Genus Prokelisia Osborn, 1902

[Back to Higher classification of Delphacidae]

Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815

Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815

Genus Prokelisia Osborn, 1902: 373.


Distribution: Primarily on the east and west coasts of North America and the Caribbean (but found wherever Spartina occurs; Prokelisia salina is western in non-coastal situations); probably in Mexico; introduced into Europe (England, France, Belgium, Spain, Slovenia, Portugal, Netherlands).

Distribution of Prokelisia from FLOW

Distribution of Prokelisia from FLOW (7 Nov. 2018)

Type species (in original combination): Prokelisia setigera Osborn, 1905, Junior synonym of Megamelus marginatus Van Duzee, 1897.

Generic synonym: Prokelisoidea McDermott, 1952: 57 (type species Kelisia salina Ball, 1902; synonym by Wilson, 1982: 533).

Recognized species

Five valid species as follows:

Prokelisia carolae Wilson, 1982 – USA: California; Canada: British Columbia

Prokelisia crocea (Van Duzee, 1897) – Widespread in eastern North America from Gulf coast states to southern Canada (USA: AR, CO, CT, DE, FL, IA, IL, IN, KS, LA, MA, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, SD, VA, WI; CAN: MB, NB, ON, PE, QC, SK )
= Kelisia crocea Van Duzee, 1897: 233.
= Stenocranus crocea (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Osborn & Ball 1897: 233.
= Liburnia crocea (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Beamer 1945a: 100.
= Prokelisia crocea (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Oman 1947: 220.

Prokelisia dolus Wilson, 1982 – USA:  Widespread in eastern North America from Gulf coast states to southern Canada; also California (USA: AL, CA, CT, DE, FL, GA, LA, MA, MD, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, SC, TX, VA; CAN: NB, NS, ON, QC; Mexico)

Prokelisia marginata (Van Duzee, 1897) – Widespread in eastern North America from Gulf coast states to southern Canada (USA: CA, CT, DE, FL, GA, LA, MA, MD, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, SC, VA, WA; CAN: SK; reported in error: USA: IL); Also adventive to England, France, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Belgium, Netherlands.
= Megamelus marginatus Van Duzee, 1897: 234.
= Prokelsia setigera Osborn, 1905: 373; syn. by Wilson 1982a: 537-539.
= Megamelus setigerus (Osborn, 1905); comb. by Crawford 1914: 631.
= Prokelisia marginatus (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Van Duzee 1916a; 83.
= Megamelus marginata (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Van Duzee 1917b: 765.

Prokelisia salina (Ball, 1902) – Widespread in Central and Western North America, especially southwest but north to Nunavut (USA: AZ, CA, CO, FL, GA, ID, IL, KS, MI, NE, NM, NV, OR, SD, TX, UT, WA, WY; CAN: BC, MB, ON, SK); also Bahamas (Abaco Cays, Andros, Exuma Cays, Eleuthera, New Providence); Mexico (San Luis Potosí, Zacatecas).
= Kelisia salina Ball, 1902b: 264.
= Megamelus salina (Ball, 1902b); comb. by Crawford 1914: 631.
= Megamelanus frontalis Crawford, 1914: 593.
= Megamelus constrictus Crawford, 1914: 610.
= Liburnia constricta (Crawford, 1914); comb. by Metcalf 1923: 148.
= Prokelisia constricta (Crawford, 1914); ); comb. by Muir & Giffard 1924: 10.
= Megamelanus salina (Ball, 1902b); comb. by Beamer 1945a: 100.
= Prokelisoidea frontalis (Crawford, 1914); syn. by McDermott 1952: 58-59.
= Prokelisoidea salina (Ball, 1902b); comb. by McDermott 1952: 57.
= Megamelanus frontalis Crawford, 1914: 593; syn. by Wilson 1982a: 540-542.
= Megamelus constrictus Crawford, 1914: 610; syn. by Wilson 1982a: 540-542.
= Megamelus constrictus minutus Crawford, 1914: 610; syn. by Wilson 1982a: 540-542.

