Genus Criomorphus Curtis, 1833

[Back to Higher classification of Delphacidae]

Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815

Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815

Genus Criomorphus Curtis, 1833: 195

Type species: Criomorphus albomarginatus Curtis, 1833


Holarctic, especially north.

Distribution of Criomorphis from FLOW

Distribution of Criomorphis from FLOW (as of 20 Feb. 2020)

Recognized species

10 currently recognized species worldwide as follows (distribution records incomplete):

Criomorphus agnus Anufriev and Averkin, 1982: 126 – Mongolia

= Criomorphus selengicus Emeljanov 1977; syn in Emeljanov 1982: 89.
Criomorphus albomarginatus Curtis, 1833: 195 – Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia (Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia), Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine.
= Delphax adelpha Flor, 1861
= Delphax collaris Stal, 1853
Criomorphus borealis (Sahlberg, 1871: 477) – Northern Europe, Russia; Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Mongolia, Netherlands,  Norwegian mainland, Poland,  North European Russia (Buryatiya, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Kuril Islands, Primorye, Sakhalin, Siberia (Krasnoyarsk)), Sweden.
= Ditropis borealis Sahlberg, 1871
= Stiroma carinata Metcalf, 1943
Criomorphus euagropyri Emeljanov, 1964 (Kazakhstan); to Stiromella Wagner by Mitjaev 1968: 1866; 1971: 58;  Nast 1972: 38.
Criomorphus firmatus Emeljanov, 1977: 114 (also 1982: 89) – Mongolia
Criomorphus inconspicuus (Uhler, 1877: 258) – USA: Alaska, Colorado, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Illinois, (New York?); Canada: Yukon; Mongolia, Russia (Amur, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Kuril Islands, Magadan, Primorye, Sakhalin, Yakutskiya);
Japan (Hokkaido)
= Stiroma inconspicua Uhler, 1877: 258.
= Jassideaeus inconspicuus (Uhler, 1877); comb. by Crawford, 1914: 583.
= Criomorphus inconspicuus (Uhler, 1877); comb. by Van Duzee, 1916: 85.
= Criomorphus conspicuus Metcalf, 1923: 212 ; syn. by Bartlett et al. 2014: 111.
= Criomorphus wilhelmi Anufriev & Averkin, 1982b: 131; syn. by Bartlett et al. 2014: 111.
Criomorphus moestus (Boheman, 1847: 59) – Belarus, Britain Isles, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, (France?), Germany, Latvia, North European Russia, Sweden
= Delphax moestus Boheman, 1847
= Delphax thoracica Stal, 1858
= Stiroma germanica Matsumura, 1910
Criomorphus niger Ding and Zang, 1994: 38 – China
Criomorphus nigerrimus Dlabola, 1965: 82 – Mongolia
Criomorphus ovis Anufriev and Averkin, 1982: 128 – Russia
Criomorphus williamsi China, 1939: 45 – Great Britain, Central European Russia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary

Economic Importance

Limited. In the New World, members of this genus are seldom encountered.

Plant Associations

Mostly Grasses

Criomorphus albomarginatus : Festuca rubra L., Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv., D. flexuosa (L.) Trin., Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth, Holcus spp. (all Poaceae), Luzula spp. (Juncaceae)
Criomorphus borealis : Calamagrostis villosa J.F. Gmel., C. canescens (Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) Roth
Criomorphus moestus : Calamagrostis canescens (but see Nickel 1993 – host record may be in error; reported also from mixed Carex, Phragmites, and Eriophorum vaginatum L.)
Criomorphus williamsi : Poa palustris L., Poa trivialis L.(Poaceae); possibly Rumex (Polygonaceae)

Host records from Holzinger et al. 2003, Nickel 2003, and Wilson et al. 1994; plant names from USDA Plants or Tropicos.

Parasites, Predators:

Criomorphus albomarginatusElenchus tenuicornis (Kirby, 1815) (Strepsiptera: Elenchidae) (Sheppard, 1998)


China (1939) provides a key to British species and Holzinger et al. (2003) to those of central Europe.

Among the North American fauna, Criomorphus is nearly unique in having the median carinae of the frons paired.  this feature is shared with Marcrotomella, which is tropical in distribution and bears few other superficial similarities.  Criomorphus is a very uncommon taxon through most of North America (possibly except Alaska and northern Canada).

Criomorphus inconspicuus (Uhler, 1877).  Note the paired carinae of the frons.

