- 1 Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815
- 1.1 Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815
- 1.2 Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815
Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815
Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815
Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815
Genus Nilaparvata Distant, 1906: 473.
= Kalpa Distant, 1906 (Type species Kalpa aculeata Distant 1906); syn. by Muir 1919: 7-8.
Type species (in original combination): Nilaparavata greeni Distant, 1906: 473, a junior synonym of Delphax lugens Stal, 1854.
Pantropical, with most species in the Old World tropics.
19 recognized species worldwide as follows:
1 Nilaparvata caldwelli Metcalf, 1955 – Belize, Puerto Rico, Belize, French Guiana, Hispaniola (D.R.), Mexico (Oaxaca); USA: Florida, North Carolina (Senegal, Sudan; reports from Africa need confirmation)
= Nilaparvata muiri Caldwell, 1951: 193 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951) (nec China, 1925).
= Nilaparvata caldwelli Metcalf, 1955: 262; replacement name for unavailable N. muiri Caldwell, 1951.
= Nilaparvata bis Nast 1984: 396; replacement name for unavailable N. muiri Caldwell, 1951; syn. by Bartlett, 2007: 51.
2 Nilaparvata gerhardi (Metcalf, 1923: 210) – Canada (BC, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan); USA: Delaware, Illinois, Louisiana, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Texas, Utah, Virginia; ? Guatemala
= Liburnia gerhardi Metcalf, 1923: 210, pls. 62 & 70.
= Euidella gerhardi (Metcalf 1923); comb. by Metcalf 1949: 58.
= Euides gerhardi (Metcalf 1923); comb. by implication Metcalf 1952: 230-231.
= Nilaparvata gerhardi (Metcalf 1923); comb. by Bartlett 2007: 55.
3 Nilaparvata guianensis (Muir 1919) – Bahamas, Belize, Costa Rica, Mexico (Distrito Federal, (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Veracruz), Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Cayman Islands, ? Bolivia; USA: Florida
= Nilaparvata serrata Caldwell, 1951; syn by Kennedy & Bartlett 2021: 530.
4 Nilaparvata wolcotti Muir and Giffard, 1924 – USA: Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Utah; Puerto Rico, Mexico (Guanajuato, Veracruz), Costa Rica
Old World (distribution records may be incomplete)
1 Nilaparvata albotristriata (Kirkaldy, 1907) – Australia
= Delphax albotristriatus Kirkaldy 1907a: 154.
= Delphax thyestes Kirkaldy 1907a: 152 syn by Bellis & Donaldson 2016.
= Nilaparvata albotristriata (Kirkaldy); comb. apparently by Ding, 1981; (see also Metcalf 1943: 322).
= Chloriona thyestes (Kirkaldy); comb. by Metcalf 1943: 328.
2 Nilaparvata angolensis Synave, 1959 – Angola
3 Nilaparvata bakeri (Muir, 1917) – Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland); China (Guangdong), Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku); Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Philippines (Luzon), Sri Lanka, Taiwan
= Delphacodes bakeri Muir, 1917, original combination
= Nilaparvata bakeri (Muir, 1917), comb. by Muir (1923)
4 Nilaparvata camilla Fennah, 1969 – Sudan
5 Nilaparvata castanea Huang and Ding, 1979 – China
6 Nilaparvata chaeremon Fennah, 1975 – Sri Lanka
7 Nilaparvata diophantus Fennah, 1958a – Portuguese Guinea
8 Nilaparvata lineolae Huang and Tian, 1979 – China
9 Nilaparvata lugens (Stal, 1854: 246) – Widespread in tropical and temperate Asia and Pacific Islands (Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, Caroline Islands, China (Hainan, Hong Kong, Hubei, Zhejiang; Jiangsu); Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku); Korea, Laos, Malaysia Mariana islands, Myanmar (ex Burma), Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Nepal, Pakistan (Palearctic), Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam )
= Delphax lugens Stål, 1854: 246, original combination.
= Delphax sordescens De Motschulsky, 1863: 109; synonym by Melichar, 1903: 102, 225; Muir & Giffard (1924)
= Nilaparvata greeni Distant, 1906: 473; synonym according to Muir (1919: 7, 1922: 350); Muir & Giffard (1924)
= Kalpa aculeata Distant, 1906: 474; synonym according to Muir (1919: 8, 1922: 350); Muir & Giffard (1924)
= Delphax parysatis Kirkaldy, 1907: 153; synonym according to Muir & Giffard (1924).