Plant Associations:

Prokelisia are primarily Spartina (cordgrass) specialists, with a few other grasses reported.

Prokelisia croceaAndropogon gerardi Vitman, Andropogon scoparius Michx., Spartina pectinata Link, Stipa spartea Trin. (Poales, Poaceae)

Prokelisia dolusSpartina alterniflora Loisel.  (smooth cordgrass), Spartina foliosa Trin.

Prokelisia marginata Spartina alterniflora Loisel.; also Spartina anglica C.E. Hubb. (in Britain), and Spartina × townsendii H. Groves & J. Groves., Spartina foliosa Trin., Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald, Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl.

Prokelisia salinaCalamovilfa longifolia (Hook.) Scribn. (prairie sandreed); Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene (as Distichlis stricta) (saltgrass); Cleome serrulata Pursh (Brassicales, Capparaceae), Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees (Poales, Poaceae), Pluchea sericea (Nutt.) Coville (Asterales, Asteraceae), Salsola kali L. (Caryophyllales, Chenopodiaceae)

Plant associations are from Hendrickson (1930), Wilson (1982), Denno et al. (1987), Wilson (2012: 167), Seljak (2004), Badmin & Witts (2009: 213),  Wilson and Wheeler (2010), Ouvrard & Soulier-Perkins (2012: 441).

Economic Importance:

Potentially useful as a biocontrol agent (viz. Prokelisia marginata) of Spartina anglica (English cordgrass), in Washington where this grass has been introduced (Wu et al. 1999) (see Daehler and Strong 1996).

Prokelisia marginata has been inadvertently introduced to England and has become adventive in several countries in Europe.

Used extensively as a ecological model over nearly 30 years by Denno and colleagues (see Eubanks et al. 2011), particularly as a model for tritrophic ecological interactions and regarding between habitat and life history parameters.

See also Jim Cronin’s research.


Anagrus columbi Perkins (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) (e.g., Cronin 2003b, 2004)
Pardosa modica (Blackwall, 1846) (Aranae: Lycosidae)  – Cronin et al. 2004
Pardosa littoralis Banks, 1896 (Aranae, Lycosidae) (Finke and Denno 2004)
Hogna frondicola (Emerton, 1885) as Lycosa modesta Banks, 1894c (Aranae, Lycosidae) (Finke and Denno 2004)
Grammonota trivittata Banks, 1895 (Araneae Linyphiidae ) (Finke and Denno 2004)
Tytthus vagus (Knight, 1923) (Mirridae, egg predator) (Finke and Denno 2004)


Wilson (1982) most recently revised the genus and Heady and Wilson (1990) provide features of female gentaila.  See also Denno et al. (1987).

Prokelisia is frequently abundant where in the vicinity of its host plant, although individuals can be collected at lights some distance from their expected habitat.

Except for Prokelisia crocea, members of this genus are very slightly dorsoventrally flattened, pale colored, with dark infuscations along the carinae of the frons.

Prokelisia crocea is distinctive in being larger than most members of the genus and having orangish markings on the face and thorax.  Prokelisia salina tends to be western and is more likely than some of the other species to be found inland; it can be separated from its congeners be the parallel-sided frons and diverging parameres.  Prokelisia carolae is a local species that is infrequently encountered.  Prokelisia marginata and P. dolus are quite similar and are found in broadly sympatric ranges.  Prokelisia dolus tends to have a much broader frons near the frontoclypeal suture than does P. marginata, but this difference is not always satisfactory.  More definitive is to view the male pygofer from lateral view (see figs. 7 and 10 in Wilson 1982), in Prokelisia dolus the parameres are inflected caudally near the apex, whereas in P. marginata the apices are dorsally directed.

