Genus Ribautodelphax Wagner, 1963

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Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815

Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815

Genus Ribautodelphax Wagner, 1963

Type speciesDelphax collina Boheman, 1847: 51.


Emeljanov (1982) divided this genus into the subgenera Ribautodelphax and Altostana Emeljanov 1982.  Not all species were placed in subgenera.  The type species of Altostana is Ribautodelphax bogdul Dlabola, 1968, and evidently Altostana also includes R. imitans (Ribaut, 1953).



Distribution of Ribautodelphax from FLOW

Distribution of Ribautodelphax from FLOW (as of 17 March 2020).

Recognized species

This genus is represented by about 30 species (still need to add synonymy list for Palearctic species; I may have missed species synonyms among the listed species).

1 Ribautodelphax affinis Logvinenko, 1970 – Russia (Georgia), Ukraine, Crimea
2 Ribautodelphax albostriata (Fieber, 1866) – USA: Alaska (Arkansas, Colorado); Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Yukon); widespread in East Palaearctic; North Africa ( Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia (Central European Russia, North European Russia, West Siberia), Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia; North Africa); Mongolia
= Delphax albostriata Fieber, 1866: 525.
= Liburnia distinguenda [nec. Kirschbaum] Sahlberg, 1871: 432; syn. by Reuter, 1880: 197.
= Liburnia albostriata (Fieber, 1866); comb. by Fieber, 1872: 5.
= Megamelus nigrigaster Crawford, 1914: 607, 621.
= Liburnia nigrigaster (Crawford, 1914); comb. by Van Duzee, 1916: 84.
= Delphacodes albostriata (Fieber, 1866); comb. by Metcalf, 1943: 402.
= Ribautodelphax albostriatus (Fieber, 1866); comb. by Wagner, 1963: 176.
= Delphacodes albostriatus (Fieber, 1866); emendation by Wilson, 1992: 88.
= Delphacodes nigrigaster (Crawford, 1914); comb. by Muir & Giffard 1914: 24.
= Delphacodes nigrigaster (Crawford, 1914); syn. by Bartlett et al. 2014: 141.
= Calligypona vicina Linnavuori, 1953; syn. apparently by Anufriev, 1981.
= Delphax distinguenda Kirschbaum, 1868; syn. apparently by Wagner, 1939.
3 Ribautodelphax altaicus Vilbaste, 1965 – Russia (Altai Mts, Kazakhstan), China; Bulgaria, Mongolia
4 Ribautodelphax angulosa (Ribaut, 1953) – Widespread Europe (Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britian, Greece, Kazakhstan, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine), Russia, Mongolia (Holzinger et al. 2003 notes that published records from eastern Europe, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, need to be reexamined).
= Calligypona angulosus Ribaut, 1953
Ribautodelphax balgasica Vilbaste, 1980 – [Mongolia, Russia (Tuva)]; see syn. below
5 Ribautodelphax bicolor Logvinenko, 1970 – Ukraine, Crimea
Ribautodelphax bidentatus Anufriev, 1970 – see Megadelphax
6 Ribautodelphax bogdul Dlabola, 1968 – Mongolia, China (Xinjiang)
7 Ribautodelphax collina (Boheman, 1847) – Widespread Europe, Russia (Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Russia (North European Russia), Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,  Ukraine); Japan (Honshu)
= Delphax collinus Boheman, 1847: 51; original combination.
