Genus Falcotoya Fennah, 1969

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Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815

Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815

Genus Falcotoya Fennah, 1969

Type species (in original combination): Falcotoya aurinia Fennah, 1969


Mostly Palearctic, also New Caledonia, China, Taiwan and one species in the New World.

Distribution of Falcotoya from FLOW 5 August 2017

Distribution of Falcotoya from FLOW (as of 5 August 2017).

Recognized species

(distribution information may be incomplete)

Eleven species are placed in this genus as follows (1 or 2 Neotropical species currently in Delphacodes appear to belong here)

New World

1 Falcotoya crawfordi (Muir and Giffard) – Mexico
= Delphacodes crawfordi Muir and Giffard, 1924.
= Falcotoya crawfordi (Muir and Giffard, 1924); comb. by Fennah, 1969: 40.
2 Falcotoya sage (Beamer, 1946) – USA: IL, MO, NC, NY, TN; CAN: ON
= Delphacodes sagae Beamer, 1946d: 141.
= Falcotoya sagae (Beamer, 1946d); comb by Bartlett et al. 2014: 117

Old World

3 Falcotoya aglauros (Fennah, 1958) – Senegal, Reunion
= Delphacodes aglauros Fennah, 1958: 486.
= Falcotoya aglauros (Fennah, 1958); comb. by Fennah, 1969: 40.
4 Falcotoya aurinia Fennah, 1969: 40 – New Caledonia, Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia), East Timor
5 Falcotoya citipes Fennah, 1969: 41 – New Caledonia, Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands), Sri Lanka
6 Falcotoya daluoensis Ding, 2006 – China (Yunnan), Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands)
7 Falcotoya formosana Yang, 1989 – Taiwan
8 Falcotoya lyraeformis (Matsumura, 1900: 276) – Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku)
= Liburnia lyraeformis Matsumura, 1900: 276.
= Delphax lyraeformis (Matsumura, 1900); comb. by Oshanin, 1907: 330.
= Delphacodes lyraeformis (Matsumura, 1900); comb. by Metcalf (1943: 467).
= Falcotoya lyraeformis (Matsumura, 1900); comb. by Fennah, 1969: 40.
9 Falcotoya minuscula (Horvath, 1897: 622) – Afghanistan, Armenia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Oman, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South European Russia, Spain, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Turkey, Ukraine, Yugoslavia.
= Delphax minuscula Horváth, 1897: 622.
= Falcotoya minuscula (Horváth, 1897); comb. by Emeljanov (1972: 79).
10 Falcotoya shaluensis Yang, 1989 – Taiwan, Nansei-shoto (Ryukyu Islands)
11 Falcotoya sporoboli (Lindberg, 1958) – Cape Verde Islands, Egypt

Plant associations

Falcotoya minuscula is reported from Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.).
Falcotoya sporoboli was described as occurring on salt grass (Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl.) Kunth.)
Falcotoya aglaurosOryza sativa L. (Poales, Poaceae; Etienne et al. 1992: 163); Saccharum officinarum L. (Poales, Poaceae; Bonfils et al. 1994); Zea mays L. (Poales, Poaceae; Bonfils et al. 1994)
Falcotoya daluoensisPaspalum sp. (Poales, Poaceae); Ding (2006)
Falcotoya citipesSpinifex. littoreus (Burm. f.) Merr. (Poales, Poaceae; Fujinuma & Hayashi 2016: 274)
Falcotoya shaluensisSporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth (Poales, Poaceae; Fujinuma & Hayashi 2016: 276)

Psenulus sp. (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) according to Etienne et al. (1992: 167).

Host information from Wilson et al. 1994, Lindberg 1958, Etienne et al. 1992, Bonfils et al. 1994, Ding 2006, Fujinuma & Hayashi 2016).  Plant names from USDA PLANTS or Tropicos.

Economic Importance

Probably limited, although Falcotoya minuscula and Falcotoya aglauros have been collected in settings where it may have an impact.  Falcotoya crawfordi is infrequently encountered.


Members of this genus (at least those familiar to me) tend to be dark colored with prominent carinae on the thorax and head; the aedeagus is always strongly downcurved; abdominal segment X bears a pair of processes that tend to be approximated. Neotropical species superficially (externally) appear similar to Chionomus or some Opiconsiva.