Key to the Species of Prokelisia (lightly edited from Wilson 1992).
1. Lateral margins of frons markedly convex and widest at or below basally, with brown longitudinal markings (Figs. 2, 3); anal tube of male lacking spine-like processes (Figs. 7, 10) (coastal in eastern U.S. and California) … 2
1′.- Lateral margins of frons subparallel, if slightly convex then widest above basal 113, markings variable (Figs. 4-6); anal tube of male bearing elongate spine-like processes (Figs. 13, 16, 19, 22) … 3

2. Frons usually 2X or more longer than wide (Fig. 2); styles caliper-shaped, outer margins broadly rounded (Fig. 9); aedeagus lacking teeth on dorsal and ventral margins (Fig. 8) … P. marginata
2′.- Frons usually less than 2X longer than wide (Fig. 3); styles with outer margins angulate in distal 1/3 (Fig. 12); aedeagus with teeth near dorsal margin and often on ventral margin (Fig. 11) … P. dolus

3. Frons usually with brown longitudinal markings (Fig. 4); styles with apices directed laterally (Figs. 15, 18) … P. salina
3′.- Frons orange to yellow laterally and pale medially (Fig. 5) or entirely pale (Fig. 6); styles with apices directed medially (Figs. 21, 24) . . . 4

4. Frons orange to yellow laterally and pale medially, median carina weakly to well developed (Fig. 5); anal tube of male with dorsally and ventrally directed spine-like processes (Fig. 19); shaft of aedeagus widest basally (Fig. 20) (widespread in eastern and midwestern U.S.)
P. crocea

4′.- Frons pale, median carina strongly developed (Fig. 6); anal tube of male lacking dorsally directed spine-like processes (Fig. 22); shaft of aedeagus widest apically (Fig. 23) (California) … P. carolae

Prokelisia crocea

Prokelisia dolus

Prokelisia marginata


Prokelisia salina

Prokelisia salina

Figures from Wilson 1982

prokelisia marginata and dolus from wilson 1982

 Figures 7-12 – prokelisia marginata and dolus from wilson 1982

Online resources.

Discover Life.
Hoppers of North Carolina. (Link to P. crocea)
Kunzweb Gallery. (link to family, genus not present)
American Insects.(link to family, genus not present)
British Bugs.
Jim Cronin’s website.

Molecular resources:

Genbank has molecular data for 4 species (here).  BOLD has (as of 11 Sept. 2017) 3 species.

Selected References

Badmin, J. 2010. Decline of Prokelisia marginata (Van Duzee) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Kent 2010. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 23(4): 234.

Badmin, J. J. and T. T.  Witts. 2009. Cord-grass planthopper Prokelisia marginata (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) sweeps into Kent. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 22(4): 213-215.

Ball, E. D. 1902. New genera and species of North American Fulgoridae. Canadian Entomologist 34: 259-266.

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Baum, K. A., K. J. Haynes, F. P. Dillemuth and J. T. Cronin. 2004. The matrix enhances the effectiveness of corridors and stepping stones. Ecology 85(10): 2671-2676.

Beamer, R. H. 1945. The genus Kelisia in America North of Mexico (Homoptera: Fulgoridae: Delphacinae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 18(3): 100-108. [Viz. p. 100, Salina, crocea not Kelisia]

Beamer, R. H. 1946b. A new species of delphacine fulgorid with notes on four other species (Homoptera-Fulgoridae-Delphacinae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 19: 82‑87. [Notes on ‘Liburnia crocea‘]

Blauwe, H. de. 2011. De slijkgrascicade Prokelisia marginata (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), een exoot gebonden aan Engels slijkgras Spartina townsendii, verovert nu ook de Belgische kust [Leafhopper bug Prokelisia marginata (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), an exotic species dependent on cord-grass Spartina townsendii, now found on the Belgian coast.]. De Strandvlo 31(3-4): 80-88.

Benton, E. P. and J. W. McCreadie. 2009. A preliminary survey of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of coastal Alabama. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 111(2): 354-360.

Britton, W. E. 1933a. “Homoptera.” In: Plant pest handbook for Connecticut. I. Insects. Bulletin. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station 344: 1-182. Fig(s).: 1-88.[Key to genera, 2 Prokelisia species recorded from CT]

Crawford, D. L. 1914. A contribution toward a monograph of the homopterous insects of the family Delphacidae of North and South America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 46:557-640, plus 6 plates.

