Genus Nilaparvata Distant, 1906

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Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815

Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815

Genus Nilaparvata Distant, 1906: 473.


= Kalpa Distant, 1906 (Type species Kalpa aculeata Distant 1906); syn. by Muir 1919: 7-8.

Type species (in original combination): Nilaparavata greeni Distant, 1906: 473, a junior synonym of Delphax lugens Stal, 1854.


Pantropical, with most species in the Old World tropics.

Distribution of Nilaparvata from FLOW

Distribution of Nilaparvata from FLOW (as of 6 March 2020)).

Recognized species

19 recognized species worldwide as follows:

New World

1 Nilaparvata caldwelli Metcalf, 1955 –  Belize, Puerto Rico, Belize, French Guiana, Hispaniola (D.R.), Mexico (Oaxaca); USA: Florida, North Carolina (Senegal, Sudan; reports from Africa need confirmation)
= Nilaparvata muiri Caldwell, 1951: 193 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951) (nec China, 1925).
= Nilaparvata caldwelli Metcalf, 1955: 262; replacement name for unavailable N. muiri Caldwell, 1951.
= Nilaparvata bis Nast 1984: 396; replacement name for unavailable N. muiri Caldwell, 1951; syn. by Bartlett, 2007: 51.

2 Nilaparvata gerhardi (Metcalf, 1923: 210) – Canada (BC, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec,  Saskatchewan); USA: Delaware, Illinois, Louisiana, Missouri,  New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Texas, Utah, Virginia; ? Guatemala
= Liburnia gerhardi Metcalf, 1923: 210, pls. 62 & 70.
= Euidella gerhardi (Metcalf 1923); comb. by Metcalf 1949: 58.
= Euides gerhardi (Metcalf 1923); comb. by implication Metcalf 1952: 230-231.
= Nilaparvata gerhardi (Metcalf 1923); comb. by Bartlett 2007: 55.

3 Nilaparvata serrata Caldwell, 1951 – Bahamas, Belize, Costa Rica, Mexico (Distrito Federal, (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Veracruz), Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Cayman Islands, ? Bolivia; USA: Florida

4 Nilaparvata wolcotti Muir and Giffard, 1924 – USA: Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Utah; Puerto Rico, Mexico (Guanajuato, Veracruz), Costa Rica

Old World (distribution records may be incomplete)
1 Nilaparvata albotristriata (Kirkaldy, 1907)  – Australia
= Delphax albotristriatus Kirkaldy 1907a: 154.
= Delphax thyestes Kirkaldy 1907a: 152 syn by Bellis & Donaldson 2016.
= Nilaparvata albotristriata (Kirkaldy); comb. apparently by Ding, 1981; (see also Metcalf 1943: 322).
= Chloriona thyestes (Kirkaldy); comb. by Metcalf 1943: 328.

2 Nilaparvata angolensis Synave, 1959  – Angola

3 Nilaparvata bakeri (Muir, 1917) –  Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland); China (Guangdong), Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku); Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Philippines (Luzon), Sri Lanka, Taiwan
= Delphacodes bakeri Muir, 1917, original combination
= Nilaparvata bakeri (Muir, 1917), comb. by Muir (1923)