= Delphax ordovix Kirkaldy, 1907: 152; synonym according to Muir & Giffard (1924).
= Liburnia sordescens (De Motschulsky, 1863); comb. by Melichar, 1903: 102, 225.
= Dicranotropis anderita Kirkaldy, 1907: 133; syn. by Muir 1919: 7.
= Delphacodes anderita (Kirkaldy, 1907); comb. by Muir, 1917: 311.
= Delphacodes parysatis (Kirkaldy, 1907); comb. by Muir, 1917: 333.
= Delphacodes ordovix (Kirkaldy, 1907), comb. by Muir 1917: 333.
= Delphacodes sordescens (De Motschulsky, 1863); comb. by Muir, 1919: 8 (transfer implicit).
= Nilaparvata sordescens (De Motschulsky, 1863); comb. by Muir, 1922: 350.
10 Nilaparvata maeander Fennah, 1958 – Guinea, Sudan, Mauritius
11 Nilaparvata muiri China, 1925 – South Korea, China (Hubei, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku), Taiwan, Vietnam .
12 Nilaparvata myersi Muir, 1923 – New Zealand (North), Australia (Tasmania)
13 Nilaparvata nigritarsis Muir, 1926 – South Africa, Sudan
Nilaparvata oryzae (Matsumura, 1907) [Japan, Korea, Formosa, China, Manchuria [I think this is a missed synonym of N. lugens)]
= Delphax oryzae Matsumura, 1907 original combination
= Nilaparvata oryzae (Matsumura, 1907); comb. by Kaburaki and Imamura, 1932
14 Nilaparvata seminula Melichar, 1914: 110 – Philippine Islands (Java)
15 Nilaparvata terracefrons Guo and Liang, 2005 – China (Guangdong)
Note: Some species of Nilaparvata, in particular N. lugens, have long-distance migration.
Nilaparvata lugens, N. bakeri, N. maeander and N. muiri – Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Nilaparvata lugens – Oryza sativa L., Saccharum officinarum L. Zizania sp. (Poales, Poaceae) (Hasegawa 1955: 132, Sigsgaard 2007);
Nilaparvata bakeri, N. muiri – Cutgrasses (Leersia spp.); Cui et al. (2013) reports these species on Leersia hexandra Sw. and Leersia sayanuka Ohwi in laboratory experiments (i.e., not on rice)
Nilaparvata bakeri – Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. (Poaceae) by Hasegawa (1955: 132)
Nilaparvata gerhardi has been reported from Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.) Volkart ex Schinz & R. Keller (reported as Scirpus americana) (bulrush, a sedge – Cyperaceae)
Nilaparvata muiri – Leersia japonica (Makino ex Honda) Honda (Poaceae)
Nilaparvata wolcotti – I have collected this species on Schoenoplectus, but I am not sure which species it was. They were found by D-vacing the base of the plant.
Predators and parasites
Nilaparvata lugens (CABI has a more extensive list):
Agamermis changshaensis Bao, Luo and Luo, 1992 (Nematoda, Mermithida, Mermithidae) (Bao et al. 1992)
Agamermis unka Kaburaki et Imamura 1932 (Nematoda, Mermithida, Mermithidae) (Choo et al. 1989 , Choo & Kaya 1990: 513)
Anagrus sp. (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) (Swaminathan & Ananthakrishnan 1984: 7).
Elenchus yasumatsui Kifune & Hirashima, 1975 (Strepsiptera: Elenchidae) (e.g., Kathirithamby 1994)
Nilaparvata lugens, the brown planthopper (BPH) is an important and widespread pest of rice (see
ricehoppers.net CABI). Nilaparvata lugens can reach high densities on rice, and vectors Rice Grassy Stunt Virus (RGSV), and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus (RRSV). It is also migratory and moves north as southern populations build up. A good recent reference on rice diseases transmitted by Nilaparvata lugens is Cabauatan et al. (2009) (citation below).
Nilaparvata lugens has been intercepted at US ports, but so far they have not become established.
Nilaparvata bakeri, N. maeander, and N. muiri are also known from rice. None of these four species are known from the New World.