Description of genus from Fennah 1969:39-40

“Vertex as long as broad, or approximately so, subrectangulately or obtusely rounding into frons, as wide at apex as at base, apical margin truncate with submedian carinae slightly prominent, Y-shaped carina distinct, submedian carinae uniting on basal part of frons, basal compartment of vertex wider at hind margin than greatest length (1.5 – 2.0: 1); frons in middle line longer than wide (about 2:1), widest near middle, median carina forked in basal 1/3 or nearer base; clypeus at base wider than frons at apex, postclypeal disc a little shorter than broad at base; rostrum short, not or scarcely as long as clypeus, reaching only to mesotrochanter, antennae reaching to frontoclypeal suture, basal segment a little longer than broad, 2nd segment approximately 2 X as long as 1st, ocelli and blemmata distinct. Pronotum with disc approximately as long in middle line as broad at anterior margin, sometimes rather less, lateral carinae not attaining hind margin; post-tibial spur shallowly tectiform, thin, with 14-18 small teeth. Anal segment of cS short, ring-like, with a pair of long compressed sinuate spinose processes, rather closely apposed basally and directed ventrad. Pygofer long, with dorsolateral angles produced caudad, diaphragm
narrow in middle 1/3, produced caudad in a vertical ridge or rounded lobe at middle, ventral margin excavate. Aedeagus tubular, approximately sickle-shaped, orifice terminal, laterally or dorsally. Genital styles moderately long, diverging, each produced mesad at base in a lobe, slightly widening distad, truncate apically, usually with inner angle acute or more deeply rounded than outer angle.
Type species: Falcotoya aurinia, n. sp. [i.e., Fennah 1969]
The type species runs to Toya in my key to the genera of Delphacidae of Australia and New Zealand (Fennah 1965: 4). It is separated from Toya by relatively stouter build, a more transverse vertex and a relatively shorter rostrum. In the rostrum of Toya attenuata the subapical segment attains the mesotrochanter and the apical segment reaches the post-coxa, and in side view is about 4 X as long as broad at base, whereas in Falcotoya the subapical segment does not reach the mesotrochanter and the apical segment, which does so, is scarcely more than 2 x as long as broad at base in side view.”

Falcotoya crawfordi

Falcotoya crawfordi

Falcotoya crawfordi

Falcotoya crawfordi

Falcotoya crawfordi

Falcotoya crawfordi

Falcotoya crawfordi

Falcotoya crawfordi

Falcotoya crawfordi

Falcotoya crawfordi

Falcotoya aurinia

Falcotoya aurinia

Falcotoya aurinia from Fennah 1969

Falcotoya formosana

falcotoya formosana from yang 1989

Falcotoya formosana from Yang 1989Falcotoya minuscula

Falcotoya minuscula

Falcotoya miniscula from Della Giustina and Remane, 1991.

Falcotoya minuscula

Falcotoya minuscula from BOLD cc BY-NC-SA CBG Photography Group 2009.

Falcotoya shaluensis

Falcotoya shaluensis

Falcotoya shaluensis from Yang 1989

Molecular resources

At this time, Genbank has data for Falcotoya lyraeformis no molecular resources for this genus. Bold has barcode sequence data for Falcotoya minuscula (here).

Selected References

Asche, M. 1982. Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna der Turkei (Anatolien) (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae) in Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 71-98.

Asche, M. 1988. Delphacidae from Cote d’Ivoire (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea). Revue Francaise d’Entomologie (Nouvelle Serie) 10(2): 151-231.

Asche, M. and R. Remane. 1982. Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Griechenlands I (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae) in Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(6): 231-290.

Attié, M., T. Bourgoin, J. Veslot and A.Soulier-Perkins. 2008. Patterns of trophic relationships between planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) and their host plants on the Mascarene Islands. Journal of Natural History 42(23-24): 1591-1638.

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Beamer, R. H. 1946. Some new species of Delphacodes (Homoptera, Fulgoridae, Delphacinae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 19(4): 139-144.

Bellis, G. A., J. F. Donaldson, V. Quintao, A. Rice, D. Tenakanai and L. Tran-Nguyen. 2014. New records of Delphacini (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Delphacinae) from Australia, Timor Leste and Papua New Guinea, and an updated checklist of Delphacini from Australia. Austral Entomology 53: 167-174.

Bonfils, J., S. Quilici and B. Reynaud. 1994.  Les Hémiptères Auchénorrhynques de l’Ile de la Réunion. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 99: 227-240.

D’Urso, V. 1995. Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha in In: Checklist delle specie della Fauna Italiana 42: 1-35.

della Giustina, W. and R. Remane. 1991. La faune de France des Delphacidae (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). 3 – Recoltes et identifications 1991. Cahiers des Naturalistes 47(3): 49-60.

Ding, J. H. 2006. Fauna Sinica Insecta Vol. 45 Homoptera Delphacidae. Science Press, Beijing, China.

Dlabola, J . 1971. Taxonomische und chorologische Erganzungen der Zikadenfauna von Anatolien, Iran, Afghanistan und Pakistan (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Acta entomologica bohemoslovaca 68 (6): 377-396.

Drosopoulos, S. 1985. Zoogeographic and ecological relations between the planthopper-fauna of Greece and the adjacent countries (Homoptera, Delphacidae). 2nd Congres international sur la Zoogeographie et l’Ecoloie de la Grece et des Regions Avoisinantes, Athenes, Septembre 1981. Biologia Gallo-Hellenica 10(1-2): 275-286.