4 Nilaparvata camilla Fennah, 1969 – Sudan

5 Nilaparvata castanea Huang and Ding, 1979 – China

6 Nilaparvata chaeremon Fennah, 1975 – Sri Lanka

7 Nilaparvata diophantus Fennah, 1958a – Portuguese Guinea

8 Nilaparvata lineolae Huang and Tian, 1979 – China

9 Nilaparvata lugens (Stal, 1854: 246) – Widespread in tropical and temperate Asia and Pacific Islands (Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, Caroline Islands, China (Hainan, Hong Kong, Hubei, Zhejiang; Jiangsu); Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku); Korea, Laos, Malaysia Mariana islands, Myanmar (ex Burma), Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Nepal, Pakistan (palearctic), Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam )
= Delphax lugens Stål, 1854: 246, original combination.
= Delphax sordescens De Motschulsky, 1863: 109; synonym by Melichar, 1903: 102, 225; Muir & Giffard (1924)
= Nilaparvata greeni Distant, 1906: 473; synonym according to Muir (1919: 7, 1922: 350); Muir & Giffard (1924)
= Kalpa aculeata Distant, 1906: 474; synonym according to Muir (1919: 8, 1922: 350); Muir & Giffard (1924)
= Delphax parysatis Kirkaldy, 1907: 153; synonym according to Muir & Giffard (1924).
= Delphax ordovix Kirkaldy, 1907: 152; synonym according to Muir & Giffard (1924).
= Liburnia sordescens (De Motschulsky, 1863); comb. by Melichar, 1903: 102, 225.
= Dicranotropis anderita Kirkaldy, 1907: 133; syn. by Muir 1919: 7.
= Delphacodes anderita (Kirkaldy, 1907); comb. by Muir, 1917: 311.
= Delphacodes parysatis (Kirkaldy, 1907); comb. by Muir, 1917: 333.
= Delphacodes ordovix (Kirkaldy, 1907), comb. by Muir 1917: 333.
= Delphacodes sordescens (De Motschulsky, 1863); comb. by Muir, 1919: 8 (transfer implicit).
= Nilaparvata sordescens (De Motschulsky, 1863); comb. by Muir, 1922: 350.

10 Nilaparvata maeander Fennah, 1958 – Guinea, Sudan, Mauritius

11 Nilaparvata muiri China, 1925 – South Korea, China (Hubei, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku), Taiwan, Vietnam .

12 Nilaparvata myersi Muir, 1923 – New Zealand (North), Australia (Tasmania)

13 Nilaparvata nigritarsis Muir, 1926 – South Africa, Sudan
Nilaparvata oryzae (Matsumura, 1907) [Japan, Korea, Formosa, China, Manchuria [I think this is a missed synonym of N. lugens)]
= Delphax oryzae Matsumura, 1907 original combination
= Nilaparvata oryzae (Matsumura, 1907); comb. by Kaburaki and Imamura, 1932

14 Nilaparvata seminula Melichar, 1914: 110 – Philippine Islands (Java)

15 Nilaparvata terracefrons Guo and Liang, 2005 – China (Guangdong)

Note: Some species of Nilaparvata, in particular N. lugens, have long-distance migration.

Plant associations

Nilaparvata lugens, N. bakeri, N. maeander and N. muiri – Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Nilaparvata lugens – Oryza sativa L., Saccharum officinarum L. Zizania sp. (Poales, Poaceae) (Hasegawa 1955: 132, Sigsgaard 2007);
Nilaparvata bakeri, N. muiri – Cutgrasses (Leersia spp.); Cui et al. (2013) reports these species on Leersia hexandra Sw. and Leersia sayanuka Ohwi in laboratory experiments (i.e., not on rice)
Nilaparvata bakeri – Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. (Poaceae) by Hasegawa (1955: 132)
Nilaparvata gerhardi has been reported from Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.) Volkart ex Schinz & R. Keller  (reported as Scirpus americana) (bulrush, a sedge – Cyperaceae)
Nilaparvata muiriLeersia japonica (Makino ex Honda) Honda (Poaceae)
Nilaparvata wolcotti – I have collected this species on Schoenoplectus, but I am not sure which species it was.  They were found by D-vacing the base of the plant.

Hosts from Wilson et al. (1994) and Cui et al. (2013); see also FLOW.  Host names from USDA PLANTS or Tropicos.

