Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815
Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815
Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815
Genus Harmalia Fennah, 1969
Type species: Sogata thoracica Distant, 1916
= Paracorbulo Tian & Ding, 1980 is a synonym of Harmalia by Yang, 1989: 198.
Note: Harmalia was recently subsumed under Opiconsiva Distant, 1917 by Huang et al. 2017; the Opiconsiva page reflects this change. Corbulo Fennah, 1965 is a synonym of Opiconsiva Distant, 1917 (by Asche 1988).
Indo-Malayan, Pacific, Australian, Indomalayan and African regions; one species adventive into the USA.
(Distribution records may be incomplete):
Harmalia (sans Opiconsiva and Corbulo) represented by 14 species and one subspecies as follows (Harmalia brunnia was listed on FLOW, I have not found the origin of this combination)
Harmalia anacharsis Fennah, 1969 – USA: Florida (adventive); China (Guangdong), New Caledonia, India, Indonesia, Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam
Harmalia brunnia (Muir, 1917) – Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan, Philippines (Luzon), Malaysia (Amboyna)
= Sardia brunnia Muir, 1917
= Harmalia brunnia (Muir, 1917); comb by … ? (listed in this combination by Hayashi & Fujinuma 2016: 333; not sure by the annotation whether H. commelinae Yang, 1989 may be a jr synonym),
Harmalia clavata (Tian & Ding, 1980) – China (Fujian)
= Paracorbulo clavata Tian & Ding, 1980.
= Harmalia clavata (Tian & Ding, 1980); new combination by implication Yang, 1989: 198.
Harmalia commelinae Yang, 1989: 206 – Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Philippines (Luzon), Taiwan
Harmalia cordata Yang, 1989 – Bangladesh, Indonesia (Jawa), Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Philippines (Luzon), Taiwan, Thailand
Harmalia heitensis (Matsumura & Ishihara, 1945) – Japan, Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Philippines (Luzon), Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam, China
= Sogata heitensis Matsumura & Ishihara 1945: 66.
= Harmalia heitensis (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Fennah 1975: 105.
= Matutinus aculeatus Yang, 1989: 183.
= Harmalia aculeatus (Yang, 1989); comb. by Ding 2006: 558.
= Harmalia aculeatus (Yang, 1989); syn by Fujinuma, 2013.
Harmalia heitensis otho Fennah, 1975 – Sri Lanka
Harmalia obscura Ding, 2006 – China
Harmalia ostorius (Kirkaldy, 1907) – Australia: Queensland
= Delphax ostorius Kirkaldy 1907: 153
= Chloriona ostorius (Kirkaldy 1907), comb. by Metcalf 1943: 324.
= Harmalia ostorius (Kirkaldy), comb. by Fennah 1969: 39.
Harmalia sanguinalis (Ding and Tian 1980) – China (Guangdong)
Harmalia separata Yang, 1989 – Taiwan
Harmalia sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara, 1945) – China, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku), Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), South Korea, Taiwan
= Sogata Sirokata Matsumura & Ishihara 1945: 64.
= Chloriona (Sogatella) sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Fennah, 1956: 472.
= Paracorbulo sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Tian & Ding, 1980: 316.
= Opiconsiva sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Kwon, 1982: 6.
= Harmalia sirokata (Matsumura & Ishihara 1945); comb. by Yang, 1989: 204
= Opiconsiva anufrievi Kwon, 1982; syn by Fujinuma, 2013: 337.
= Opiconsiva gayasana Kwon, 1982: 6.
= Harmalia gayasana (Kwon, 1982); comb. by Ding et al. 1990; syn by Fujinuma, 2013: 337.
Harmalia tarasco Fennah, 1975 – Sri Lanka
Harmalia thoracica (Distant, 1916) [Metcalf 1943: 520] – Sri Lanka, India
= Sogata thoracica Distant, 1916
= Delphacodes thoracica (Distant); comb. by Muir, 1919: 8
= Harmalia thoracica (Distant) comb. by Fennah 1969: 39 (Type species of genus Harmalia))
Harmalia tiphys Fennah, 1971 – Micronesia, Caroline Is., Palau Island, Sri Lanka
Harmalia anacharsis, H. heitensis and H. sirokata have both been reported from rice, but their expected economic importance is low. Harmalia anacharsis was introduced into Florida and was found breeding on Amazon swordplant (Echinodorus paniculatus Micheli, Alismataceae) (It is unclear whether this species continues to persist in Florida).
Harmalia anacharsis, H. heitensis and H. sirokata have been reported from rice, but that is unlikely to be their primary host.
Harmalia anacharsis was found on Amazon swordplant (Echinodorus paniculatus Micheli, Alismataceae). in Florida.
Harmalia sirokata has also been reported from Echinochloa crusgalli (barnyard grass), Phragmites communis (common reed, Poaceae), and Persicaria thunbergii (Polygonaceae).
Harmalia commelinae is known from Commelina diffusa (climbing dayflower; Commelinaceae).
Harmalia heitensis – Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC. (Amaranthaceae); Commelina diffusa Burm. f. (Commelinaceae)
Harmalia sirokata – Commelina diffusa Burm. f. (Commelinales, Commelinaceae), Persicaria biconvexa (Hayata) Nemoto, Persicaria thunbergii (Siebold & Zucc.) H. Gross (Caryophyllales, Polygonaceae)
From Holdom et al. 1989, Yang 1989, Wilson et al. 1994, Gnaneswaran 2013, Fujinuma 2013 and see FLOW.
Keys to local faunas are found in Yang (1989) and Ding (2006). Two species in this genus are included in the key to species on rice in Dupo and Barrion (2009). Species occurring in Japan recently revised by Fujinama (2013).
Common species, dark to pale with distinct carina on head; dorsal portion of pygofer expanded, usually greatly, often with apex of expansion inflected down or medially; Opiconsiva has a diagnostic structure on the dorsum of their aedeagus (which is often short, straight and tubular)
Harmalia anacharsis (Photos by Kimberley Shropshire, University of Delaware)
Harmalia heitensis from Fujinama (2013)
Harmalia commelinae from Fujinama 2013
Harmalia cordata from Fujinama 2013
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Vanthournout, B., V. Vandomme and F. Hendrick. 2014. Sex ratio bias caused by endosymbiont infection in the dwarf spider Oedothorax retusus. The Journal of Arachnology 42(1): 24-33. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24365278. [Phylogenetic position of Cardinium endosymbiont of Hamalia sirokata, in relation to other Cardinum available on GenBank]
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