Criomorphus inconspiuus

Criomorphus inconspiuus

Criomorphus inconspiuus

Criomorphus inconspiuus

Criomorphus inconspiuus

Criomorphus inconspiuus

Criomorphus agnus Anufriev and Averkin 1982 (from same)

Criomorphus agnus from Anufriev and Averkin 1982

Criomorphus agnus from Anufriev and Averkin 1982

Criomorphus ovis and C. firmatus from Anufriev and Averkin 1982

Criomorphus ovis and C. firmatus from Anufriev and Averkin 1982

Criomorphus ovis from Anufriev and Averkin 1982

Criomorphus ovis from Anufriev and Averkin 1982

criomorphis williamsi from Anufriev and Averkin 1982

criomorphis williamsi from Anufriev and Averkin 1982

Criomorphus wilhelmi from Wilson (1992)

Criomorphus wilhelmi from Wilson (1992)

Online resources

Criomorphus on…
Discover Life
Gernot Kunz Kunzweb Gallery Europe (1 species)
Leafhopper, Planthopper & Psyllid Vectors of Plant Disease
3I Interactive Keys and Taxonomic Databases (Dmitry Dmitriev)
Les Hemipteres du Quebec (1 species listed)
DEpository (Metazoa of Germany) (1 species listed)
Fauna Europaea.
British Bugs (2 species)

Online photos

Criomorphus williamsi
Flickr (search = Criomorphus)

Molecular resources

At this time (14 Aug. 2018), Genbank has data for 2 Criomorphus.  Bold has data for 3 species.

Selected references

Anufriev, G. A. 2002. New and little known species of cycadoids of the family Delphacidae (Homoptera Cicadinea) from North Kyrgyzstan. Entomological Investigations in Kyrgyzstan 22: 165-170.

Anufriev G. A. and A. M. Averkin. 1982. Cicadinea of the family Delphacidae (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha) from the Sokhondo Reserve (Transbaicalia). Insects Mongolia 8: 123-139.

Anufriev, G. A. and A. F. Emeljanov. 1988. 1. Podotrijad Cicadinea (Auchenorrhyncha) – Zikadovye. Opredelitel`Nasekomych Dal`nego Vostoka SSSR. I. II. Ravwokrylye i Polu Cz estkokrylye: 12-495.

Anufriev, G. A. and B. I. Kirillova. 1998. The Cicadina of the Chuvash Republic. Cheboksarij. 1-176.

Boheman, C. H. 1847. Nya Svenska Homoptera. Handlingar. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien 1847: 23-67.

China, W. E. 1939. Additions to the British Homoptera. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 75: 41-56.

Crawford, D. L. 1914. A contribution toward a monograph of the homopterous insects of the family Delphacidae of North and South America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 46: 557-640.

Curtis, J. 1833a. Characters of some undescribed genera and species indicated in the “Guide to an arrangement of British insects.” The Entomological Magazine 1: 186-199.

D’Urso, V. 1995. Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha. In: Checklist delle specie della Fauna Italiana 42: 1-35.

Ding, J. H. and F. Zhang. 1994. Delphacidae Fauna of Northeast China – Homoptera Fulgoroidea. China Agricultural Scientech Press. 150 pp.

Dlabola, J. 1965. Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungen von Dr. Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei. 54; Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha. [Auchenorrhyncha from Kaszab expedition to Mongolia]. Acta Faunistica Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 11: 79-136.

Drosopoulos, S, Asche M & Hoch H. 1983. Contribution to the planthopper fauna of Greece. Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae). Annales de l’Institute phytopathologique Benaki (N.S.) 14: 19-68.

Edwards, J. 1886a. IV. A synopsis of British Homoptera-Cicadina. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 1886: 41-129.

Emeljanov, A. F. 1964. New Cicadina from Kazakhstan (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). [New species of insects of the fauna of Kazakhstan.] Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR 34: 3-51 [11].

Emeljanov, A. F. 1972. New genera of Cicadina of Delphacidae family (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha) from Kazakhstan. Vestnik Zoologii 2: 79-81. [In Russian]

Emeljanov, A. F. 1972. New leafhoppers (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha) from the Mongolian People’s Republic. Nasekomye Mongolii [Insects of Mongolia] 1: 199-260. [In Russian]

Emeljanov, A. F. 1977. Leaf-hoppers (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha) from the Mongolian People’s Republic based mainly on materials of the Soviet-Mongolian zoological expeditions (1967-1969). Nasekomye Mongolii [Insects of Mongolia] 5: 96-195. [In Russian]

Emeljanov, A. F. 1982. Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) collected in the Mongolian People’s Republic by the entomofaunistical group of the Soviet Mongolian complex biological expedition in 1970-1975. Nasekomye Mongolii [Insects of Mongolia] 8: 69-122.