Predators and parasites

Nilaparvata lugens (CABI has a more extensive list):
Agamermis changshaensis Bao, Luo and Luo, 1992 (Nematoda, Mermithida, Mermithidae) (Bao et al. 1992)
Agamermis unka Kaburaki et Imamura 1932 (Nematoda, Mermithida, Mermithidae) (Choo et al. 1989 , Choo & Kaya 1990: 513)
Anagrus sp. (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) (Swaminathan & Ananthakrishnan 1984: 7).
Elenchus yasumatsui Kifune & Hirashima, 1975 (Strepsiptera: Elenchidae) (e.g., Kathirithamby 1994)

Economic importance

Nilaparvata lugens, the brown planthopper (BPH) is an important and widespread pest of rice (see CABI).  Nilaparvata lugens can reach high densities on rice, and vectors Rice Grassy Stunt Virus (RGSV), and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus (RRSV).  It is also migratory and moves north as southern populations build up. A good recent reference on rice diseases transmitted by Nilaparvata lugens is Cabauatan et a;. (2009) (citation below).

Nilaparvata lugens has been intercepted at US ports, but so far has not become established.

Nilaparvata bakeri, N. maeander and N. muiri are also known from rice.  None of these four species are known from the New World.

Of the four Nilaparvata species in the New World, none are known to be pests on economic crops, although Nilaparvata wolcotti has been recorded from sugarcane. Nilaparvata planthoppers endemic to the New World are often found at lights.

Other Nilaparvata on rice are of comparatively minor (or at least local) importance.  Nilaparvata muiri is also a vector of Rice Grassy Stunt Virus (RGSV), Nilaparvata bakeri has also been recorded as a vector of Rice Grassy Stunt Virus (RGSV), and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus (RRSV).  Photos and additional information on these species can be found here:

A good general source of information on rice planthoppers is the ricehoppers blog: (Which seems to be down now.)

Migration route

Nilaparvata lugens migration

FIGURE 2 (Otuka, 2013). Migration routes obtained by trajectory analyses and migration simulations: (A) routes of Sogatella furcifera and Nilaparvata lugens in early season from March–April to early May. Dashed arrows in Thailand and southern Vietnam in March are hypothetical routes based on seasonal winds. Gray areas indicate overwintering areas in Vietnam and Hainan. An ellipse shows a possible source area in Myanmar. Data from Otuka et al. (2008; 2010), Qi et al. (2010a), Shen (2010), Shen et al. (2011a,b,c), Wang et al. (2011b), Zhao et al. (2011b), Zhai et al. (2011), Jiang et al. (2012), and Wu et al. (2012), (B) routes of N. lugens and S. furcifera from mid-May to early June. Data from the same as in A, (C) routes of N. lugens and S. furcifera from mid-June to July. Data from Turner et al. (1999); Hua et al. (2002), Otuka et al. (2005); Zhao et al. (2011a), Zheng et al. (2011); Diao et al. (2012), and Otuka (2012), (D) routes of Laodelphax striatellus from late May to early June, return migration routes of N. lugens in September to October, and a route from the Philippines to Taiwan by a typhoon in September. The dashed arrow shows the hypothetical route based on Zhou and Cheng (2012). Data from Riley et al. (1991), Otuka (2009), Qi et al. (2010b), Wang et al. (2011a); Zhang et al. (2011), Jiang et al. (2012); He et al. (2012) Otuka et al. (2012a,b), and Zhou and Cheng (2012).


The genus Nilaparvata can be recognized by the presence of a series of teeth on the first tarsal segment of the hind leg.  New World Nilaparvata were reviewed by Bartlett (2007).