Cronin, J. T. 2003a. Movement and spatial population structure of a prairie planthopper. Ecology 84(5): 1179-1188.

Cronin, J. T. 2003b. Matrix heterogeneity and planthopper-parasitoid interactions in space. Ecology 84:1506-1516.

Cronin, J. T. 2003c. Patch structure, oviposition behavior, and the distribution of parasitism risk. Ecological Monographs 73(2): 283-300.

Cronin, J. T. 2004. Host-parasitoid extinction and colonization in a fragmented prairie landscape. Oecologia 139: 503-514.

Cronin, J. T., K. J. Haynes and F. Dillemuth. 2004. Spider effects on planthopper mortality, dispersal and spatial population dynamics. Ecology 85: 2134-2143.

Cronin, J. T. 2007. Shared parasitoids in a metacommunity: indirect interactions inhibit herbivore membership in local communities. Ecology 88: 2977-2990.

Cronin, J. T. and D. R. Strong. 1990. Biology of Anagrus delicatus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of Prokelisia marginata (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 83(4): 846-854.

Cronin, J. T. See

Daehler, C. C. and D. R. Strong. 1996. Status, prediction and prevention of introduced cordgrass Spartina spp. invasions in Pacific estuaries, USA. Biological Conservation 78: 51–58.

Davis, L. V. and I. E. Gray. 1966. Zonal and seasonal distribution of insects in North Carolina salt marshes. Ecological Monographs 36(3): 275-295

Denno, R. F. 1980. Ecotope differentiation in a guild of sap-feeding insects on the salt marsh grass, Spartina patens. Ecology 61(3):702-714.

Denno, R. F. and E. E. Grissell. 1979. The adaptiveness of wing dimorphism in a salt marsh-inhabiting planthopper, Prokelisia marginata (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Ecology 60(1):221-236.

Denno, R. F. and E. S. McCloud. 1985. Predicting fecundity from body size in the planthopper, Prokelisia marginata (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Environmental Entomology 14(6):846-849.

Denno, R. F., L. W. Douglass and D. Jacobs. 1985. Crowding and host plant nutrition: Environmental determinants of wing-form in Prokelisia marginata. Ecology 66(5):1588-1596.

Denno, R. F., M. E. Schauff, S. W. Wilson and K. L. Olmstead. 1987. Practical diagnosis and natural history of two sibling salt marsh-inhabiting planthoppers in the genus Prokelisia (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 89(4):687-700.

Denno, R. F., M. J. Raupp., D. W. Tallamy and C. F. Reichelderfer. 1980. Migration in heterogenous environments: Differences in habitat selection between the wing forms of the dimorphic planthopper Prokelisia marginata (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Ecology 61(4):859-867.

Denton, J. 2010. Further records of Prokelisia marginata (van Duzee) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 23(4): 276.

Eubanks, M. D., M. J. Raupp and D. L. Finke. 2011. Robert F. Denno (1945–2008): Insect Ecologist Extraordinaire. Annual Review of Entomolology 56(1): 273-292.

Finke, D. L. and R. F. Denno. 2004. Predator diversity dampens trophic cascades. Nature 429: 407-410.

Grevstad, F. S., R. W. Switzer and M. S. Wecker. 2004. Habitat trade-offs in the summer and winter performance of the planthopper Prokelisia marginata introduced against the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora in Willapa Bay, Washington.  Pp. 523-528. In: J.M. Cullen, D.T. Briese, D.J. Kriticos, W.M. Lonsdale, L. Morin and J.K. Scott (eds.). Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Canberra, Australia, 27 April – 2 May, 2003. (available

Grevstad, F. S., D. R. Strong, D. D. Garcia-Rossi, R. W. Switzer and M. S.  Wecker. 2003. Biological control of Spartina alterniflora in Willapa Bay, Washington using the planthopper Prokelisia marginata: agent specificity and early results. Biological Control, 27(1), 32-42.

