Genus Asiraca Latreille, 1796

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Family Delphacidae Leach 1815

Subfamily Asiracinae Motschulsky 1863: 108.

Tribe Asiracini Motschulsky, 1863

Genus Asiraca Latreille, 1796: 202.

Distribution: Palearctic (see below)

Distribution of Asiraca from FLOW 31 jan 2020

Distribution of Asiraca from FLOW (31 Jan. 2020)

Type species (in original combination): Cicada clavicornis Fabricius, 1794.

Generic synonyms

Manchookhonia Kato, 1933 (Type species Manchookhonia granulipennis Kato, 1933); Synonomy by Asche 1985: 116.
Boresinia Chou in Chou et al. 1983: 60, 66; replacement name for Manchookhonia Kato [in Lophopidae]; Synonymy By Dessart (1983: 318); Liang, 1998: 188.

Recognized species

There are five species and one subspecies currently placed in this genus.

Asiraca choui (Yuan & Wang, 1992) – China (Shaanxi)
= Boresinia choui Yuan & Wang, 1992, original combination.
= Asiraca choui Yuan & Wang, 1992; comb. by Liang (1996: 146)
Asiraca clavicornis (Fabricius, 1794: 41) [Metcalf 1943: 23] – Widespread in Europe, Russia, North Africa, Middle East, Asia [Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,  Lebanon, Macedonia, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,  Switzerland, Syria, Tadzhikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia]
= Cicada clavicornis Fabricius, 1794. original combination
= Delphax clavicornis (Fabricius, 1794), combination by Fabricius (1798: 522)
= Asiraca clavicornis (Fabricius), combination by Latreille (1802: 260)
= Cimex aequinoctialis Scopoli, 1763; suppressed by ICZN, 1999: 211 (opinion 1935).
Asiraca clavicornis divisa Rey, 1891: 243 – Germany, France
Asiraca germari Metcalf, 1943: 29 – Brazil
= Asiraca longicornis Germar 1830: 56 (nec Latreille 1802); replacement name by Metcalf 1943.
Asiraca granulipennis (Kato, 1933) – China (Jinlin, Manchurua), south Korea
= Manchookhonia granulipennis Kato, 1933, original combination
= Asiraca granulipennis (Kato, 1933), nomen implicitum according to Asche (1985: 116)
Asiraca longicornis Latreille 1802: 260 – not specified

Note – Asiraca germari is unlikely to belong to this genus. It is more likely to belong to Copicerus, although this would be difficult to confirm because the type material may be lost.

Plant associations

Asiraca clavicornis is polyphagous on dicots.

For such a distinctive and well-known species, surprisingly little is recorded on plant associations, aside from ‘polyphagous’.

Economic Importance

Limited, although Asiraca clavicornis has been intercepted at US ports.


The genus Asiraca is highly distinctive, although possibly mistaken for the New World genus Copicerus.  Early records of Asiraca in the western hemisphere are probably Copicerus misidentified as Asiraca.

Asiraca clavicornis has expanded femora and tibiae of the front legs, long, flattened antennae, and the spur on the hind leg does not have teeth.

Asiraca clavicornis

Asiraca clavicornis

Calcar of Asiraca clavicornis

Asiraca clavicornis Asiraca clavicornis Asiraca clavicornis

Asiraca clavicornis

Asiraca clavicornis from Asche 1985


Discover Life
British Bugs
Gernot Kunz gallery
Molecular resources

On Genbank there are data for Asiraca clavicornis. There are no data for this genus on BOLD.

Selected references

Allen, A. A. 1979. Asiraca clavicornis (F.) (Hem., Delphacidae) in S.E. London. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 114: 105.

Asche, M. 1982. Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna der Turkei (Anatolien) (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 71-98.

Asche, M. 1982. Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Ungarns (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 139-154.

Asche, M. 1982. Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Jugoslawiens und Bulgariens (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 99-138.

Asche, M. 1985. Zur Phylogenie der Delphacidae Leach, 1815 (Homoptera: Cicadina: Fulgoromorpha). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 2(1), volume 1 pp. 1-398, volume 2 pp. 399-910.