Key to New World species of Nilaparvata (modified from Bartlett, 2007)

1. Aedeagus appearing bifid from base to apex, without subapical serrate flange, parameres relatively narrow, apex acute and directed dorsolaterally … Nilaparvata caldwelli
1.’ Aedeagus not appearing bifid, with serrate flange originating on right side; parameres relatively broad, apex blunt and laterally directed… 2

2. Segment X with long processes, approximated at base, originated subdorsally; parameres in widest view broadly laterally projecting, lateral margin nearly truncate …Nilaparvata serrata

2’. Segment X with short processes or a pair of teeth, originating dorsally; parameres in widest view with dorsal margin broad and truncate, lateral margin acutely pointed, directed sublaterally … 3

3. Segment X processes very short, often reduced to teeth; originating somewhat medially from dorsolateral margin; parameres in widest view with dorsal margin gradually sloped upwards to a dorsolaterally directed apex … Nilaparvata wolcotti
3’. Segment X processes longer, curved; originating from dorsolateral margin of segment X; parameres with dorsal margin truncate, lateral apex directed sublaterally … Nilaparvata gerhardi


Nilaparvata tarsus

Teeth on basitarsus of Nilaparvata

Nilaparvata lugens (Stal, 1854)

Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens from news article here (Orrisa Post Sept 27 2019, “Sinapali farmers fret as pest attack spreads”).


Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens (male)

Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens – the brown planthopper – is not known from the New World, but has been intercepted at ports.  It is a very important rice pest throughout the Old world.  Externally it is very similar to the endemic New World species, but the parameres and shape of the aedeagus are quite different (see figure here).

An extension fact sheet is here. And here. And here.


New World Nilaparvata are externally quite similar and are best identified by their male genitalia, in particular the shape of the parameres and aedeagus.

Nilaparvata caldwelli Metcalf, 1955 (Dorsal view and face) (Photos by Kimberley Shropshire, University of Delaware)

Nilaparvata caldwelli

Nilaparvata caldwelli

Nilaparvata caldwelli

Nilaparvata caldwelli

Nilaparvata caldwelli

Nilaparvata caldwelli is the least common of the New World Nilaparvata.

Nilaparvata gerhardi (Metcalf, 1923)

Nilaparvata gerhardi

Nilaparvata gerhardi

Nilaparvata gerhardi

Nilaparvata gerhardi

Nilaparvata gerhardi appears to be distributed in temperate eastern North America, and only doubtfully in the tropics.  Additional views of this species, including genitalia are here.

Nilaparvata serrata Caldwell, 1951

Nilaparvata serrata

Nilaparvata serrata

Nilaparvata serrata

Nilaparvata serrata

Nilaparvata serrata

Nilaparvata serrata

Nilaparvata serrata

Nilaparvata serrata

Nilaparvata serrata is found mostly in the New World tropics, but is known from Florida.  The shape of the male paramere (the image on the right is a left paramere) and aedeagus are distinctive in this species and can be see in the figure here.

Nilaparvata wolcotti Muir and Giffard, 1924

Nilaparvata wolcotti

Nilaparvata wolcotti

Nilaparvata wolcotti

Nilaparvata wolcotti

Nilaparvata wolcotti is widespread in North America, and is also known from Mexico and Puerto Rico. Like all the new World Nilaparvata, it is best recognized by the male genitalia, which can be seen here.

I do not have photographs of Nilaparvata muiri or N. bakeri, but here are line drawings of the genitalia from Wilson & Claridge, 1991 (from here).

Nilaparvata muiri

Nilaparvata muiri

Nilaparvata bakeri

Nilaparvata bakeri

Online resources

Discover Life
Bugguide (this genus not on Bugguide, oddly)
Insects of Australia (4 species)
Leafhopper, Planthopper & Psyllid Vectors of Plant Disease (search=Nilaparvata, if that works)


Web Images

Nilaparvata myersi Muir, 1923 (holotype) on Landcare Research – Manaaki Whenua (New Zealand)

(more to add)

Molecular resources

There are a wide variety of molecular resources available for Nilaparvata lugens including a variety of genes, an EST library, a mitogenome, and an ongoing genome project.  From a molecular standpoint, Nilaparvata lugens is probably the best known delphacid.  A link to Nilaparvata lugens molecular resources on Genbank is (should be) here.  As of this writing, On BOLD Nilaparvata lugens gets its own page; 138 233 377 specimens with barcodes available here.

