Genus Paradelphacodes Wagner 1963

[back to Higher Classification of Delphacidae]
[back to A checklist of New World delphacid species]

Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815

Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815

Genus Paradelphacodes Wagner 1963

Type species (in original combination): Delphax paludosa Flor, 1861.


Boreal (Holarctic) mostly Old World; in the New World reported from Canada and Alaska.

Distribution of Paradelphacodes from FLOW

Distribution of Paradelphacodes from FLOW (as of 7 March 2020)

Recognized species

This genus is represented by 5 species (distribution information may be incomplete)

Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev, 1980) – European Russia, Kazakhstan
= Chloriona gvosdevi Mitjaev, 1980: 36.
= Paradelphacodes gvosdevi Mitjaev, 1980; comb. by Mitjaev, 2002: 104
= Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev, 2000; syn. by Dmitriev and McKamey, 2013.
Paradelphacodes litoralis (Reuter, 1880) – Canada: Newfoundland, British Colombia, Northwest Territories, Yukon; Finland, Scandinavia, Germany, Great Britain (Scotland), Russia (Buryatiya, Yakutskiya)
= Liburnia litoralis Reuter, 1880: 198, original combination
= Delphax littoralis [sic] (Reuter, 1880); comb. by Puton 1886: 74.
= Delphacodes litoralis Reuter, 1880; comb. by Metcalf 1943: 463; Le Quesne (1964: 57)
Paraliburnia (Struebingianella) litoralis (Reuter, 1880); comb. by LeQuesne 1964: 57.
= Struebingianella litoralis (Reuter, 1880); status by Nast (1972: 62); Anufriev (1980: 211)
= Paradelphacodes litoralis (Reuter, 1880); comb. by Anufriev 1980: 211.
Paradelphacodes orientalis Anufriev, 1972 – Mongolia, Russia (Khabarovsk, Kuril Islands, Primorye, Sikhote Alin Region) , China
Paradelphacodes paludosus (Flor, 1861) – USA: Alaska; Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic (Bohemia, Moravia), Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, n. Italy, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku), Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Netherlands, Poland, Russia (Khabarovsk, Kuril Islands, Primorye, Sakhalin), Slovenia, Sweden, Turkey, Yugoslavia; China, Mongolia
= Delphax paludosus Flor, 1861, original combination
= Calligypona brunneola Dubovsky, 1966; synonym by Emeljanov (1982: 83)
= Liburnia paludosa (Flor); comb. by Scott, 1870. Ent. Monthly Mag. 7:75
= Paradelphacodes paludosa (Flor); comb. by Wagner, 1963: 169.
= Delphacodes kuwaharai Ishihara, 1949; syn. by Vilbaste 1968.
= Kakuna kuwaharai (Ishihara) comb. by Kuoh & Ding, 1980:301. [301 is in volume 4, do not have this reference]
Paradelphacodes tengaicus Vilbaste, 1965 – Russia (Altai Mtns, Primorye) Japan (Hokkaido)

Economic importance

Limited. Paradelphacodes litoralis is listed in Kirby (1992) as a scarce species. Paradelphacodes paludosus shows up in rice fields but is of low importance (e.g., Dupo and Barrion. 2009).

Plant associations

Paradelphacodes litoralis Carex rostrata Stokes (Beaked sedge), Eriophorum sp. (cottongrass), Eleocharis sp. (spikeruss), Phragmites (common reed).

Paradelphacodes paludosusCarex rostrata Stokes, Carex panicea L. (grass-like sedge; Cyperaceae); Agropyron sp., (wheatgrass), Dactylis glomerata L. (orchardgrass), Phalaris canariensis L. (annual canarygrass), Sporobolus sp. (dropseed) (Poaceae).

Host information from Wilson et al. 1994, Holzinger et al. 2003, Nickel 2003, Ding 2006.  See also FLOW for plant associations I might have missed.


From Dupo and Barrion 2009: 73.
“Generic features: Body length 2.8–3 mm; pale brown planthopper as reflected in the frons, clypeus, genae, and antennae; forewings hyaline; head moderately projected in front of eyes; vertex as long as wide to slightly longer than wide; basal compartment with each cell a little longer than wide, median carina present; submedian carina united in the frons; frons distinctly longer than wide; widest at midlength, median carina forked closer to base than midlength, lateral carina slightly convex; antennae cylindrical, base of segment I slightly narrower than apex; segment II about 2x longer than segment I and exceeded the frontoclypeal suture; vertex longer than pronotum; combined length of vertex and pronotum shorter than mesonotum, the latter about 1.2x longer than vertex and pronotum; lateral carina of pronotum curved posteriorlaterally, not reaching hind margins; mesonotum tricarinate with subparallel lateral carinae; pygofer ovoid, laterodorsal angle distinct to weakly produced; medioventral margin moderately concave; paramere diverging, with apicolateral tip pointed blunt, inner margins curved; anal segment with a pair of ventral processes, short and acute at tips; aedeagus simple with a ring-like suspensorium.”