Asche, M. and H. Hoch. 1982.  Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Griechenlands II (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 37-70.

Asche, M. and R. Remane. 1982.  Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Griechenlands I (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae) Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(6): 231-290.

Bonfils, J. and W. Della Giustina. 1978. Inventaire et repartition biogeographique des Homopteres Auchenorhynques de Corse. Bulletin de la Societe entomologique de France 83: 23-29.

Chou, I., H-f. Chao and S-n. Chiang. 1983. Modification of insect scientific names connected with ‘Manchukuo’. Entomotaxonomia 5(1): 60-66.

Cvrkovic, T., M. Mitrovic, J. Jovic, S, Krnjajic, O. Krstic and I. Tosevski. 2010. Diverzitet cikada (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) u vinogradima Srbije. Zastita Bilja 61(3): 217-232.

Cvrkovic, T., J. Jovic, M. Mitrovic, O. Krstic, S. Krnjajic and I. Tosevski. 2011. Potential new hemipteran vectors of stolbur phytoplasma in Serbian vineyards. Bulletin of Insectology 64 (supp.): S129-S130.

D’Urso, V. 1995. Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha. In: Checklist delle specie della Fauna Italiana 42: 1-35.

Dessart, P. 1983. Abus politico-nomenclaturaux. Bulletin et Annales de la Societe Royale Belge d’Entomologie 119(10-12): 318-319.

Dolling, W. R. 1996. The identity of Cimex aequinoctialis Scopoli (Hem., Delphacidae). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 132(1580-83): 49-50.

Drosopoulos, S. 1982. Hemipterological studies in Greece. Part II. Homoptera – Auchenorrhyncha. On the family Delphacidae. Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(6): 35-88.

Drosopoulos, S., M. Asche and H. Hoch. 1983. Contribution to the planthopper fauna of Greece. Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae). Annales de l’Institut Phytopathologique Benaki (N.S.) 14: 19-68.

Emeljanov, A. F. and I. M. Kerzhner. 1998. On the proposed conservation of the specific name of Cicada clavicornis Fabricius, 1794 (currently Asiraca clavicornis; Insecta, Homoptera). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 55: 237-237.

Fabricius, J. C. 1794. Ryngota. In: Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta: secundun classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonimis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Impensis Christ. Gottl. Proft, Hafniae [Copenhagen, Denmark]. 4: 1-472.

Fabricius, J. C. 1798. Supplementum Entomologiae Systematicae. 1798: 511-524.

Fieber, F. X. 1872a. Katalog der europäischen Cicadinen, nach Originalien mit Benützung der neuesten Literatur. Carl Gerold’s Sohn, Wein [Vienna, Austria]. Pp.: i-iv, 1-19.

Germar, E. F. 1830. Species Cicadarium enumeratae et sub genera distributae. Thon’s Entomologisches Archiv 2 (2):1-8 [i.e. 37-44], 45-57.

Gębicki, C., D. Świerczewski and J Szwedo. 2013. Planthoppers and Leafhoppers of Poland (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha et Cicadomorpha). Systematics, Check-list, Bionomy. The Monograph. Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum, Entomology 21-22: 1-245.

Gunthart, H. and R. Muhlethaler. 2002. Provisorische Checklist der Zikaden der Schweiz (Insecta: Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia 04, zugleich Kataloge des OO. Landesmuseums, Neue Folge, 176: 329-338.

Holzinger, W. E., I. Kammerlander and H. Nickel. 2003. Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha excluding Cicadellidae. Volume 1. The Auchenorrhyncha of Central Europe. Brill Academic Publishing, Leiden, Netherlands.

ICZN. 1999. Opinion 1935. Cicada clavicornis Fabricius, 1794 (currently Asiraca clavicornis; Insecta, Homoptera): specific name conserved. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 56(3): 211-212.

Jones, R. A. and P. J. Hodge. 1999. Notes on the occurrence of the planthoppers Reptalus panzeri (Low) (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) and Asiraca clavicornis (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 12: 239-240.  (Biostor)

Kato, M. 1933. Notes on some Manchurian Homoptera, collected by Mr. K. Kikuchi. The Entomological World. Organ of the Insect Lover’s Association 1: 2-12.

