Genus Liburnia Stål, 1866

[back to Higher Classification of Delphacidae]
[back to A checklist of New World delphacid species]

Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Stenocraninae Wagner, 1963

Tribe Stenocranini Wagner, 1963

Genus Liburnia Stål, 1866a.

Type species (in original combination): Embolophora monoceros Stål, 1855.

Synonymy (and misspellings)

Eiburnia Valdes Ragues, 1910 wrong spelling of Liburnia Stål, 1866.

Liburnia is a junior synonym of Embolophora, see below and ICZN (2010).


Southern Africa.

Note: The genus Liburnia has a long history of being a taxonomic ‘junk’ genus in the Delphacini.  Much of the difficulty has related to correctly ascribing the proper type species.  Three type species designations had been proposed.  Recently, following a proposal to fix the type species of Liburnia as Embolophora monoceros (Stenocraninae; see Bartlett 2008), ICZN (2010) decided that “Liburnia Stål, 1866 was proposed by its author as a junior objective synonym of Embolophora Stål, 1853. Consequently, the type species for both is Embolophora monoceros Stål, 1855, regardless of Stål’s (1866) intentions”.

This statement has clarified that Liburnia is a junior synonym of Embolophora (Stenocraninae), and all species currently placed in Liburnia need to be reassigned to a genus in the proper tribe.

Recognized species

As Embolophora (see Asche, 1983):

Embolophora britmusei Asche, 1983 – South Africa, Angola
Embolophora monoceros Stal, 1855 – South Africa, Sudan , Zaire, Uganda, Nigeria
Embolophora theroni Asche, 1983 – South Africa

As Liburnia (all misplaced)

Most of these species are obscure.  Some are being moved to new genera within a manuscript in preparation.

New World

Liburnia mexicana (Crawford, 1914) [Metcalf 1943: 364] – Mexico
Liburnia paludata Fowler, 1905: 137 – Guatemala, Mexico
Liburnia williamsi (Muir, 1926) [Metcalf 1943: 371] (described in Sogata) – Ecuador
Liburnia breviceps – see Nothodelphax
Liburnia pseudoseminigra – see Syndelphax

Old World  (This list may include synonyms that I have missed)

Liburnia albovittata Matsumura, 1931 – China, India, Malaysia, Taiwan (See Metcalf, 1943: 371; perhaps = Terthron albovittatum (Matsumura, 1900); the problem of this entry in the Metcalf catalog has been solved, but I am not sure what the solution is).
Liburnia antennata Jacobi, 1910 – “Tanganyika Territory” (= Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania)
Liburnia astyanax (Kirkaldy, 1907) [Metcalf 1945: 351]- Australia: New South Wales (noted as Embolophora astyanax (Kirkaldy) in Bellis et al. 2013)
Liburnia atromaculata Distant, 1916 [Metcalf 1945: 351] – India
Liburnia centralis (Signoret, 1860) [Metcalf 1943: 353] – Madagascar, Ile of Bourbon (Indian Ocean), Somali land
Liburnia coracina Csiki, 1940 – Albania
Liburnia flavina (Melichar, 1914) [Metcalf 1943: 356] – Indonesia
Liburnia furca Bierman, 1898 [Metcalf 1943: 356] – Indonesia
Liburnia hemifusca (Melichar, 1914) [Metcalf 1943: 362] – Indonesia
Liburnia intrudens (Muir, 1930) [Metcalf 1943: 362]- Verlaten Island (East Indies)
Liburnia javana Bierman, 1910 [Metcalf 1943: 362]- Indonesia
Liburnia sancti-pauli Jeannel, 1947 – St. Paul Is.
Liburnia testacea deCarlini, 1895 [Metcalf 1943: 370] – Somali land
Liburnia transversalis (Melichar, 1914) [described under Sogata, Metcalf 1943: 370]- Indonesia
Liburnia typhlocyba Bierman, 1910 [Metcalf 1943: 370]- Indonesia
Liburnia vanreeneni (Muir, 1929) [Metcalf 1943: 370]- Indonesia

Plant associations

None for the species reported above.

Economic importance

Limited for the species reported above.


Species currently in Liburnia are a varied, unrelated collection of taxa.

Embolophora are long-headed African stenocranines.

