture, foodplants, the flora and other biological features. Biological Survey Mt. Desert region Inc. Part VII. 446 pp.

Schulze F. E., W. Kükenthal and K. Heider. 1926. Nomenclator animalium generum et subgenerum. 1: 476 pp.

Shelford, V. E. 1912. Ecological succession. IV, Vegetation and the control of land animal comminities. The Biological bulletin 23(2): 59-99. (p. 71)

Shelford, V. E. 1913a. Animal communities in temperate America as illustrated in the Chicago region. A study of animal ecology. Bulletin. The Geographic Society of Chicago 5: i-xiii, 1-362. (p. 259)

Smith, J. B. 1890. Sub-order Homoptera. Pp. 436-447. In: Catalogue of insects found in New Jersey. Geological Survey of New Jersey. Final Report of the State Geologist, volume 2.  John L. Murphy, Trenton, New Jersey. (p. 439)

Smith, J. B. 1910a. Order Homoptera. Pp. 87-130. In: A report of the insects of New Jersey. Annual Report of the New Jersey State Museum 1909: 1-888. (see p. 97).

Spinola, M. 1839a. Essai sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 8: 133-337.

Spooner, C. S. 1920a. Some notes on the occurrence of Delphacinae (Hemp. Homop.). Entomological News 31: 44-46. [Otiocerus degeerii noted]

Spooner, C. S. 1937. Derbid field days. Papers presented in the thirtieth annual meeting, Rockford, Illinois, May 7 and 8, 1937 (papers in Zoology). Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 30(2): 315-316. (187 derbid specimens collected)

Spooner, C. S. 1938a. The phylogeny of the Hemiptera based on a study of the head capsule. University of Illinois Bulletin 35 (70): 1-102.

Strickland, E. H. 1940. Additional Fulgoridae taken in Alberta. Canadian Entomologist 72(4): 87-88.

Strickland, E. H. 1953. An annotated list of the Hemiptera (s.l.) of Alberta. Canadian Entomologist 85: 193-214.

Van Duzee, E. P. 1912b. Synonymy of the Provancher collection of Hemiptera. Canadian Entomologist 44: 317-329.

Van Duzee, E. P. 1916a. Check list of Hemiptera (excepting the Aphididae, Aleurodidae and Coccidae) of America North of Mexico. New York Entomological Society, New York. 111 pp. [see p. 78 onward]

Van Duzee, E. P. 1917b. Catalogue of the Hemiptera of America North of Mexico (excepting the Aphididae, Coccidae and Aleurodidae). University of California Publications, Technical Bulletins, vol. 2. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. i-xiv, 1-902. [from Google books] [see p. 716 onward]

Wheeler, A. G., Jr. and S. W. Wilson. 1996. Planthoppers of pitch pine and scrub oak in pine barrens communities (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98: 100-108.

Wilkey, R. F. 1963. A new species of Apache from California (Homoptera: Derbidae). Pan Pacific Entomologist 39: 98 102.

Wilson, S. W. 1982b. Description of the fifth instar of Apache degeerii (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Derbidae). Great Lakes Entomologist 15(1): 35-36.

Wilson, S. W. and J. E. McPherson. 1980a. Keys to the planthoppers, or Fulgoroidea, of Illinois (Homoptera). Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 73(2): 1‑61.

Wilson, S. W. and J. E. McPherson. 1980b. The distribution of the Fulgoroidea of the eastern United States (Homoptera). Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 73(4): 7‑20.

Wilson, S. W. and J. E. McPherson. 1980c. A list of the Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) of southern Illinois. Great Lakes Entomologist 13(1): 25-30.

Wilson, S. W., C. Mitter, R. F. Denno and M. R. Wilson. 1994. Evolutionary patterns of host plant use by delphacid planthoppers and their relatives. In: R. F. Denno and T. J. Perfect, (eds.). Planthoppers: Their Ecology and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York. Pp. 7-45 & Appendix.

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