[Back to Higher classification of Delphacidae]
Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815
Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815
Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815
Genus Stobaera Stl, 1859: 327.
Distribution: Mostly North and Central America, also Caribbean; uncommonly South America; 1 species introduced to Australia.
Type species (in original combination): Delphax concinna Stal, 1854: 246.
Goniolcium Fowler, 1905: 132 (Type species Goniolcium granulosum Fowler, 1905: 132); Synonym made by Muir, 1915: 264.
There are 11 described species in this genus. Stobaera was revised by Kramer (1973) and distribution records prior to this revision should be interpreted with care.
Stobaera affinis Van Duzee, 1909: 199 – USA: Florida, Mexico (Jalisco)
Stobaera azteca Muir, 1913: 242 – Mexico (Guerrero, Morelos, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz), Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua.
Stobaera bilobata Van Duzee, 1914: 44 – USA: California.
Stobaera caldwelli Kramer, 1973: 383 – USA: Arizona, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Texas, Utah; Mexico (Baja California North, Sonora).
Stobaera concinna (Stål, 1854: 246) – USA: Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Texas, Utah; Bahamas, Bermuda, , Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico (Baja California, Jalisco, Federal District, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Sonora, Sinaloa, Veracruz); Cuba, Hispaniola ( Dominican Republic, Haiti), Puerto Rico, St. Lucia? (also reported in error Illinois and New Jersey); specimens reported as Stobaera sp. by Fennah, 1959: 252 are probably this species; introduced to Australia (Queensland) (see Crutwell-McFadyen 1992).
= Stobaera minuta Osborn 1905: 376; syn. by Kramer 1973: 388-391.
= Stobaera bahamensis Metcalf, 1954c: 6-8; syn. by O’Brien 1985: 657.
Stobaera giffardi Van Duzee, 1917: 313 – USA: California, Oregon
Stobaera granulosa (Fowler, 1905: 132) – Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca, Veracruz), Guatemala, ?Ecuador.
= Goniolcium granulosum Fowler, 1905; to Stobaera granulosa (Fowler, 1905) by Crawford (1914)
Stobaera koebeli Muir, 1913: 242 – Mexico (Federal District, Morelos, Veracruz), Guatemala.
Stobaera muiri Kramer, 1973: 386 – USA: California.
Stobaera pallida Osborn, 1905 – USA: Delaware, Florida, Maryland, New York, North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia; Bahamas (Eleuthera Is., Abaco Cay); Mexico (Federal District, Hidalgo, Mexico, Michoacán, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla).
Stobaera tricarinata (Say, 1825: 337) – Probably all of the conterminous United States (specifically recorded from Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin); Canada: British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec; Mexico (Baja California, Nayarit); also reported, probably erroneously, from Guatemala, Nicaragua, Cuba, Puerto Rico.
= Stobaera nigripennis Crawford, 1914: 576; syn. by Kramer 1973: 393-396.
= Delphax tricarinata Say, 1825, original combination.
= Conomelus tricarinatus (Say, 1825); combination by Van Duzee (1894: 191; 1897: 245)
= Delphax bifasciata Provancher, 1897, Original combination
= Stobaera bifasciata (Provancher, 1897); combination according to Van Duzee (1897: 246)
= Stobaera bifasciata (Provancher, 1897); synonym by Van Duzee (1897: 246, 1912: 329)
= Liburnia intertexta Bruner, 1891: 17 nomen nudum of Stobaera tricarinata (Say, 1825) according to Forbes (1900: 65, 67)
There may be additional, undescribed species of Stobaera in Central or potentially South America.
Economic importance: Limited, although reported from sunflower and Stobaera concinna used for biocontrol in Australia.
Confirmed hosts are all Asteraceae, primarily Ragweeds (Ambrosia spp.).
Stobaera affinis – Ambrosia sp. (ragweed).
Stobaera bilobata – Hazardia squarrosa (Hook. & Arn.) Greene var. squarrosa (sawtooth goldenbush; as Haplopappus squarrosus Hook. & Arn.).
Stobaera caldwelli – Ambrosia spp., Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray (burrobrush), Bebbia juncea (Benth.) Greene (sweetbush), Trixis californica Kellogg (American threefold).
Stobaera concinna – Ambrosia spp., Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Santa Maria feverfew).
Stobaera giffardi – Artemesia sp. (sagebrush).
Stobaera muiri – Ambrosia spp.
Stobaera pallida – Baccharis halimifolia L. (eastern baccharis).
Stobaera tricarinata – Ambrosia spp., Helianthus argophyllus Torr. & A. Gray (silverleaf sunflower).
Plant names (including common names) according to The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov)
Sources of host information Wilson et al. (1994) and citations (see esp. Kramer, 1973; Goeden and Ricker 1974a, b; 1975; 1986, 1989), Calvert et al. 1987 also Osborn 1905b.