Embolophora britmusei

Embolophora britmusei

Embolophora britmusei

Embolophora monoceros

Embolophora monoceros

Embolophora monoceros

Molecular resources

At this time, neither GenBank or BOLD list sequence data for any species in Embolophora (and do not include any sequence data for species misplaced in Liburnia).

Selected references

Asche, M. 1983. Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Embolophora Stal, 1853 (Homoptera Cicadina Fulgoromorpha Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(8): 167-196.

Bartlett, C.R. 2008. Liburnia Stål, 1866 (Insecta, Hemiptera, Delphacidae): proposed designation of Embolophora monoceros Stål, 1855 as the type species. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 65(3): 183-187.

Bellis, G.A., J.F. Donaldson, V. Quintao, A. Rice, D. Tenakanai, and L. Tran-Nguyen. 2013. New records of Delphacini (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Delphacinae) from Australia, Timor Leste and Papua New Guinea, and an updated checklist of Delphacini from Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 53(2): 167–174. doi:10.1111/aen.12069

Bierman, C. J. H. 1908. Homopteren aus Semarang (Java) gesammelt von Herrn E. Jacobson. Notes from the Leyden Museum. Leyden 29: 151-169.[Liburnia furca Bierman, 1908, Liburnia javana Bierman, 1910]

Bierman, C. J. H. 1910. Homopteren aus Niederländisch Ost-Indien. II herausgegeben von D. MacGillavry und K. W. Dammerman. Notes from the Leyden Museum. Leyden 33: 1-68. Liburnia typhlocyba Bierman, 1910

Cherry, R. H., P. Stansly, R. Nagata and S. Halbert. 2006. Liburnia pseudoseminigra (Delphacidae: Homoptera), a new and unusual pest of St. Augustine Grass. Florida Entomologist 89(4): 459-461.

Crawford, D. L. 1914a. A contribution toward a monograph of the homopterous insects of the family Delphacidae of North and South America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 46:557-640, plus 6 plates.

De Carlini, A. 1895. Rincoti dei paesi Somali e Galla in Esplorazione del Giuba e dei suoi Affluenti compiuta dal cap. V. Bottego durante gli anni 1892-93 sotto gli auspicii della Societa Geografica Italiana.-Risultati zoologici. Annali del Museo civico di Storia Naturale di Genova. Genova. (Ser. 2) 15: 105-125.[Liburnia testacea De Carlini, 1895]

Distant, W. L. 1916. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Rhynchota. Homoptera: Appendix. VI: 248 pp. Secretary of State for India in Council. [Liburnia atromaculata Distant, 1916, Liburnia sternalis (Distant, 1916)]

Fieber, F. X. 1866. Grundzüge zur generischen Theilung der Delphacini. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 16: 517-534 [524].

Fieber, F. X. 1879. Les Cicadines d’Europe d’après les originaux et les publications les plus récentes. Quatrième partie : Descriptions des espèces. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie pure et appliquée. Paris. (Ser. 3) 7: 65-160. [Liburnia fuscifrons Fieber, 1879, Liburnia latifrons Fieber, 1879]

Fowler, W. W. 1905. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). Biologia Centrali-Americana; contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America 1: 125-139. [Liburnia paludata Fowler, 1905]

Haupt, H. 1927. Homoptera Palestinae I. Bulletin. The Zionist Organization. Institute of Agriculture and Natural History. Agricultural Experiment Station. Tel-Aviv, Palestine 8: 5-43. [Liburnia niveopicta Haupt, 1927, Liburnia segetum Haupt, 1927]

Horváth, G. 1909. Hémiptères recueillis par M. Th. Becker aux iles Canaries. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici. Budapest 7: 289-301. [Liburnia anthracina Horváth, 1909]

ICZN 2010. OPINION 2260 (Case 3460) Liburnia Stål, 1866 (Insecta, Hemiptera, DELPHACIDAE): proposed designation of Embolophora monoceros Stål, 1855 as the type species. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 67(4): 340-341.

Jacobi, A. 1910. 12 Hemiptera. 7 Homoptera. Wissenschaftliche ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisreppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905-1906. Schwedischen Akademie der wissenschaften 1910: 97-136. [Liburnia antennata Jacobi, 1910]

Jeannel, E. 1947. Croisiere du Bougainville aux iles australes francaises XIII. Hemopteres. Memoires du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelles, Paris (N. S.) 20: 1-24.