Resources for the remaining species of Nilaparvata are sparse, 4 other species and a ‘sp.’ available on BOLD..

Selected References

(always more to add and links to BHL always in progress):

There is a voluminous literature on Nilaparvata lugens; search for Nilaparvata here.

Attié M., T. Bourgoin, J. Veslot and A. Soulier-Perkins. 2008. Patterns of trophic relationships between planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) and their host plants on the Mascarene Islands. Journal of Natural History 42(23-24): 1591-1638.

Bao, Xue-Chun, Qi-Gui Luo and Da-Ming Luo. 1992. A new species of the genus Agamermis from China (Nematoda: Mermithidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 17(1): 20-24.

Bartlett, C. R.  2007. A review of the planthopper genus Nilaparvata (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in the New World. Entomological News 118(1): 49-66.

Bartlett, C. R. and G. Kunz. 2015. A new genus and species of delphacid planthopper (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Delphacidae) from Central America with a preliminary regional species list. Zootaxa 3946(4): 510–518 (Erratum Zootaxa 3963(4): 598-600)

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Bellis, G. A. and J. F. Donaldson. 2016. Reassessment of some of Kirkaldy’s Australian species of Delphacini (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Delphacinae). Austral Entomology 55: 247–260. DOI: 10.1111/aen.12180.

Bellis, G. A., J. F. Donaldson, V. Quintao, A. Rice, D. Tenakanai and L. Tran-Nguyen. 2013. New records of Delphacini (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Delphacinae) from Australia, Timor Leste and Papua New Guinea, and an updated checklist of Delphacini from Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 53(2): 167-174. doi:10.1111/aen.12069.

Caldwell, J. S. and L. F. Martorell. 1951 [dated1950]. Review of the Auchenorynchous [sic] Homoptera of Puerto Rico. Part II. The Fulgoroidea except Kinnaridae. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 34(2): 133-269.

Cabauatan, P. Q., R. C. Cabunagan and I. R. Choi. 2009. Rice viruses transmitted by the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål. Pp 357-368. In: K.L. Heong and B. Hardy, (eds.) . 2009. Planthoppers: new threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute.

Catindig, J. L. A., G. S. Arida, S. E. Baehaki, J. S. Bentur, L. Q. Cuong, M. Norowi, W. Rattanakarn, W. Sriratanasak, J. Xia and Z. Lu. 2009.  Situation of planthoppers in Asia.  Pp. 191-220. In: K. L. Heong and B. Hardy (eds.). Planthoppers: new threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos (Philippines).

China, W. E. 1925. The Hemiptera collected by Prof. J. W. Gregory’s expedition to Yunnan, with synonymic notes on allied species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. (Ser. 9) 16: 449-485.

Choo H. Y., H. K. Kaya and J. B. Kim. 1989. Agamermis unka (Mermithidae) parasitism of Nilaparvata lugens in Rice Fields in Korea. Journal of Nematology 21(2): 254-259.

Choo H. Y. and H. K. Kaya 1990. Parasitism of Brown Planthopper and White backed Planthopper by Agamermis unka in Korea. Journal of Nematology 22(4): 513-517.

Cui, Y. L., J. C. He, J. Luo, F. X. Lai and Q. Fu. 2013. Host plants of Nilaparvata muiri China and N. bakeri (Muir), two sibling species of N. lugens (Stål). Chinese Journal of Rice Science 27(1): 105-110.

Distant, W. L. 1906. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Rhynchota. Vol. III. (Heteroptera-Homoptera). 3: 503 pp.

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Fennah, R. G. 1958a. Fulgoroidea from West Africa. Bulletin de l’Institut Français Afrique Noire. (Ser. A) 20: 460-538.

Fennah, R. G. 1958b. Fulgoroidea of South-Eastern Polynesia. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 110(6): 117-220.

