Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815
Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815
Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815
Distribution: Mostly North and Central America, also Caribbean; uncommonly South America; 1 species introduced to Australia.
Type species (in original combination): Delphax concinna Stal, 1854: 246.
There are 11 described species in this genus. Stobaera was revised by Kramer (1973) and distribution records prior to this revision should be interpreted with care.
Stobaera affinis Van Duzee, 1909: 199 – USA: Florida, Mexico (Jalisco)
Stobaera azteca Muir, 1913: 242 – Mexico (Guerrero, Morelos, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz), Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua.
Stobaera bilobata Van Duzee, 1914: 44 – USA: California.
Stobaera caldwelli Kramer, 1973: 383 – USA: Arizona, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Texas, Utah; Mexico (Baja California North, Sonora).
Stobaera concinna (Stål, 1854: 246) – USA: Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Texas, Utah; Bahamas, Bermuda, , Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico (Baja California, Jalisco, Federal District, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Sonora, Sinaloa, Veracruz); Cuba, Hispaniola ( Dominican Republic, Haiti), Puerto Rico, St. Lucia? (also reported in error Illinois and New Jersey); specimens reported as Stobaera sp. by Fennah, 1959: 252 are probably this species; introduced to Australia (Queensland) (see Crutwell-McFadyen 1992).
= Stobaera minuta Osborn 1905: 376; syn. by Kramer 1973: 388-391.
= Stobaera bahamensis Metcalf, 1954c: 6-8; syn. by O’Brien 1985: 657.
Stobaera giffardi Van Duzee, 1917: 313 – USA: California, Oregon
Stobaera granulosa (Fowler, 1905: 132) – Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca, Veracruz), Guatemala, ?Ecuador.
= Goniolcium granulosum Fowler, 1905; to Stobaera granulosa (Fowler, 1905) by Crawford (1914)
Stobaera koebeli Muir, 1913: 242 – Mexico (Federal District, Morelos, Veracruz), Guatemala.
Stobaera muiri Kramer, 1973: 386 – USA: California.
Stobaera pallida Osborn, 1905 – USA: Delaware, Florida, Maryland, New York, North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia; Bahamas (Eleuthera Is., Abaco Cay); Mexico (Federal District, Hidalgo, Mexico, Michoacán, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla).
Stobaera tricarinata (Say, 1825: 337) – Probably all of the conterminous United States (specifically recorded from Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin); Canada: British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec; Mexico (Baja California, Nayarit); also reported, probably erroneously, from Guatemala, Nicaragua, Cuba, Puerto Rico.
= Stobaera nigripennis Crawford, 1914: 576; syn. by Kramer 1973: 393-396.
= Delphax tricarinata Say, 1825, original combination.
= Conomelus tricarinatus (Say, 1825); combination by Van Duzee (1894: 191; 1897: 245)
= Delphax bifasciata Provancher, 1897, Original combination
= Stobaera bifasciata (Provancher, 1897); combination according to Van Duzee (1897: 246)
= Stobaera bifasciata (Provancher, 1897); synonym by Van Duzee (1897: 246, 1912: 329)
= Liburnia intertexta Bruner, 1891: 17 nomen nudum of Stobaera tricarinata (Say, 1825) according to Forbes (1900: 65, 67)
There may be additional, undescribed species of Stobaera in Central or potentially South America.
Economic importance: Limited, although reported from sunflower and Stobaera concinna used for biocontrol in Australia.
Confirmed hosts are all Asteraceae, primarily Ragweeds (Ambrosia spp.).
Stobaera affinis – Ambrosia sp. (ragweed).
Stobaera bilobata – Hazardia squarrosa (Hook. & Arn.) Greene var. squarrosa (sawtooth goldenbush; as Haplopappus squarrosus Hook. & Arn.).
Stobaera caldwelli – Ambrosia spp., Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray (burrobrush), Bebbia juncea (Benth.) Greene (sweetbush), Trixis californica Kellogg (American threefold).
Stobaera concinna – Ambrosia spp., Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Santa Maria feverfew).
Stobaera giffardi – Artemesia sp. (sagebrush).
Stobaera muiri – Ambrosia spp.
Stobaera pallida – Baccharis halimifolia L. (eastern baccharis).