Fieber, F X. 1872.- Katalog der europaischen Cicadinen. Katalog der europaischen Cicadinen, nach Originalen mit Benutzung der neuesten Literatur, 1872: i-iv, 1-19.  [Delphax adelpha Flor, 1861]

Flor, G. 1861. Die Rhynchoten Livlands in systematischer Folge beschrieben, Zweiter Theil: Rhynchota gulaerostria Zett. (Homoptera Au.t). Cicadina und Psyllodea. Archiv fur die Naturkunde Liv-, Ehst- und Kurlands (2) 4: 1-567. [Delphax adelpha Flor, 1861]

Gębicki, C., D. Świerczewski and J. Szwedo. 2013. Planthoppers and Leafhoppers of Poland (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha et Cicadomorpha). Systematics, Check-list, Bionomy. The Monograph. Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum, Entomology 21-22: 1-245.

Gunthart, H. and R. Muhlethaler. 2002. Provisorische Checklist der Zikaden der Schweiz (Insecta: Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia 04, zugleich Kataloge des OO. Landesmuseums, Neue Folge, 176: 329-338.

Hassan, A. I. 1939.  The biology of some British Delphacidae (Homoptera) and their parasites with special reference to the Strepsiptera. Transaction of the Royal Entomological Society London 89: 345-384.

Hayashi, M. and S. Fujinuma. 2016. Part Fulgoromorpha. Pp. 323-355. In: Entomological Society of Japan 2016 – Catalogue of the insects of Japan. Volume 4 Paraneoptera (Psocodea, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera), 4. Editorial Committee of Catalogue of the Insects of Japan.

Hildebrandt, J. 1986. Besiedlung eines Ruderal-Okosystems durch Zikaden. Drosera 1986 (1): 15-20.

Holzinger, W. E., I. Kammerlander and H. Nickel. 2003. Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha excluding Cicadellidae. Volume 1. The Auchenorrhyncha of Central Europe. Brill Academic Publishing, Leiden, Netherlands.

Horváth, G. 1897. Homoptera nova ex Hungaria. Természetrajzi Füzetek 20: 620-643.

Lauterer, P. 1983.  Fagocyba cerricola sp. n. and new and interesting records of leafhoppers from Czechoslovakia (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Acta Musei Moraviae 68: 139-152.

Le Quesne, W J. 1960. Hemiptera (Fulgoromorpha). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects II (3): 1-68.

Leach, W. E. 1815a. Entomology. The Edinburg encyclopedia; conducted by David Brewster 9: 57-172. (family Delphacidae here).

Lindberg, H. 1924. Anteckningar om Ostfennoskandiens Cicadina. Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennica 56: 3-49, figs 1-19. [Stiroma germanica Matsumura, 1910]

Marshall, T A. 1865. An essay towards a knowledge of British Homoptera (continued). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 1: 226-229. [Delphax collaris Stal, 1853]

Matsumura, S. 1910.  Neue Cicadinen aus Europa und dem Mittelmeergebiet (Schluss). Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo 27 (18): 1-38, figs. 1-13. [Stiroma germanica Matsumura, 1910]

Metcalf, Z. P. 1923. A key to the Fulgoridae of Eastern North America with descriptions of new species. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 38: 139-230.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1943. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 3, Araeopidae (Delphacidae). Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts.

Mitjaev, I. D. 1968. New species of the genus Stiromella W. Wagner, 1963 (Cicadinea, Delphacidae) from Southern Kazakhstan. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 47(12): 1866-1868.[Russian with English summary]

Mitjaev, I. D. 1971. Leafhoppers of Kazakhstan (Homoptera – Cicadinea). Nauka of Kazakh SSR, Alma Ata [Academy of Sciences of Kazakh SSR]: 66. book [Russian]

Nast, J. 1972.  Palaearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera). An annotated check list. Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa, 550 pp.

Nast, J. 1987. The Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) of Europe.n Annales Zoologici Warszawa 40: 535-661.

Nickel, H. 2003. The Leafhoppers and Planthoppers of Germany (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Patterns and strategies in a highly diverse group of phytophagous insects, Pensoft Series Faunistica 28, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Nickel, H & Sander, F W. 1996. Kommentiertes Verzeichnis der bisher in Thuringen nachgewiesenen Zikadenarten (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Veroffentlichungen des Naturkundemuseums Erfurt 15: 152-170.

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Remane, R & Frohlich W. 1994. Vorlaufige, kritische Artenliste der im Gebiet der Bundesrepublik Deutschland nachgewiesenen Taxa der Insekten-Gruppe der Zikaden (Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 2(8): 189-232.

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Sheppard, D. 2014. Elenchus tenuicornis (Kirby, 1815) (Strepsiptera: Elenchidae): An order of insects new to Lincolnshire. The Lincolnshire naturalist: transactions of the Lincolnshire Naturalists’ Union 28(4): 234, 239.

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Stal, C. 1858. Nya svenska Hemiptera. Ofversigt af Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Forhandlingar 15: 355-358. [Delphax thoracica Stal, 1858]

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