Fennah, R. G. 1961. Homoptera Fulgoroidea. Le Parc National du Niokolo-Koba fasc. II. Mémoires de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire 62: 305-320.

Fennah, R. G. 1969. Delphacidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) from the Sudan Republic. Acta Entomologica Fennica 26: 1-78.

Fennah, R. G. 1975. Homoptera: Fulgoroidea and Delphacidae from Ceylon. Entomologica Scandinavica 4: 79-136 [102].

Fennah, R. G. 1978. Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from Vietnam. Annales Zoologici Warszawa 34(9): 207-279.

Guo, Liang-Zhen, A.-P. Liang and Guo-Mei Jiang. 2005. Four new species and a new record of Delphacidae (Hemiptera) from China. Oriental Insects 39: 161-174.

Hayashi M. and S. Fujinuma. 2016. Part Fulgoromorpha. In: Entomological Society of Japan 2016 – Catalogue of the insects of Japan. Volume 4 Paraneoptera (Psocodea, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera), 4. Editorial Committee of Catalogue of the Insects of Japan. p. 323-355.

Hasegawa, H. 1955. Some notes on the Japanese species of the genus Nilaparvata. Bulletin of the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (Japan) Ser.C, 5: 117-138.

Hayashi, M. and S. Fujinuma. 2016. Part Fulgoromorpha. Pp. 323-355. In: Entomological Society of Japan 2016. Catalogue of the insects of Japan. Volume 4 Paraneoptera (Psocodea, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera), 4. Editorial Committee of Catalogue of the Insects of Japan.

Jairin, J. P. Leelagud, A. Pongmee and K. Srivilai. 2017. Chromosomal location of a recessive red-eye mutant gene in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Insecta: Hemiptera). Advances in Entomology 5: 33-39. doi: 10.4236/ae.2017.51003.

Joshi, R. C., A. B. Estoy, E. R. Tiongco, H. R. Rapusas, G. S. Arida and A. V. Antonio. 2001. Management of Planthoppers and Leafhoppers. Rice Technology Bulletin 37: 1-17.

Kaburaki, T. and S. Imamura. 1932a. Mermithid-worm parasitic in leaf-hoppers, with notes on its life history and habits. Proceedings of the Imperial Academy [of Japan]. 8:139-141.

Kathirithamby, J. 1994. Records and a checklist of Strepsiptera (Insecta) from Sri Lanka. Journal of South Asian Natural History 1(1): 17-25.

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Liang, Ai-Ping 2005. Occurrence of the latero-subapical labial sensillum in Borysthenes maculata and Andes marmorata (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Cixiidae). Journal of Entomological Science 40(4): 428-437.

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Matsumura, S. 1907. Die Cicadinen Japans. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 6: 83-116

Maw, H.E.L., R. G. Foottit, K.G.A. Hamilton and G.G.E. Scudder. 2000. Checklist of the Hemiptera of Canada and Alaska. NRC Research Press, Ottawa. read online:

Melichar, L. 1914. Homopteren von Java, gesammelt von herrn Edw. Jacobson. Notes from the Leyden Museum 36: 91-112.

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Metcalf, Z. P. 1952. New names in the Homoptera. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 42(7): 226-231.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1955. New names in Homoptera. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 45: 262-267 [262].

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Muir, F.A.G. 1919a. Notes on the Delphacidae in the British Museum Collection. Canadian Entomologist 51: 6-8.

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Muir, F.A.G. 1926. On some new and little-known Delphacidae from South Africa (Fulgoroidea, Homoptera). Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. (Ser. 9) 17: 17-35.

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Sigsgaard, L. 2007. Early season natural control of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens: the contribution and interaction of two spider species and a predatory bug. Bulletin of Entomological Research. London 97: 533-544.

Stål, C. 1854. Nya Hemiptera. Ofversigt af Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 11: 231-255.

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