Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815
Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815
Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815
Genus Phyllodinus Van Duzee, 1897
Jamiphax Matsumura, 1940 synonym of Phyllodinus Van Duzee, 1897 according to Ishihara (1949: 73).
Type species: Phyllodinus nervatus Van Duzee, 1897.
North temperate North America, especially east; but three species currently in this genus from Taiwan and one from the Philippines.
Five currently recognized species as follows: [See Metcalf 1943: 146]
Phyllodinus nervatus Van Duzee, 1897: 240 – USA: Colorado, Iowa, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Utah, Wisconsin, Wyoming; Canada: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan
Phyllodinus affinis (Schumacher, 1915) – Taiwan
= Pundaluoya affinis Schumacher, 1915: 132.
= Phyllodinus affinis (Schumacher, 1915); comb. by Ishihara 1949: 77; see also Yang 1989: 320. (Looks like a Perkinsiella)
Phyllodinus aritainoides (Schumacher, 1915) – Taiwan
= Pundaluoya aritainoides Schumacher, 1915: 141.
= Phyllodinus aritainoides (Schumacher, 1915); comb. by Ishihara 1949: 76; see also Yang 1989: 320. (maybe a Cemus)
Phyllodinus kotoshonis (Matsumura, 1940) – Taiwan
= Jamiphax kotoshonis Matsumura 1940.
= Phyllodinus kotoshonis (Matsumura, 1940); comb. by Ishihara 1949: 77; see also Yang 1989: 319.
Unsure of current nomenclature of the following species (check Ding 2006).
Combinations recently in Phyllodinus
Fennah 1964: 147 described Cemus for species formerly placed in Phyllodinus. He comments on related genera – rather vaguely – as follows [comments in brackets]:
This genus [Cemus] is in the Phyllodinus group. It is separable from Phyllodinus by the many-toothed spur and he normal [i.e., not expanded] forelegs, from Phacalaster by the proportions and cylindrical shape of the first antennal segment [I suppose Phacalastor‘s antenna is flattened]. and by male genitalic structure, from Asiracina by the shape of the head, the normal fore legs, the relatively short first antennal segment, and the pattern of the male genitalia; from the closely allied Pelides it is separated by the relatively long common vein in the clavus, by the normal fore and middle legs [forelegs not or feebly flattened], and by the shape of the seventh and eighth abdominal sterna, and from Platypareia by the proportions of the antennae, shape of the head, and structure of the male genitalia. …
Species of this genus [Cemus] are very similar, and their distribution suggested to the writer [Fennah] the possibility that they might represent a single polytypic species.
The following were transferred to Cemus by Fennah 1964: 147, mostly from Phyllodinus:
Cemus pulchellus (Distant 1912: 190) (Pundaluoya then Phyllodinus by Muir (1921: 485)
Cemus kirkaldyi Metalf 1943: 148 replacement name for Phacalastor koebelei Kirkaldy 1906 [nec Osborn 1903]),
Cemus sauteri (Muir, 1917: 319) (from Phyllodinus)
Cemus granulinervis (Stal 1854: 246) (from Delphax [Metcalf], and Phyllodinus in Fennah 1956b: 111)
Cemus nigromaculosus (Muir 1917: 319) (from Phyllodinus) (see also Fennah 1956b: 111).
Phyllodinus macaoensis Muir, 1913: 246 (Fennah 1956: 469) – Vietnam (Tonkin); to Cemus macaoensis (Muir, 1913) by Ding (2006): 285.
Other Phyllodinus transferred to other genera:
Phyllodinus punctatus Muir, 1917: 320 to Cemus punctatus (Muir, 1917) by Yang 1989: 131.
Jamiphax nigropunctata Matsumura 1940: 36 (= Phyllodinus nigropunctatus Ishihara, 1949:75; 1952: 42 (misidentification according to Yang 1989: 75), to Cemus nigropunctatus (Matsumura 1940) by Yang 1989: 135.
Phyllodinus albofasciatus Muir, 1929 to Asiracina albofasciata (Muir) by Asche, 1988b: 169.