= Achorotile collina (Boheman, 1847); by Sahlberg (1871: 429)
= Liburnia collina (Boheman, 1847); comb. by Sahlberg, 1871: 429.
= Delphacodes collina (Boheman, 1847) ; comb. by Metcalf, 1943: 417.
= Delphacodes annae Kirkaldy, 1906; original comination; replacement name for Delphax concinna Fieber (nec Stal); syn. with collinus  by implicationOssiannilsson 1936.
= Delphax concinna Fieber, 1866: 525; syn. by Ossiannilsson 1936: 49.
= Liburnia biarmica Sahlberg, 1871; syn. (with Liburnia concinna and Liburnia collina ) by Lindberg, 1937: 61 [listed as error in Metcalf 1943: 420, but as syn by den Bieman 1987: 124
8 Ribautodelphax exquisita Anufriev, 1970 – Russia, China, Mongolia
9 Ribautodelphax falakron Asche, Drosopoulos & Hoch, 1986 – Greece
10 Ribautodelphax fanari Asche, Drosopoulos & Hoch, 1986 – Greece, France, Croatia
11 Ribautodelphax flavicans Vilbaste, 1965 – Mongolia, Russia (Altay, Chita, Khabarovsk, Kuril Islands, Primorye, Siberia (Krasnoyarsk))
12 Ribautodelphax fumatus (Lindberg, 1948) – Cyprus, Bulgaria
13 Ribautodelphax hyrcanus Dlabola, 1981 – Iran
14 Ribautodelphax imitans (Ribaut, 1953) – Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary,  Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spain
= Calligypona imitans Ribaut, 1953, original combination
15 Ribautodelphax imitantoides Den Bieman, 1987 – France, Morraco, Portugal, Spain
16 Ribautodelphax kalonerensis Den Bieman, 1987 – Greece
17 Ribautodelphax kasachstanica Mityaev, 1975 – Russia (Kazakhstan)
18 Ribautodelphax libanonensis Den Bieman, 1987 – Lebanon
19 Ribautodelphax magna (Crawford, 1914) – USA: AZ, CO, ID, IL?, MI, MT, OR; CAN: AB, BC, NF, QC, YK
= Megamelus magnus Crawford, 1914: 627.
= Liburnia magnus (Crawford, 1914); Van Duzee, 1916: 84.
= Delphacodes magna (Crawford, 1914); comb. by. Muir & Giffard, 1924: 29.
= Ribautodelphax magna (Crawford, 1914); comb. by Bartlett et al. 2014: 141.
20 Ribautodelphax nevadensis Den Bieman, 1987 – Spain
21 Ribautodelphax noguerae Den Bieman, 1987 – Spain
Ribautodelphax notabilis Logvinenko, 1970 – Crimea (possibly a synonym of Unkanodes tanasijevici)
22 Ribautodelphax ochreata Vilbaste, 1965 – Mongolia, Russia (Altai Mtns, Kirghizia), Italy, Kyrgyzstan, Switzerland
23 Ribautodelphax pallens (Stål, 1854) – Europe, Russia, North Africa (Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia (North European Russia), Sweden, Switzerland)
= Delphax pallens Stal, 1854; original combination
24 Ribautodelphax pumila Emeljanov, 1992 – Russia
25 Ribautodelphax pungens (Ribaut, 1953) – Widespread Europe (Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland)
26 Ribautodelphax pusilla Emeljanov, 1972 – USA: DE, MI, NY; CAN: AB, BC, ON, QC, SK, YK; Mongolia, Russia (Altay Territory, Chita Region, Tuva, Yakut Autonomous Republic, Khabarovsk Territory), China North-Central (Hebei)
= Ribautodelphax balgasicus Vilbaste 1980: 14; syn. by Anufriev & Averkin 1982a: 99.
27 Ribautodelphax siculiformis Ding and Wang, 1996 – China (Gansu, Lanzhou)
28 Ribautodelphax tuvinus Anufriev, 1970 – Russia (East Siberia, Tuva), China
29 Ribautodelphax ventouxianus den Bieman, 1987 – France
30 Ribautodelphax vinealis Den Bieman, 1987 – Netherlands, Switzerland