Parasites and Predators
Pseudogonatopus autoxenobius Perkins, 1907 (Dryinidae, Hymenoptera; by Kieffer, 1914: 82; repeated Krombein 1979: 1245).
Pseudogonatopus arizonicus Perkins, 1907 by Krombein 1979: 1245).
Among North American taxa, Stobaera is distinctive in having flattened antennae, a cream-colored body, a bicolored parallel-sided frons (bowed in S. pallida) with the median carina forked at the fastigium, and patterned wings. The most similar genus in North America is Bostaera, which (among other differences) has a much broader frons with the median carina conspicuously forked below the fastigium. Neoperkinsiella and the introduced Perkinsiella also have flattened antennae. Both are larger with different genitalia. In Neoperkinsiella, there are a pair of processes on segment 10 and the shape of the parameres are quite different. Perkinsiella has the median carina of the frons forked below the fastigium and has processes on the ventral margin of the opening of the pygofer. There is also at least one undescribed genus that I am aware of from South and Central America with flattened antennae with a similar build to Stobaera.
Species of Stobaera can be identified with Kramer (1973 [the key is here – someday I will add Kramer’s figures]). Most species are best identified by the male genitalia, but al least some of them can be identified by females based on range and color patterns, although Central American female specimens can present difficulties.
Key to species of Stobaera slightly modified from Kramer (1973)
1. Lateral carinae of frons distinctly bowed; frons tan, marked with creamy flecks. Atlantic Coast, Florida, Mexico – Stobaera pallida Osborn
1’. Lateral carinae of frons straight or nearly so; frons not marked as above … 2
2. Pro- and mesonotum strongly bicolored, central area yellow to orange and lateral areas fuscus to black. Southwestern US – Stobaera caldwelli Kramer
2’. Pro- and mesonotum not strongly bicolored, general color yellowish brown to fuscus with variable shading … 3
3. Style with lateral margin near apex smoothly rounded; Southern California – Stobaera bilobata Van Duzee
3’. Style with lateral margin near apex angular or angularly produced … 4
4. Style with keel near base …5
4’. Style without keel near base … 6
5. Antennae, eyes, and interocular portion of frons predominately fuscus to black; found on silver beachweed, Ambrosia chamissonis, in California – Stobaera muiri Kramer
5’. Antennae, eyes, and interocular portion of frons predominately tan to medium brown; found on Ambrosia confertiflora and widespread – Stobaera concinna (Stal)
6. Style with outer apical angulation much shorter than inner apical angulation …7
6.’ Style with outer apical angulation equal to or longer than inner apical angulation; Mexico, Central America … 9
7. Style broadest across the middle with inner basal projection minute; USA: Calif., Oregon – Stobaera giffardi Van Duzee
7’. Style broadest across apex with inner basal projection long … 8
8. Inner basal projection of style slender, acute apically, and appearing to arise near the base; aedeagus broad, stout, and acute or subacute at apex; Widespread – Stobaera tricarinata (Say)
8.’ Inner basal projection of style not so slender, blunt or subacute apically, and appearing to arise above base; aedeagus elongate and broadly capitate at apex; Florida – Stobaera affinis Van Duzee
9. Process of anal segment in posterior view broad at tip, bearing 1 or more acute projections on each side of central prolongation – Stobaera granulosa (Fowler)
9’. Process of anal segment in posterior view narrow at tip, lacking acute projections or with only exceedingly minute ones on each side of acute central prolongation … 10
10. Process of anal segment in posterior view slender and without distinct preapical constriction, in lateral view not sharply bent ventrally – Stobaera azteca Muir
10’. Process of anal segment in posterior view broad with distinct preapical constriction, in lateral view sharply bent ventrally – Stobaera koebelei Muir
Stobaera caldwelli (note vitta on mesothorax)
Stobaera tricarinataStobaera tricarinata
Websites: Stobaera on …
Hemipterans of North Carolina (the link is to S. tricarinata)
Atlas of Living Australia.
Genbank has data from 5 species (Stobaera caldwelli, S. concinna, S. granulosa, S. pallida, and S. tricarniata; from Urban et al. 2010). BOLD has data for 2 species at this time (Jan 2014; still 20 Sept. 2017).
Asche, M. and A. F. Emeljanov. 2016. Review of the Neotropical genus Sparnia Stål (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea: Delphacidae). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 95(4): 860–888 [In Russian; English Translation Entomological Review 96(9): 1209–1233]. [comparative notes]
Bartlett, C. R. and G. Kunz. 2015. A new genus and species of delphacid planthopper (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Delphacidae) from Central America with a preliminary regional species list. Zootaxa 3946(4): 510–518. Erratum, Zootaxa 3963(4): 598-600.
Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.