Phyllodinus badius Muir, 1920: 144 to Asiracina badia (Muir 1920) by Fennah 1969: 12; also Asche 1988: 166.
(Fennah 1956: 469)
Phyllodinus evansi Muir 1929: 194; to Asiracina evensi (Muir) by Asche 1988: 168.
Asche 1988: 169 remarked
The genus Asiracina is externally very similar to the genus Phyllodinus Van Duzee, 1879 [sic. 1897], by means of foliately expanded femora and tibiae of the fore- and middlelegs. The African species which formerly have been placed in Phyllodinus and now are accommodated in Asiracina differ considerably from the nearctic type-species Phyllodinus nervatus Van Duzee, 1897, in characters of the male genitalia: genital segment with paired subcylindrical processes at the ventrocaudal margin (missing in P. nervatus), parameres distally diverging (in P. nervatcus converging), aedeagus with a long recurrent, flag-like distal part (in P. nervatus without recurrent « flag»), suspensorium y-shaped (in P. nervatus rectanaular). These differences do not support the assumption of a closer relationship between these taxa. Therefore the African Asiracina-species which are likely to be monophyletic should kept separate from the North American genus Phyllodinus. Asiracina contains the species Asiracina badia, Asiracina evansi and Asiracina punctovenosa, the latter has not yet been re-examined and could even be identical either with A. evansi, or with A. badia. Also here belongs Phyllodinus albofasciata Muir, 1929
from South Africa, Natal.
… The relationships between Asiracina and oriental taxa with foliate legs which are still placed in Phyllodinus V.D. has to be clarified.
Note: The genus Phyllodinus is probably best restricted to the North American Phyllodinus nervatus. Both Yang (1989) and Ding (2006) treated Phyllodinus affinis, P. aritainoides, and P. kotoshonis as species of uncertain status. All four of these species probably belong to Cemus (or Jamiphax); however, this cannot be assumed without review of the type specimens.
The synonymy of Jamiphax with Phyllodinus seems unlikely (termed an error in Bartlett et al. 2014: 135).
Phyllodinus nervatus – common hairgrass (Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin.) (Poaceae) (Wheeler and Hoebeke 2008)
Phyllodinus nervatus – Poa sp. in alluvial floodplain forest.
No plant associations are reported in Wilson et al. 1994.
Phyllodinus nervatus can be a locally common species. In my experience it is found mostly on grasses in mesic forests. It is a large species, usually brachypterous, having a spotted frons, enlarged front femora and tibiae and the teeth of the calcar are reduced and normally not black-tipped. Among North American taxa it is distinctive, most similar to Pissonotus that share the expanded front legs (e.g., Pissonotus aphidioides , P. tumidus, P. tessellatus , and P. nitens). Phyllodinus can be separated from all Pissonotus because it lacks the median processes on the ventral margin opening of the male pygofer, which are present in all Pissonotus. Aside from genitalia Phyllodinus is similar to Pissonotus in that the median carinae of the frons is forked on the frons, but in Phyllodinus the branching arms are diverging and distinct, whereas in Pissonotus the arms are closely approximated on the frons.
In the Old World, Phyllodinus is similar to several genera, but especially to Cemus Fennah, 1964. Fennah (1964) described the differences between Cemus and Phyllodinus as being the former species having a many-toothed calcar and the forelegs not (or not as) expanded. Other similar genera according to Fennah (1964) include Peliades Jacobi, 1928, Phacalastor Kirkaldy, 1906, Platypareia Muir, 1934, Asiracina Melichar, 1912, and possibly Pundaluoya Kirkaldy, 1902. Phacalastor has the first antennal segments flattened and Peliades does not have expanded forelegs.
Phyllodinus nervatus from Wheeler & Hoebeke 2008
At this time, Genbank and Bold do not have any molecular data for this genus. Urban et al. (2010) sequenced 4 genetic loci (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, wingless, and cytochrome oxidase I) for Phyllodinus nervatus in their analyses.
[includes distribution records, still incomplete]
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