Paradelphacodes paludosa

Paradelphacodes paludosa from Gernot Kunz.

Paradelphacodes paludosus

Paradelphacodes paludosus from BOLD.

Paradelphacodes insolitus

Paradelphacodes insolitus

Paradelphacodes insolitus from Dmitriev 2000

Paradelphacodes litoralis

Paradelphacodes litoralis

Paradelphacodes litoralis from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Paradelphacodes paludosus (photos from Bartlett et al. 2015, specimen from Alaska)

Paradelphacodes paludosus

Paradelphacodes paludosus (photos from Bartlett et al. 2015, specimen from Alaska)

Paradelphacodes orientalis

Paradelphacodes orientalis from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Paradelphacodes orientalis

Paradelphacodes orientalis

Paradelphacodes orientalis from Anufriev 1972

Paradelphacodes tengaica

Paradelphacodes tengaica

Paradelphacodes tengaica from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Online resources

Fauna Europaea.
Kunzweb Gallery.
Discover Life.
Insect drummers. (sound!)
Cornish red data.
Flickr. (if that works)
Natural History Museum.

Molecular resources

Paradelphacodes is now present in BOLD. A little data is also present on  Genbank.

Selected References

Anufriev, G. A. 1972. New and Little Known Leaf-hoppers from the Family Delphacidae (Homoptera) from the Maritime District. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 51(4): 612-615.

Anufriev, G. A. 1980. A new species and new genera of leafhoppers of the family Delphacidae (Homoptera, Auchenorrhycha) from Palaearctic. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 59: 208-216.

Anufriev, G. A. 2009. Cicadina. p. 52-69. In: 2009 – Insects of Lazovsky Nature Reserve., Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch, Institute of biology and soil Science, Vladivostok Dalnauka (Russia).

Anufriev, G. A. and A. M. Averkin. 1982. On delphacids of the Komsomolsky Reserve (Khabarovsk Region, USSR) (Insecta, Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Delphacidae). Faunistische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde in Dresden (1981) 9(6): 95-100.

Asche, M. 1982. Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Ungarns (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 139-154.

Bartlett, C. R., S. W. Wilson and D. S. Sikes. 2015. First New World Record of Paradelphacodes paludosus (Flor 1861) (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea : Delphacidae) in Alaska. Entomological News 124(5): 370-371. (here, for example)

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

D’Urso, V. 1995. Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha. In: Checklist delle specie della Fauna Italiana 42: 1-35.

Ding, J. H. 2006. Fauna Sinica Insecta Vol. 45 Homoptera Delphacidae. Science Press, Beijing, China.

Ding, J.H. and F. Zhang. 1994. Delphacidae Fauna of Northeast China – Homoptera Fulgoroidea. China Agricultural Scientech Press.

Dmitriev, D. A. 2000. A new species of Paradelphacodes from centre of European Russia (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Zoosystematica Rossica 8(2): 281-282.

Dmitriev, D. A. and S. H. McKamey. 2013. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera). Zookeys (277): 109-113.

Dubovsky, G. K. 1966. Tsikadovye (Anchenorrhyncha) Ferganskoi doliny. [Cicadinea (Auchenorrhyncha) of the Fergana Valley.]. Fan, Tashkent. 256 pp.

Dupo, A.L.B. and A. T. Barrion. 2009. Taxonomy and general biology of delphacid planthoppers in rice agroecosytems. Pp 3-156 In: K.L. Heong and B. Hardy, (eds). Planthoppers: new threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines.

Emeljanov, A. F. 1977. Leaf-hoppers (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha) from the Mongolian People’s Republic based mainly on materials of the Soviet-Mongolian zoological expeditions (1967-1969). Nasekomye Mongolii [Insects of Mongolia] 5: 96-195.

Emeljanov, A. F. 1982. Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) collected in the Mongolian People’s Republic by the entomofaunistical group of the Soviet Mongolian complex biological expedition in 1970-1975. Insects Mongolia 8: 69-122.

Flor, G. 1861. Die Rhynchoten Livlands in systematischer Folge beschrieben. Zweiter Theil: Rhynchota gulaerostria Zett. (Homoptera Au.t). Cicadina und Psyllodea. Archiv für die Naturkunde Liv-, Ehst-und Kurlands. (Ser. 2) 4: 1-567 [82].

Gębicki, C., D. Świerczewski and J Szwedo. 2013. Planthoppers and Leafhoppers of Poland (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha et Cicadomorpha). Systematics, Check-list, Bionomy. The Monograph. Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum, Entomology 21-22: 1-245.

Gunthart, H. and R. Muhlethaler. 2002. Provisorische Checklist der Zikaden der Schweiz (Insecta: Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia 04, zugleich Kataloge des OO. Landesmuseums, Neue Folge, 176: 329-338.