Bickley, W. E. and T. R. Seek. 1975. Insects in four Maryland Marshes. University of Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station Miscellaneous Publication 870: 1-27.
Britton, W. E. 1923a. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part IV. The Hemiptera or sucking insects of Connecticut. Bulletin. State of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey. 34:1-807. Fig(s).: 1-169. Plate(s): 1-20. [see P. 51.] (key to genus p. 45)
Bruner, L. 1891a. Report on Nebraska insects. Bulletin. United States Department of Agriculture. Division of Entomology. [Old series]. 23: 9-18. [Lists insects of beet. ] [Liburnia intertexta Bruner, 1891 nomen nudum] [for this name, see also Howard 1888, Metcalf 1943: 86 ]
Caldwell, J. S. and L. F. Martorell. 1951. Review of the auchenorynchous Homoptera of Puerto Rico. Part II. The Fulgoroidea except Kinnaridae. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 34: 133‑269.
Calvert, P. D., S. W. Wilson and J. H. Tsai. 1987. Stobaera concinna (Homoptera: Delphacidae): Field Biology, laboratory rearing and descriptions of immature stages. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 95(1): 91-98. (also BHL here)
Crawford, D. L. 1914a. A contribution toward a monograph of the homopterous insects of the family Delphacidae of North and South America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 46: 557-640, plus 6 plates.
Fennah, R. G. 1959. Delphacidae from the Lesser Antilles (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 8(6): 245–265.
Forbes, S. A. 1900a. Economic entomology of the sugar beet. Report of the State Entomologist on the noxious and beneficial insects of the State of Illinois 21:1-184.(see p. 67)
Fowler, W. W. 1905. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). Biologia Centrali-Americana 1: 125-139.
Giri, M. K. and P. H. Freytag. 1983. Some delphacid planthoppers of Kentucky. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 44: 161-163.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1974a. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, Ambrosia acanthicarpa, in southern California. Environmental Entomology 3: 827-834.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1974b. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, Ambrosia chamissonis, in southern California. Environmental Entomology 3: 835-839.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1975. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, Ambrosia confertiflora, in southern California. Environmental Entomology 4: 301-306.
Goeden, R. D. and D .W. Ricker. 1976a. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, Ambrosia dumosa, in southern California. Environmental Entomology 5: 45-50.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1976b. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, Ambrosia chenopodiifolia, A. eriocentra, and A. ilicifolia southern California. Environmental Entomology 5: 923-930.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1976c. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, Ambrosia psilostachya, in southern California. Environmental Entomology 4: 1169-1177.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1986a. The phytophagous insect fauna of the desert shrub Hymenoclea salsola in southern California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 79: 39-47.
Goeden, R. D. and D. W. Ricker. 1986b. The phytophagous insect faunas of the two most common native Cirsium thistles, C. californicum and C. proteanum, in southern California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 79: 953-962.
Gonzon, A. T., Jr., C. R. Bartlett and J. L. Bowman. 2007 (dated 2006). Planthopper (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) diversity in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 132: 243-260.
Johnson, C. W. 1927a. “Order Homoptera.” In The insect fauna with reference to the flora and other biological features. In Biological survey of the Mount Desert Region conducted by William Proctor. Vol./pp.: 1:1-247 (see p. 33).
Kennedy A. C., C. R. Bartlett and S. W. Wilson. 2012. An annotated checklist of the delphacid planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) of Florida with the description of three new species and the new genus, Meristopsis. Florida Entomologist 95(2): 395-421.
Kieffer, J. J. 1914. Bethylidae. Das Tirreich 41: 1-595. http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.1095 (see p. 82)
Krombein, K. V. 1979. Catalog of hymenoptera in America north of Mexico, Volume 2 Apocrita (Aculeata). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. Pp. xvi, 1199-2209. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.5074 (see p. 1245)
Kramer, J. P. 1973. Revision of the American planthoppers of the genus Stobaera (Homoptera: Delphacidae) with new distributional data and host plant records. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 75: 379-402. (Here is a link to this paper on Archive.Org)
McClay, A. S. 1983. Biology and host-specificity of Stobaera concinna (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), a potential biocontrol agent for Parthenium hysterophorus L. Folia Entomologica Mexicana 56: 21-30.
Crutwell-McFadyen, R. 1992. Biological control against parthenium weed in Australia. Crop Protection 11: 400-407. (Introduction of Stobaera concinna to Australia).
Krombein, K. V. 1979. Catalog of hymenoptera in America north of Mexico, Volume 1 Smphyta and Apocrita (Parasitica). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.5074
Lago, P. K. and S. Testa III. 2000. The terrestrial Hemiptera and auchenorrhynchous Homoptera of Point Clear Island and surrounding marshlands, Hancock County, Mississippi. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences 45: 186-195.
Leach, W. E. 1815a. Entomology. The Edinburg encyclopedia; conducted by David Brewster 9: 57-172. (family Delphacidae here).