See also comment under Megadelphax concerning M. bidentatus (Anufriev, 1970). Ding (2006), for example, treated this species as Ribautodelphax.

Ding (2006) treats Ribautodelphax notabilis Logvinenko, 1970 as a valid species, but I have it as a synonym of Unkanodes tanasijevici (Dlabola, 1965) based on Nast (1987).

It is unclear to me whether Den Bieman, 1987 has been published in the meaning of the ICZN, but it is treated that way by Fauna Europaea and FLOW, and I have followed suit.   I do not have this resource at present.

The termination of names (the female ‘-a’, or the male ‘-us’) varies between sources and authors. ICZN (1961) (opinion 602) stated that “Delphax” was masculine, hence names ending with ‘-delphax’ should be treated as masculine.  However, at this time, rather than modify endings, my intention is to use the published termination (with masculine preferred – primarily following Holzinger et al. 2003), but at present I may not have been completely consistent and I would be pleased to update with corrections.

Economic importance

Probably limited.  Ribautodelphax notabilis, a vector of several crop diseases, is treated as a junior synonym of Unkanodes tanasijevici by Nast (1987).  In spite of subsequent treatment of this species as valid (e.g., Ding 2006), the synonymy is recognized here (as in Fauna Europaea).

Plant associations

All species, except R. noguerae, are on grasses.

Ribautodelphax albostriataPoa pratensis L. (Kentucky bluegrass), Agrostis sp. (bentgrass), Dactylis sp. (orchardgrass), Bromus sp. (brome)
Ribautodelphax angulosaAnthoxanthum odoratum L. (sweet vernalgrass)
Ribautodelphax bicolorFestuca ovina L. (sheep fescue)
Ribautodelphax collina – Agrostis capillaris L. (colonial bentgrass)
Ribautodelphax falakron Festuca cyllenica Boiss. & Heldr.
Ribautodelphax fanari Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey (as Elymus hispidus (Opiz) Melderis, intermediate wheatgrass), Thinopyrum pycnanthum (Godr.) Barkworth (as Elymus pycnanthus (Godr.) Melderis), tick quackgrass)
Ribautodelphax imitans Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub  (as Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)
Ribautodelphax imitantoidesBrachypodium phoenicoides (L.) Roem. & Schult. (thinleaf false brome)
Ribautodelphax kalonerensisArrhenatherum elatius (L.) P. Beauv. ex J. Presl & C. Presl (tall oatgrass)
Ribautodelphax noguerae Carex nigra (L.) Reichard (smooth black sedge)
Ribautodelphax ochreataSetaria sp. (bristlegrass)
Ribautodelphax pallansFestuca ovina L. (sheep fescue)
Ribautodelphax pungensBrachypodium pinnatum (L.) P. Beauv. (heath false brome), Brachypodium phoenicoides (L.) Roem. & Schult. (thinleaf false brome), Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. (slender false brome)
Ribautodelphax pusillaPhalaris arundinacea L. (reed canarygrass)
Ribautodelphax siculiformisElymus tsukushiensis Honda var. transiens (Hack.) Osada (as Agropyron kamoji Ohwi)
Ribautodelphax ventouxianusFestuca rubra L. (red fescue)
Ribautodelphax vinealis Agrostis vinealis Schreb. (brown bendgrass)

Plant names primarily according to The PLANTS Database ( (GRIN when not in PLANTS, internet search when both fail).

Sources of host information Wilson et al. (1994), Holzinger et al. (2003), Nickel (2003), Ding (2006), Gebicki et al. (2013: 46); See also FLOW.


Ribautodelphax pungensCharletonia womersleyi Southcott, 1966 (Acari, Trombidiformes, Erythraeidae) according to Stroinski et al. (2013: 198).


Ribautodelphax is reasonably distinctive as a genus based on male genitalia. Members of the genus generally have have the processes on segment 10 converging, frequently crossing, and appressed to the segment, and the parameres have a distinctive shape. Identification of species within the genus can be challenging, and identification of females is generally not possible.  Parthenogenesis is known for the genus.

In North America, there are few Ribautodelphax species, and these are confined to northern latitudes and higher elevations.

The bioacoustics of some European species have been investigated in detail.

Genus description from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988: 413

“Macrocoryphe about as long as wide. Carinae on head distinct everywhere. Eumetope about twice as long as wide; its widest part situated at level of lower parts of eyes. Lateral carinae of pronotum with posterior ends only slightly bent outwards but not reaching posterior margin of pronotum. In brachypters, fore wings rounded at apex. Posttibial spurs with 10-20 denticles. Male. Posterior edging of pygofer with a cut on sides. Anal tube with 2 ventral teeth crossed in most species; bases of processes connected by not interrupted sclerotization. Bridge of pygofer bearing usually 2 approximate teeth. Styli usually flattened, more or less widened in distal part, with lateral subapical excision. Aedeagus slightly bent ventrad, slightly asymmetrical due to arrangement of teeth and dorsal subapical gonopore shifted sideways.”

Key to central European species in Holzinger et al. 2003 and den Bieman, 1987; Key to Russian species in Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988.