Gustafson, D. J., J. Kilheffer and B. R. Silliman. 2006. Relative effects of Littoraria irrorata and Prokelisia marginata on Spartina alterniflora. Estuaries and Coasts 29(4): 639-644.

Hamilton, K.G.A. 2002c. Îles-de-la-Madeleine (Magdalen Is.): a glacial refugium for short-horned bugs (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha)? Le Naturaliste Canadien 126(1): 25-40.

Heady, S. E. 1993. Factors affecting female sexual receptivity in the planthopper, Prokelisia dolus. Physiological Entomology 18(3): 263-270.

Heady, S. E. and R. F. Denno. 1991. Reproductive isolation in Prokelisia Planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae): Acoustic differentiation and hybridization failure. Journal of Insect Behavior 4(3): 367-390.

Heady, S. E. and S. W. Wilson. 1990. The planthopper genus Prokelisia (Homoptera: Delphacidae): morphology of female genitalia and copulatory behaviour. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 63(2): 267-278.

Hendrickson, G. O. 1930. Studies on the insect fauna of Iowa prairies. Iowa State College Journal of Science 4: 49-179.

Holder, M. D. and S. W. Wilson. 1992. Life history of the delphacid planthopper Prokelisia crocea (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 100(3):491-497.

Kennedy, A. C. and C. R. Bartlett. 2014. Systematics of Caenodelphax Fennah (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Delphacidae) and description of the new genus Flavoclypeus. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 140: 17-65.

Lago, P. K. and S. Testa III. 2000. The terrestrial Hemiptera and auchenorrhynchous Homoptera of Point Clear Island and surrounding marshlands, Hancock County, Mississippi. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences 45: 186-195.

Leach, W. E. 1815a. Entomology. The Edinburg encyclopedia; conducted by David Brewster 9: 57-172. (family Delphacidae here).

Maw, H.E.L., R.G. Foottit, K.G.A. Hamilton and G.G.E. Scudder. 2000. Checklist of the Hemiptera of Canada and Alaska. NRC Research Press, Ottawa. read online:

McCoy, E. D. and J. R. Rey. 1981. Patterns of abundance, distribution, and alary polymorphism among the salt marsh Delphacidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) of northwest Florida. Ecological Entomology 6(3): 285-291.

McDermott, B. T. 1952. A revision of the genus Megamelanus and its allies (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea, Delphacidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 25: 41-49.

Meagher, R. L., Jr., S. W. Wilson, H. D. Blocker, R.V.W. Eckel and R. S. Pfannenstiel. 1993. Homoptera associated with sugarcane fields in Texas. Florida Entomologist 76: 508-514.

Mifsud, D., C. Cocquempot, R. Mühlethaler, M. R. Wilson and J.-C. Streito. 2010. Other Hemiptera Sternorrhyncha (Aleyrodidae, Phylloxeroidea, and Psylloidea) and Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha Chapter 9.4. (Special Issue: Alien terrestrial arthropods of Europe). BioRisk – Biodiversity and Ecosystem Risk Assessment 4(1): 511–552.

Miller, A. T. and S. W. Wilson. 1999. The planthopper genus Prokelisia: Exoskeletal morphology of the tymbals (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoromorpha: Delphacidae). Reichenbachia 33(1): 37-42.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1923. A key to the Fulgoridae of eastern North America. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 38: 139 230.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1943. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 3, Araeopidae (Delphacidae). Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts. 552 pp.

Muir, F.A.G. and W. M. Giffard. 1924. Studies in North American Delphacidae. Bulletin of the Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association, Entomological series no. 15: 1-53.

Olmstead, K. L., R. F. Denno, T. C. Morton and J. T. Romeo. 1997. Influence of Prokelisia planthoppers on amino acid composition and growth of Spartina alterniflora. Journal of Chemical Ecology 23(2): 303-321.

Oman, P. W. 1947. The types of Auchenorrhynchous Homoptera in the Iowa State College Collection. Iowa State College Journal of Science 21: 161-228.

Osborn, H. 1905. Descriptions of new North American Fulgoridae. Ohio Naturalist 5: 373-376.