Drosopoulos, S., M. Asche and H. Hoch. 1983. Contribution to the planthopper fauna of Greece. Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae). Annales de l’Institute phytopathologique Benaki (N.S.) 14: 19-68.

Emeljanov, A. F. 1972. New genera of Cicadina of Delphacidae family (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha) from Kazakhstan. Vestnik Zoologii 2: 79-81.

Etienne, J., G. Delvare and H.-P. Aberlenc. 1992. Contribution à lа connaissance de I’arthropodofaune associée аuх cultures de Casamance (Senegal). Bollettino di Zoologia agraria e di Bachicoltura II, 24(2): 159-193.

Fennah, R. G. 1958. Fulgoroidea from west Africa. Bulletin de l’institute Francaises de Afrique Noire 20. Series A 20: 460-538.

Fennah, R. G. 1969. Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. Pacific Insects Monograph 21: 1-116.

Fennah, R. G. 1975. Homoptera: Delphacidae from Ceylon. Entomologica Scandinavica (Supplement) 4: 79-136.

Fujinuma, S. and M. Hayashi. 2016. New records of seventeen delphacids (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) from Japan. Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology 22(2): 273-281.

Hayashi, M. and S. Fujinuma. 2016. Part Fulgoromorpha. pp. 323-355. In: M. Hayashi, M. Tomokuni, K.Yoshizawa, and T. Ishikawa. (eds.). Catalogue of the insects of Japan. Volume 4 Paraneoptera (Psocodea, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera), 4. Editorial Committee of Catalogue of the Insects of Japan, Entomological Society of Japan.

Holzinger, W. E., I. Kammerlander and H. Nickel. 2003. Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha excluding Cicadellidae. Volume 1. The Auchenorrhyncha of Central Europe. Brill Academic Publishing, Leiden, Netherlands.

Horváth, G. 1897b. Homoptera nova ex Hungaria. Természetrajzi Füzetek 20: 620-643.

Lauterer, P. 1980. New and interesting records of leafhoppers from Czechoslovakia (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Acta Musei Moraviae 65: 117-140.

Leach, W. E. 1815a. Entomology. The Edinburg encyclopedia; conducted by David Brewster 9: 57-172. (family Delphacidae here).

Lindberg, H. 1958. Hemiptera Insularum Caboverdensium. Societatis Scientiarium Fennica. Commentationes Biologicae 19(1): 1-246.

Linnavuori, R. 1964. Hemiptera of Egypt, with remarks on some species of the adjacent Eremian region. Annales Zoologici Fennici 1: 306-356.

Linnavuori, R. 1973. Hemiptera of the Sudan, with remarks on some species of the adjacent countries 2. Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae; Cercopidae, Machaerotidae, Membracidae and Fulgoridae (Zoological contribution to the Sudan no. 33). Notulae Entomologicae 53(3):65-137.

Matsumura, S. 1900. Uebersicht der Fulgoriden Japans. Entomologische Nachrichten 26: 257-269.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1943. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 3, Araeopidae (Delphacidae). Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts.

Mozaffarian, F. and M. R.  Wilson. 2011. An annotated checklist of the planthoppers of Iran (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha) with distribution data. ZooKeys 145: 1-57.

Muir, F.A.G. and W. M. Giffard. 1924. Studies in North American Delphacidae. Bulletin of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association Division of Entomology 15: 1-53.

Nast, J. 1972. Palaearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera). An annotated check list in Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa, 550 pp.

Nast, J. 1987. The Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) of Europe in Annales Zoologici Warszawa 40: 535-661.

Nickel, H. 2003. The Leafhoppers and Planthoppers of Germany (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha): patterns and strategies in a highly diverse group of phytophagous insects in Pensoft Series Faunistica No. 28, Sofia-Moscow, Keltern, 1-460.

Ossiannilsson, F. 1978. The Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Part 1: Introduction, infraorder Fulgoromorpha in Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 7 (1): 1-222.

Oshanin, V. T. 1907a. Verzeichnis der palaearktischen hemipteren, mit besonderer berücksichtigung ihrer verteilung im Russischen reiche. II. Band. Homoptera. I. Lieferung. Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences. [Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Akademie der wissenschaften, St. Petersburg.] 12: 193-384.

Webb, M. D. 1975. Fulgoroidea from Aldabra, Astove, and Cosmoledo atolls, collected by the Royal Society Expedition 1967-68 (Hemiptera-Homoptera). Atoll Research Bulletin 177: 1-10. pdf [Falcotoya sp. reported]

 Wilson, S. W., C. Mitter, R. F. Denno and M.R. Wilson. 1994. Evolutionary patterns of host plant use by delphacid planthoppers and their relatives. In: R.F. Denno and T.J. Perfect, (eds.). Planthoppers: Their Ecology and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York. Pp. 7-45 & Appendix. [Host information in appendix.]

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