Ribautodelphax albostriata

Ribautodelphax albostriata

Ribautodelphax albostriata

Ribautodelphax albostriata

Ribautodelphax albostriata

Ribautodelphax albostriata

Ribautodelphax albostriata

Ribautodelphax collina

Ribautodelphax collina

Ribautodelphax collina

Ribautodelphax collina

Ribautodelphax collina

Ribautodelphax collina

Ribautodelphax collina

Ribautodelphax pusilla – male

Ribautodelphax pusilla - male

Ribautodelphax pusilla – male

Ribautodelphax pusilla - male

Ribautodelphax pusilla – male

Ribautodelphax pusilla - male

Ribautodelphax pusilla – male

Ribautodelphax pusilla

Ribautodelphax pusilla

Ribautodelphax pusilla

Ribautodelphax pusilla

Ribautodelphax pusilla – female

Ribautodelphax pusilla - female

Ribautodelphax pusilla – female

Ribautodelphax pusilla - female

Ribautodelphax pusilla – female

Ribautodelphax pusilla - female

Ribautodelphax pusilla – female

Ribautodelphax pusilla - female

Ribautodelphax pusilla – female

Ribautodelphax pusilla - female

Ribautodelphax pusilla – female


Figures from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988; note the  cruciate processes on the anal tube.

Ribautodelphax angulosus

Ribautodelphax angulosus from den Bieman 1987

Ribautodelphax bidentata

Ribautodelphax bidentata from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1989

Ribautodelphax collinus

Ribautodelphax collinus from den Bieman 1987


Ribautodelphax fanari

Ribautodelphax fanari from den Bieman 1987

Ribautodelphax imitans

Ribautodelphax imitans from den Bieman 1987

Ribautodelphax imitantoides

Ribautodelphax imitantoides from den Bieman 1987

Ribautodelphax kalonerensis

Ribautodelphax kalonerensis from den Bieman 1987

Ribautodelphax libanonensis

Ribautodelphax libanonensis from den Bieman 1987

Ribautodelphax nevandensis

Ribautodelphax nevandensis from den Bieman 1987



Ribautodelphax noguerae

Ribautodelphax noguerae from den Bieman 1987

Ribautodelphax ochreata, flavicans and altica from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1989

Ribautodelphax ochreata, flavicans and altica from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1989

Ribautodelphax pungens

Ribautodelphax pungens from den Bieman 1987


Ribautodelphax from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988;

Ribautodelphax pusilla, bogdul, bidentata from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1989

Ribautodelphax ventouxianus

Ribautodelphax ventouxianus from den Bieman 1987

Ribautodelphax vinealis

Ribautodelphax vinealis from den Bieman 1987



Online resources

Discover Life.
Hoppers of North Carolina.
Kunzweb Gallery. (to family, vut several species)
American Insects.
Fauna Europaea.

Leafhopper, Planthopper and Psyllid Vectors of Plant Disease.

Molecular resources

Genbank has 3 species of Ribautodelphax and BOLD currently (14 Sept 2017) has 6 species of Ribautodelphax.

Selected References

Anufriev, G. A. 1970. New east-Asiatic Delphacids from the genera Megadelphax Wagner and Ribautodelphax Wagner (Homoptera, Delphacidae. Bulletin de l’Academie Polonaise des Sciences cl. II. 18(3): 141-146.

Anufriev, G. A. 1981. Homopterological Reports I-III. (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Reichenbachia 19(28):159-173.

Anufriev, G. A. and A. M. Averkin. 1982. On Delphacids of the Komsomolsky Reserve (Khabarovsk Region, USSR) (Insecta, Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Delphacidae). Faunistische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde in Dresden (1981) 9(6): 95-100.

Asche, M. 1982. Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Jugoslawiens und Bulgariens (Homoptera Cicadinea Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 99-138.

Asche, M. 1982. Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Ungarns (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 139-154.

Asche, M. and H. Hoch. 1982.  Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Griechenlands II (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 37-70.

Asche, M. and R. Remane. 1982.  Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Griechenlands I (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae) Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(6): 231-290.

Asche, M., S. Drosopoulos and H. Hoch. 1986. Two new Ribautodelphax Wagner – species from Greece (Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha Fulgoromorpha Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 2(3): 193-210.