Hayashi, M. and S. Fujinuma. 2016. Part Fulgoromorpha. p. 323-355. In: Entomological Society of Japan. 2016. Catalogue of the insects of Japan. Volume 4 Paraneoptera (Psocodea, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera), 4. Editorial Committee of Catalogue of the Insects of Japan.

Holzinger, W. E., I. Kammerlander and H. Nickel. 2003. Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha excluding Cicadellidae. Volume 1. The Auchenorrhyncha of Central Europe. Brill Academic Publishing, Leiden, Netherlands.

Ishihara, T. 1949.  Revision of the Araeopidae of Japan, Ryukyu Islands and Formosa (Hemiptera) in Scientific Reports of the Matsuyama Agricultural College 2: 1-102, 232 figs. [Delphacodes kuwaharai Ishihara, 1949]

Kirby, P. 1992. A review of the scarce and threatened Hemiptera of Great Britain. UK Nature Conservation 2: 1-267.

Lauterer, P. 1980. New and interesting records of leafhoppers from Czechoslovakia (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Acta Musei Moraviae 65: 117-140.

Le Quesne, W. J. 1960. Hemiptera (Fulgoromorpha). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects II (3): 1-68.

Le Quesne, W. J. 1964. Some taxonomic observations on the British Delphacidae (Hemiptera). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London. series B 33(3-4): 56-58.

Leach, W. E. 1815a. Entomology. The Edinburg encyclopedia; conducted by David Brewster 9: 57-172. (family Delphacidae here).

Maw, H.E.L., R. G. Foottit, K.G.A. Hamilton and G.G.E. Scudder. 2000. Checklist of the Hemiptera of Canada and Alaska. NRC Research Press, Ottawa. read online:

Metcalf, Z. P. 1943. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 3, Araeopidae (Delphacidae). Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts.

Mitjaev, I. D. 1980. New species of Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) from Northern Kazakhstan. Izvestiya Academii Nauk KazSSR. (Biol. ) 1: 36-39. [In Russian]

Mitjaev, I. D. 2002. Fauna, Ecology and zoogeography of leafhoppers (Homoptera, Cicadinea) of Kazakhstan. Tethys Entomol. Research 5: 1-168. [In Russian]

Nast, J. 1972. Palaearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera). An annotated check list. Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa, 550 pp.

Nast, J. 1987. The Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) of Europe. Annales Zoologici Warszawa 40: 535-661.

Nickel, H. 2003. The Leafhoppers and Planthoppers of Germany (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha): patterns and strategies in a highly diverse group of phytophagous insects. Pensoft Series Faunistica No. 28, Sofia-Moscow, Keltern, 1-460.

Okada, T. 1977. Taxonomic characters for identification of the rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) ant its related species in the Asian and Pacific region.  Pp. 1-26. In: Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region, (ed.). The Rice Brown Planthopper (Proceedings of the International Seminar). Taipei, Taiwan.

Ossiannilsson, F, 1978. The Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Part 1: Introduction, infraorder Fulgoromorpha. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 7 (1): 1-222.

Puton, A. 1886. Homoptera Am. Serv. (Gulaerostria Zett. Fieb.) Sect. 1. Auchenorhyncha Dumér. Cicadina Burm. Pp. 3-100. In: Catalogue des Hémiptères (Hétéroptères, Cicadines et Psyllides) de la faune Paléarctique. 3e Ed. Imprimerie le Blanc-Hardel [Henri Delesques], Caen.

Remane, R. and W. Frohlich. 1994. Vorlaufige, kritische Artenliste der im Gebiet der Bundesrepublik Deutschland nachgewiesenen Taxa der Insekten-Gruppe der Zikaden (Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 2(8): 189-232.

Reuter, O. M. 1880. Nya bidrag till Abo och Alands skärgards Hemipter-fauna. Meddelanden af Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Helsingfors 5: 160-236 [198].

Scott, J. 1870d. On certain British Hemiptera-Homoptera. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 7:73-75 [75].

Soos, A. 1976. Sphenidius horvathi gen. n., sp. n. aus Spanien (Homoptera: Issidae). Folia entomologica Hungarica 29 (1): 87-91.

Vilbaste, J. 1965. Über die Zikadenfauna Atlais [in Russian with German summary]. Akademiya Nauk Estonskoï SSR, Institut Zoologii i Botaniki, Tartu (Estonia). [18]

Vilbaste, J. 1968.  Preliminary key for the identification of the nymphs of Northern European Homoptera Cicadina I. Delphacidae. Annales Entomologica Fennica 34 (2): 63-74. [Delphacodes kuwaharai Ishihara, 1949]

Wilson, S. W. 1992. The Delphacidae of Yukon Territory, Canada (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Insecta Mundi 6(2): 79-100.

Wilson, S. W., C. Mitter, R. F. Denno and M. R. Wilson. 1994. Evolutionary patterns of host plant use by delphacid planthoppers and their relatives. In: R.F. Denno and T.J. Perfect, (eds.). Planthoppers: Their Ecology and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York. Pp. 7-45 & Appendix [host references in appendix].

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