Osborn, H. and E. D. Ball, 1897. Contributions to the Hemipterous Fauna of Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 4: 172-234.

Ouvrard, D. and A. Soulier-Perkins. 2012. Prokelisia marginata (Van Duzee, 1897) lands on the French coast of Normandy (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 117(4): 441-444.

Raupp, M. J. and R. F. Denno. 1979. The influence of patch size on a guild of sap-feeding insects that inhabit the salt marshed grass Spartina patens. Environmental Entomology 8(3): 412-417.

Reeve, J. D. and J. T. Cronin. 2010. Edge behaviour in a minute parasitic wasp. Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 483-490.

Seljak, G. 2004. Prokelisia marginata (Van Duzee, 1897) – a Nearctic planthopper new to Slovenia and Europe (Auchenorrhyncha: Delphacidae). Acta Entomologica Slovenica 12(2): 260-263 [in Slovenian].

Stiling, P. D. and D. R. Strong. 1982. The parasitoids of the planthopper Prokelisia marginata (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Florida Entomologist 65(1):191-192.

Stiling, P. D. and D. R. Strong. 1982. Egg density and the intensity of parasitism in Prokelisia marginata (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Ecology 63(6): 1630-1635.

Stiling, P. D., A. Throckmorton, J. Silvanima and D. R. Strong. 1991. Biology of and rates of parasitism by nymphal and adult parasites of the salt-marsh-inhabiting planthoppers Prokelisia marginata and P. dolus. Florida Entomologist 74(1): 81-87.

Strong, D. R. 1988. A mite, Ogmotarsonemus erepsis (Tarsonemidae), in oviposition incisions of the planthopper Prokelisia marginata (Homoptera, Delphacidae) on the saltmarsh cordgress, Spartina alterniflora. Florida Entomologist 71(3): 387-389.

Strong, D. R. and P. D. Stiling. 1983. Wing dimorphism changed by experimental density manipulation in a planthopper (Prokelisia marginata, Homoptera, Delphacidae). Ecology 64(1): 206-209.

Trjapitzin. S. V. and D. R. Strong. 1995. A new Anagrus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), egg parasitoid of Prokelisia spp. (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 71(4): 199-203.

Van Duzee, E. P. 1897. A preliminary review of the North American Delphacidae. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 5: 225-261.

Van Duzee, E. P. 1916a. Suborder Homoptera Latr. 1810. Section Auchenorhyncha A. & S. 1843. In Check list of Hemiptera (excepting the Aphididae, Aleurodidae and Coccidae) of America north of Mexico. New York Entomological Society, New York. pp.: i-xi, 1-111.

Van Duzee, E. P. 1917b. Catalogue of the Hemiptera of America north of Mexico excepting the Aphididae, Coccidae and Aleurodidae. Technical Bulletin. University of California, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station. Entomology. 2: i-xiv, 1-902.

Wilson M. W. and R. Mühlethaler. 2009. Hemiptera Report. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 22: 185.

Wilson, S. W. 1982. The planthopper genus Prokelisia in the United States (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Delphacidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 55(3): 532-546.

Wilson, S. W. 2012. Tymbal morphology and co-occurrence of Spartina sap-feeding insects (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). The Great Lakes Entomologist 45(3-4): 166-194.

Wilson, S. W. and J. E. McPherson. 1980a. Keys to the planthoppers, or Fulgoroidea, of Illinois (Homoptera). Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 73(2): 1‑61.

Wilson, S. W. and J. E. McPherson. 1980b. The distribution of the Fulgoroidea of the eastern United States (Homoptera). Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 73(4): 7‑20.

Wilson, S. W. and A. G. Wheeler. 2010. Planthopper (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) diversity of weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), an introduced host of little-known, rarely collected native species. Entomologica Americana 116(3): 98-106. [Prokelisia salina on weeping lovegrass]

Wu, M., S. Hacker, D. Ayres and D. R. Strong. 1999. Potential of Prokelisia spp. as Biological Control Agents of English Cordgrass, Spartina anglica. Biological Control 16(3): 267-273.

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