Stobaera tricarinata – Ambrosia spp., Helianthus argophyllus Torr. & A. Gray (silverleaf sunflower).
Plant names (including common names) according to The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov)
Sources of host information Wilson et al. (1994) and citations (see esp. Kramer, 1973; Goeden and Ricker 1974a, b; 1975; 1986, 1989), Calvert et al. 1987 also Osborn 1905b.
Parasites and Predators
Pseudogonatopus arizonicus Perkins, 1907 by Krombein 1979: 1245).
Among North American taxa, Stobaera is distinctive in having flattened antennae, a cream-colored body, a bicolored parallel-sided frons (bowed in S. pallida) with the median carina forked at the fastigium, and patterned wings. The most similar genus in North America is Bostaera, which (among other differences) has a much broader frons with the median carina conspicuously forked below the fastigium. Neoperkinsiella and the introduced Perkinsiella also have flattened antennae. Both are larger with different genitalia. In Neoperkinsiella, there are a pair of processes on segment 10 and the shape of the parameres are quite different. Perkinsiella has the median carina of the frons forked below the fastigium and has processes on the ventral margin of the opening of the pygofer. There is also at least one undescribed genus that I am aware of from South and Central America with flattened antennae with a similar build to Stobaera.
Species of Stobaera can be identified with Kramer (1973 [the key is here – someday I will add Kramer’s figures]). Most species are best identified by the male genitalia, but al least some of them can be identified by females based on range and color patterns, although Central American female specimens can present difficulties.
Key to species of Stobaera slightly modified from Kramer (1973)
1. Lateral carinae of frons distinctly bowed; frons tan, marked with creamy flecks. Atlantic Coast, Florida, Mexico – Stobaera pallida Osborn
1’. Lateral carinae of frons straight or nearly so; frons not marked as above … 2
2. Pro- and mesonotum strongly bicolored, central area yellow to orange and lateral areas fuscus to black. Southwestern US – Stobaera caldwelli Kramer
2’. Pro- and mesonotum not strongly bicolored, general color yellowish brown to fuscus with variable shading … 3
3. Style with lateral margin near apex smoothly rounded; Southern California – Stobaera bilobata Van Duzee
3’. Style with lateral margin near apex angular or angularly produced … 4
4. Style with keel near base …5
4’. Style without keel near base … 6
5. Antennae, eyes, and interocular portion of frons predominately fuscus to black; found on silver beachweed, Ambrosia chamissonis, in California – Stobaera muiri Kramer
5’. Antennae, eyes, and interocular portion of frons predominately tan to medium brown; found on Ambrosia confertiflora and widespread – Stobaera concinna (Stal)
6. Style with outer apical angulation much shorter than inner apical angulation …7
6.’ Style with outer apical angulation equal to or longer than inner apical angulation; Mexico, Central America … 9
7. Style broadest across the middle with inner basal projection minute; USA: Calif., Oregon – Stobaera giffardi Van Duzee
7’. Style broadest across apex with inner basal projection long … 8
8. Inner basal projection of style slender, acute apically, and appearing to arise near the base; aedeagus broad, stout, and acute or subacute at apex; Widespread – Stobaera tricarinata (Say)
8.’ Inner basal projection of style not so slender, blunt or subacute apically, and appearing to arise above base; aedeagus elongate and broadly capitate at apex; Florida – Stobaera affinis Van Duzee
9. Process of anal segment in posterior view broad at tip, bearing 1 or more acute projections on each side of central prolongation – Stobaera granulosa (Fowler)
9’. Process of anal segment in posterior view narrow at tip, lacking acute projections or with only exceedingly minute ones on each side of acute central prolongation … 10
10. Process of anal segment in posterior view slender and without distinct preapical constriction, in lateral view not sharply bent ventrally – Stobaera azteca Muir
10’. Process of anal segment in posterior view broad with distinct preapical constriction, in lateral view sharply bent ventrally – Stobaera koebelei Muir
Stobaera caldwelli (note vitta on mesothorax)
Stobaera tricarinataStobaera tricarinata
Websites: Stobaera on …
Genbank has data from 5 species (Stobaera caldwelli, S. concinna, S. granulosa, S. pallida, and S. tricarniata; from Urban et al. 2010). BOLD has data for 2 species at this time (Jan 2014; still 20 Sept. 2017).
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