Latreille, P. A. 1796. Classe troisième Hémiptères. p. 89-92. In: Latreille P. A. 1796. Précis des caractères génériques des insectes, disposés dans un ordre naturel. Prèvôt, Paris.

Latreille, P. A. 1802b. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes: ouvrage faisant suite aux oeuvres de Leclerc de Buffon, et partie du cours complet d’histoire naturelle rédigé par C. S. Sonnini, membre de plusieursSociétés savantes. F. Dufart . Paris. 2:5-380.

Leach, W. E. 1815a. Entomology. The Edinburg encyclopedia; conducted by David Brewster 9: 57-172. (family Delphacidae here)

Liang, A.-P. 1998. On the Eurasian planthopper genus Asiraca Latreille (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoromorpha: Delphacidae). Reichenbachia 32: 187-196.

Lindberg, H. 1963. Zur Kenntnis der Zikadenfauna von Marokko I. Notulae Entomologicae 43: 21-37.

Logvinenko, V. N. 1975. Fulgoroidny cicadovy Fulgoroidea. Fauna Ukrainy 20 (2): 1-287 [in Ukrainian].

Metcalf, Z. P. 1943. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 3, Araeopidae (Delphacidae). Smith College, Northhampton, Massachusetts. (Asiraca)

Mitrovic, M., V. Trivellone, J. Jovic, T. Cvrkovic, M. Jakovljevic, A. Kosovac, O. Krstic and I. Toševski. 2015. Potential Hemipteran vectors of “stolbur” phytoplasma in potato fields in Serbia. Phytopathogenic Mollicutes 5(1-Supplement): S49-S50.

De Motschulsky, V. I. 1863. Essai d’un catalogue des insectes de l’ile de Ceylan. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 36: 1-153. (p. 108)

Mozaffarian, F. and M. R. Wilson. 2011. An annotated checklist of the planthoppers of Iran (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha) with distribution data. ZooKeys 145: 1–57. Advance online publication.

Nast, J. 1972. Palaearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera). An annotated check list. Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa, 550 pp.

Nast, J. 1987. The Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) of Europe. Annales Zoologici Warszawa 40: 535-661.

Nickel, H. 2003. The Leafhoppers and Planthoppers of Germany (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha): patterns and strategies in a highly diverse group of phytophagous insects. Pensoft Series Faunistica No. 28, Sofia-Moscow, Keltern, 1-460.

Odegaard, F. 2011. Asiraca clavicornis (Fabricius, 1794) (Homoptera, Delphacidae, Asiracinae) a new planthopper to northern Europe found in Norway. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 58(1): 33-35.

Rey, C. 1891. Observations sur quelques Hémiptères-Homoptères et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles ou peu connues. Revue d’Entomologie 10: 240-256.

Scopoli, J. A. 1763. Entomologia Carniolica exhibens insecta Carnioliae indigena et distributa in ordines, genera, species, varietates : methodo Linnaeana. 420 pp. [132] Ioannis Thomae Trattner, Wien (Vienna, Austria).

Stroinski, A., J. Blaszczyk and D. Swierczewski. 2018. New records of planthoppers and leafhoppers from northern Poland (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha et Cicadomorpha). Acta Entomologica Silesiana 26 (online 004): 1-12.

Wilson, M.R. and M. Asche. 1998.Cicada clavicornis Fabricius, 1794. currently Asiraca clavicornis; Insecta, Homoptera. proposed conservation of the specific name. Case 3040. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 55(2) 93-95.

Yang, J. T. and C. T. Yang. 1986. Delphacidae of Taiwan (1) Asiracinae and the tribe Tropidocephalini (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Taiwan Museum Special Publication Series 6: 1-79.

Yuan, F. and Y. Wang. 1992. A new species of Boresinia Chou (Homoptera: Lophopidae) from China. Entomotaxonomia 14(3): 179-182.

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