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

den Bieman C.F.M. 1987. Biological and taxonomic differentiation in the Ribautodelphax collinus complex (Homoptera, Delphacidae). Thesis.  Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen, Wageningen (Netherlands). 163 pp.

den Bieman, C.F.M. 1987. Host plant relations in the planthopper genus Ribautodelphax (Homoptera, Delphacidae). Ecological Entomology 12(2): 163-172.

den Bieman, C.F.M. 1987. Acoustic differentiation and variation in planthoppers of the genus Ribautodelphax (Homoptera, Delphacidae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 36(4): 461-480

den Bieman, C.F.M. 1987. Variability in female calling signals in mixed populations of pseudogamous forms and bisexual Ribautodelphax species (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 37(1) 1987: 43-58.

den Bieman, C.F.M. 1988. Hybridization studies in the planthopper genus Ribautodelphax (Homoptera, Delphacidae). Genetica 76(1). 15-26.

den Bieman, C.F.M. 1988. Coexistence of pseudogamous and sexual planthoppers of the genus Ribautodelphax (Homoptera, Delphacidae). Ecological Entomology 13(4): 383-390.

den Bieman, C.F.M. 1988. Karyotypic variation in bisexual species and pseudogamous forms of the planthopper genus Ribautodelphax (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Genetica 76(2): 101-110.

den Bieman, C.F.M. and H. A. Eggers-Schumacher. 1988. Allozyme polymorphism in planthoppers of the genus Ribautodelphax (Homoptera, Delphacidae) and the origin of the pseudogamous triploid forms. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 37(3-4): 239-254.

Boheman, C. H. 1847. Nya Svenska Homoptera. Handlingar. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien 3: 23-67 [see p. 51].

Bonfils, J & Della Giustina, W. 1978. Inventaire et repartition biogeographique des Homopteres Auchenorhynques de Corse. Bulletin de la Societe entomologique de France 83: 23-29.

D’Urso, V. 1995. Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha. In: Checklist delle specie della Fauna Italiana 42: 1-35.

Ding, J. H. 2006. Fauna Sinica Insecta Vol. 45 Homoptera Delphacidae. Science Press, Beijing, China.

Ding J.-h. and J. Wang, J. 1996. Delphacidae Fauna of Gansu Province, China (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea). Gansu Science and Technology Press. anzhou (China); China book. 167 pp. [see p. 68]

Dlabola, J. 1968. Ergebnisse der Zoologischen forschungen von Dr. Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei NR. 163: Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 65: 364-374 [365].

Dlabola, J. 1970. Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungen vom Dr. Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei. 220: Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 16(1-2): 1-25.

Dlabola, J. 1981. Ergebnisse der Tschechoslowakisch-Iranischen Entomologischen Expeditionen nach dem Iran (1970 und 1973). (Mit Angaben uber einiger Sammelresultate in Anatolien) Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha (2. Teil). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 40: 127-311.

Drosopoulos, S. 1982. Hemipterological studies in Greece. Part II. Homoptera – Auchenorrhyncha. On the family Delphacidae. Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(6): 35-88.

Drosopoulos, S., M. Asche and H. Hoch. 1983. Contribution to the planthopper fauna of Greece. Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae). Annales de l’Institute phytopathologique Benaki (N.S.) 14: 19-68.

Emeljanov, A. F. 1972. New leafhoppers from the Mongolian People’s Republic (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Nauka 1: 199-260 [220].

Emeljanov, A. F. 1982. Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) collected in the Mongolian People’s Republic by the entomofaunistical group of the Soviet Mongolian complex biological expedition in 1970-1975. Nasekomye Mongolii [Insects of Mongolia] 8: 69-122 [In Russian].

Fieber, F. X. 1866. Grundzüge zur generischen Theilung der Delphacini. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien  16: 517-534.

Fieber, F. X. 1872. Katalog der europäischen Cicadinen, nach Originalien mit Benützung der neuesten Literatur. 19 pp. Druk und Verlag von Carl Gerold’s Sohn, Wien (Austria).