Of the four Nilaparvata species in the New World, none are known to be pests on economic crops, although Nilaparvata wolcotti has been recorded from sugarcane. Nilaparvata planthoppers endemic to the New World are often found at lights.
Other Nilaparvata on rice is of comparatively minor (or at least local) importance. Nilaparvata muiri is also a vector of Rice Grassy Stunt Virus (RGSV), Nilaparvata bakeri has also been recorded as a vector of Rice Grassy Stunt Virus (RGSV), and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus (RRSV). Photos and additional information on these species can be found here: http://naturalhistory.museumwales.ac.uk/vectors/Home.php
A good general source of information on rice planthoppers is the ricehoppers blog: http://ricehoppers.net/. (Which seems to be down now.)
The genus Nilaparvata can be recognized by the presence of a series of teeth on the first tarsal segment of the hind leg. New World Nilaparvata were reviewed by Bartlett (2007).
Key to New World species of Nilaparvata (modified from Bartlett, 2007)
1. Aedeagus appearing bifid from base to apex, without subapical serrate flange, parameres relatively narrow, apex acute and directed dorsolaterally … Nilaparvata caldwelli
1.’ Aedeagus not appearing bifid, with serrate flange originating on the right side; parameres relatively broad, apex blunt and laterally directed… 2
2. Segment X with long processes, approximated at base, originated subdorsally; parameres in widest view broadly laterally projecting, lateral margin nearly truncate …Nilaparvata guianensis
2’. Segment X with short processes or a pair of teeth, originating dorsally; parameres in widest view with dorsal margin broad and truncate, lateral margin acutely pointed, directed sublaterally … 3
3. Segment X processes very short, often reduced to teeth; originating somewhat medially from the dorsolateral margin; parameres in widest view with dorsal margin gradually sloped upwards to a dorsolaterally directed apex … Nilaparvata wolcotti
3’. Segment X processes longer, curved; originating from the dorsolateral margin of segment X; parameres with dorsal margin truncate, lateral apex directed sublaterally … Nilaparvata gerhardi
Nilaparvata lugens (Stal, 1854)
Nilaparvata lugens – the brown planthopper – is not known from the New World but has been intercepted at ports. It is a very important rice pest throughout the Old World. Externally it is very similar to the endemic New World species, but the parameres and shape of the aedeagus are quite different (see figure here).
New World Nilaparvata are externally quite similar and are best identified by their male genitalia, in particular the shape of the parameres and aedeagus.
Nilaparvata caldwelli Metcalf, 1955 (Dorsal view and face) (Photos by Kimberley Shropshire, University of Delaware)
Nilaparvata caldwelli is the least common of the New World Nilaparvata.
Nilaparvata gerhardi (Metcalf, 1923)
Nilaparvata gerhardi appears to be distributed in temperate eastern North America, and only doubtfully in the tropics. Additional views of this species, including genitalia are here.
Nilaparvata guianensis (Muir 1919)
Nilaparvata guianensis is found mostly in the New World tropics but is known from Florida. The shape of the male paramere (the image on the right is a left paramere) and aedeagus are distinctive in this species and can be seen in the figure here.
Nilaparvata wolcotti Muir and Giffard, 1924
Nilaparvata wolcotti is widespread in North America and is also known from Mexico and Puerto Rico. Like all the new World Nilaparvata, it is best recognized by the male genitalia, which can be seen here.
I do not have photographs of Nilaparvata muiri or N. bakeri, but here are line drawings of the genitalia from Wilson & Claridge, 1991 (from here).
Bugguide (this genus not on Bugguide, oddly)
Insects of Australia (4 species)
Leafhopper, Planthopper & Psyllid Vectors of Plant Disease (search=Nilaparvata, if that works)
(more to add)
There are a wide variety of molecular resources available for Nilaparvata lugens including a variety of genes, an EST library, a mitogenome, and an ongoing genome project. From a molecular standpoint, Nilaparvata lugens is probably the best-known delphacid. A link to Nilaparvata lugens molecular resources on Genbank is (should be) here. As of this writing, On BOLD Nilaparvata lugens gets its own page;
138 233 377 specimens with barcodes are available here.
Resources for the remaining species of Nilaparvata are sparse, with 4 other species and a ‘sp.’ available on BOLD..
(always more to add and links to BHL are always in progress):
There is a voluminous literature on Nilaparvata lugens; search for Nilaparvata here.
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