Maw, H.E.L., R. G. Foottit and K.G.A. Hamilton. 2000. Checklist of the Hemiptera of Canada and Alaska, NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Canada.
Metcalf, Z. P. 1943. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 3, Araeopidae (Delphacidae). Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts. 552 pp. (see p. 82)
Metcalf, Z. P. 1954. Homoptera from the Bahama Islands. American Museum Novitates 1698: 1-46.
Moore, G. A. 1950a. Catalogus des hémiptères de la province de Québec. Le Naturaliste Canadien 77: 233-271.
Moore, G. A. 1950b. Check-list of Hemiptera of the province of Quebec. Contributions de l’Institut de Biologie de l’Université de Montréal. 26: 1-49.
Muir, F. A. G. 1913. On some new Fulgoroidea. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 2: 237-269.
Muir, F.A.G. 1926b. Contributions to our knowledge of South American Fulgoroidea (Homoptera). Part I. The Family Delphacidae. Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association, Entomological Series, Bulletin 18:1-51, plates 1-5.
O’Brien, L. B. 1985. New synonymies and combinations in New World Fulgoroidea (Achilidae, Delphacidae, Flatidae, Fulgoridae: Homoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 78: 657-662.
Osborn, H. 1905b. Descriptions of new North American Fulgoridae. Ohio Naturalist 5: 373-376.
Palmer, W. A. 1993. On the host range of the delphacid planthopper Stobaera pallida Osborn (Homoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 95(2): 241-244. (here is a link to this paper on archive.org).
Procter, W. 1938a. Biological survey of the Mount Desert Region. Part VI. The insect fauna with references to methods of capture, food plants, the flora and other biological features. Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology . Philadelphia. Vol./pp.: 1-496. [Lists genera and species; see pp. 75-84.]
Procter, W. 1946a. The insect fauna with references to methods of capture, food plants, the flora and other biological features. In Biological survey of the Mount Desert Region [Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory. Salisbury Cove, Maine]. Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology . Philadelphia. Vol./pp.: 7:1-566. Fig(s).: 1-11.[see p. 96]
Reimer, N. J. and R. D. Goeden. 1981. Descriptions of immature stages of Stobaera tricarniata (Say) (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Delphacidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 57:4 29-433.
Reimer, N. J. and R. D. Goeden. 1981. Life history of the delphacid planthopper Stobaera tricarniata (Say) on western ragweed, Ambrosia psilostachya DeCandolle, in southern California (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Delphacidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 58(2): 105-108.
Say, T. 1825. Descriptions of new Hemipterous insects collected in the expedition to the Rocky Mountains, performed by order of Mr. Calhoun, Secretary of War, under command of Major Long. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4: 307-345.
Smith, J. B. 1910a. Order Homoptera. Pp. 87-130. In: A report of the insects of New Jersey. Annual Report of the New Jersey State Museum 1909:1-888. (Stobaera p. 97).
Stål, C. 1854. Nya Hemiptera. Ofversigt af Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 11: 231-255.
Stål, C. 1859. Novae quaedam Fulgorinorum formae speciesque insigniores. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 3: 313-327.
Van Duzee, E. P. 1909. Observation of some Hemiptera taken in Florida in the spring of 1908. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 9: 149-230. (see p. 199)
Van Duzee, E. P. 1912b. Synonymy of the Provancher collection of Hemiptera. Canadian Entomologist 44: 317-329.
Van Duzee, E. P. 1914. A preliminary list of the Hemiptera of San Diego County, California. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 2: 1-57.
Van Duzee, E. P. 1917. Report upon a collection of Hemiptera made by Walter M. Giffard in 1916 and 1917, chiefly in California. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) 7: 249-318.
Weber, B. C. and S. W. Wilson. 1981. Seasonal and vertical distributions of planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) within a black walnut plantation. Great Lakes Entomologist 14(2): 71-75.
Wilson, M. R. and D. J. Hilburn. 1991 Annotated list of the Auchenorrhynchous Homoptera (Insecta) of Bermuda. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 84(4): 412-419.
Wilson, S. W. and J. E. McPherson. 1980a. Keys to the planthoppers, or Fulgoroidea, of Illinois (Homoptera). Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 73(2): 1‑61.
Wilson, S. W. and J. E. McPherson. 1980b. The distribution of the Fulgoroidea of the eastern United States (Homoptera). Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 73(4): 7‑20.
Wilson, S. W., C. Mitter, R. F. Denno and M. R. Wilson. 1994. Evolutionary patterns of host plant use by delphacid planthoppers and their relatives. Pp. 7-45 & Appendix. In: R.F. Denno and T.J. Perfect, (eds.). Planthoppers: Their Ecology and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York. [host records].
Wolcott, G. N. 1950 [dated 1948]. The insects of Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 32: 1-224.