Gebicki C., D. Swierczewski and J. Szwedo. 2013. Planthoppers and leafhoppers of Poland (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha et Cicadomorpha). Systematics. Check-list. Bionomy. The Monograph. Annals of the Upper Silesia Museum, Entomology 21-22: 5-259.

Gunthart, H. and R. Muhlethaler. 2002. Provisorische Checklist der Zikaden der Schweiz (Insecta: Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia 04, zugleich Kataloge des OO. Landesmuseums, Neue Folge, 176: 329-338.

Hayashi, M. and S. Fujinuma. 2016. Part Fulgoromorpha. In: Entomological Society of Japan 2016 – Catalogue of the insects of Japan. Volume 4 Paraneoptera (Psocodea, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera), 4. Editorial Committee of Catalogue of the Insects of Japan. p. 323-355.

Helden A. J., A. Dittrich and R. Mckenzie. 2012. Ribautodelphax imitans (Ribaut) at Coe Fen, Cambridge. Leafhopper Distribution Recording & Analysis, LEDRA 2: 5.

Heller, F. R. 1973. Erstfund einer asiatishchen Zikade fur Mitteleuropa: Ribautodelphax ochreata Vilbaste aus der Schweiz. Entomologische Zeitschrift 83: 257-259.

Holzinger, W. E., I. Kammerlander and H. Nickel. 2003. Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha excluding Cicadellidae. Volume 1. The Auchenorrhyncha of Central Europe. Brill Academic Publishing, Leiden, Netherlands.

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1906. Two new Homoptera from Africa, and synonymical notes. Canadian Entomologist 38: 154-156. [Delphacodes annae Kirkaldy, 1906, new name for Delphax concinna Fieber (not Stal).]

Kirschbaum, C. L. 1868. Die Cicadinen der Gegend von Wiesbaden und Frankfurt a.M. nebst einer Anzahl neuer oder schwer zu unterscheidender Arten aus anderen Gegenden Europas. Jahrbuch des Nassauer Vereins fur Naturkunde 21/22: 1-202. [Delphax distinguenda Kirschbaum, 1868]

Latreille, P. A. 1804. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes. 12: 424 pp.

Le Quesne, W. J. 1960. Hemiptera (Fulgoromorpha). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects II (3): 1-68.

Lindberg, H. 1937. Uber einige nordische Delphaciden. Notulae Entomologicae 17: 59-62.

Linnavuori, R. 1953 Hemiptera studies. Annales Entomologici Fennici 19(3): 107-118.

Logvinenko, V. N. 1970. New and little known leafhoppers of the family Delphacidae (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha) from southern districts of the USSR. Entomologiskoje Obozrenije 49: 624-633 [In Russian, English translation Entomological Review 49: 386-391].

Logvinenko, V.N. 1975 Fulgoroidny cikadovy Fulgoroidea. Fauna Ukrainy 20(2): 1-287. [In Ukrainian].

Maw, H.E.L., R. G. Foottit, K.G.A. Hamilton and G.G.E. Scudder. 2000. Checklist of the Hemiptera of Canada and Alaska. NRC Research Press, Ottawa. read online:

Melichar, L. 1896. Cicadinen (Hemiptera-Homoptera) von Mittel-Europa. 1896: 364 pp.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1943. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 3, Araeopidae (Delphacidae). Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts.

Mitjaev, I. D. 1975. New species of Cicadinea (Homoptera) from Kazakhstan. Entomological Review 54(3): 67-72.

Muir, F. A. G. and W. M. Giffard. 1924. Studies in North American Delphacidae. Bulletin. Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association Experiment Station. Division of Entomology. Honolulu 15: 1-53.

Nast, J. 1972. Palaearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera). An annotated check list. Polish

Nast, J. 1987. The Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) of Europe. Annales Zoologici Warszawa 40: 535-661.

Nickel, H. 2003. The Leafhoppers and Planthoppers of Germany (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Patterns and strategies in a highly diverse group of phytophagous insects , Pensoft Series Faunistica 28, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Oshanin V. T. 1870. Homoptera. Mémoires de la Société Impériale des amis des sciences naturelles. Moscou 6: 1-72.

Ossiannilsson, F. 1936. Einige bemerkungen zur schwedischen Cicadinenfauna. Opuscula entomologica 1: 47-51.

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