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1907. Leafhoppers supplement. (Hemiptera). Bulletin. Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association Experiment Station. Division of Entomology. Honolulu 3: 1-186. [Liburnia astyanax (Kirkaldy, 1907)]

Leach, W. E. 1815a. Entomology. The Edinburg encyclopedia; conducted by David Brewster 9: 57-172. (family Delphacidae here).

Matsumura, S. 1910. Die schädlichen und nützlichen Insekten vom Zuckerrohr Formosas. 22 pp. [Liburnia graminicola Matsumura, 1910]

Matsumura, S. 1940. Homopterous insects collected at Kotosho (Botel Tobago) Formosa, by Mr. Tadao Kano. Insecta Matsumurana. Sapporo 15: 34-51 [49]. [Liburnia cotonis Matsumura, 1940]

Melichar, L. 1914. Homopteren von Java, gesammelt von herrn Edw. Jacobson. Notes from the Leyden Museum. Leyden 36: 91-112 [110]. [Liburnia flavina (Melichar, 1914), Liburnia hemifusca (Melichar, 1914), [Liburnia transversalis (Melichar, 1914)]

Metcalf, Z. P. 1943. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 3, Araeopidae (Delphacidae). Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts. 552 pp.

Muir, F. A. G. 1919. Some Malayan Delphacidae (Homoptera). Philippine Journal of Science. Manila 15: 521-531. [Liburnia quadrispinosa (Muir, 1919)]

Muir, F. A. G. 1926 – Contributions to our knowledge of South American Fulgoroidea (Homoptera). Part I. The family Delphacidae. Bulletin. Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association Experiment Station. Division of Entomology. Honolulu 18: 1-51. [Liburnia brazilensis (Muir, 1926), Liburnia williamsi (Muir, 1926)]

Muir, F. A. G.  1926. On some new and little-known Delphacidae from South Africa (Fulgoroidea, Homoptera). Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. (Ser. 9) 17: 17-35. [Liburnia neovittacollis (Muir, 1926), Liburnia vanreeneni (Muir, 1929)]

Muir, F. A. G.  1929. New and little-known South American Delphacidae (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea) in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. (Ser. 10) 3: 75-85. [Liburnia biangulata (Muir, 1929), Liburnia flaviceps (Muir, 1929)]

Muir, F. A. G. 1930. On a small collection of Fulgorids from the island of Krakatau, Verlaten and Sebesi. Treubia 12: 29-35. [Liburnia intrudens (Muir, 1930)]

Sahlberg, J. R. 1876. Nya finska Cicadarier. Meddelanden af Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Helsingfors 1: 138. [Liburnia axillaris Sahlberg, 1876]

Scott, J. 1870. On certain British Hemiptera-Homoptera. Descriptions of new species of the genus Liburnia, Stal. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 7: 67-72.

Scott, J. 1873. Description of three new Continental and one British species of Liburnia. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine. London 10: 104-107. [Liburnia lethierryi Scott, 1873]

Signoret, V. 1860. Faune des hémiptères de Madagascar. 1ère partie. Homoptères. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. Paris. (Ser. 3) 8: 177-206 [186]. [Liburnia centralis (Signoret, 1860)]

Stål, C. 1858. Orthoptera och Hemiptera fran södra Afrika. Ofversigt af Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 15: 307-320. [Liburnia lautipes (Stål, 1858)]

Stål, C. 1866a. Hemiptera Homoptera Latr. Hemiptera Africana 4. (Stockholm: Officina Norstedtiana). 276 pp.

Wagner, W. 1963 [dated 1962]. Dynamische Taxionomie, angewandt auf die Delphaciden Mitteleuropas. Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut 60: 111-189.

Valdes Ragues, P. 1910. Classification Gundlach de Hemipteros Cubanos, Conforme a los Ejemplares que Existen en el Museo del Instituto de 2a. Ensenanza de la Habana. Anales de la Academia de Ciencias Medicas, Fisicas y Naturales de la Habana. Habana, Cuba 46: 425-446.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email