Genus Haplaxius Fowler, 1904

[Back to North American Cixiidae]

Family Cixiidae Spinola, 1839

Subfamily Cixiinae Spinola, 1839

Tribe Oecleini Muir, 1922

Genus Haplaxius Fowler, 1904: 97.

Type species: (in original combination): Haplaxius laevis Fowler, 1904: 98.


Paramyndus Fennah, 1945a (Type species Paramyndus cocois Fennah, 1945a; junior syn. of Myndus crudus Van Duzee 1907); syn. with Myndus by Kramer, 1979: 303-304.
Myndus Stål, 1862a (auctorum; Type species Flata musiva Germar 1825); syn. by Kramer 1979: 303; removed from syn. by Emeljanov 1989: 62-64; also Holzinger et al. 2002: 128.


Widespread in New World.

Distribution of Haplaxius from FLOW (24 Sept. 2018)

Recognized species

There are 34 species north of Mexico, plus an additional 30 species in the Neotropics.

Haplaxius balli (Kramer, 1979) – USA: AZ
Myndus balli Kramer, 1979: 325-326.
Haplaxius balli (Kramer, 1979); comb. by implication Emeljanov 1989: 62.
Haplaxius beameri (Ball, 1933c) – USA: AZ
Myndus beameri Ball, 1933c: 480.
Haplaxius beameri (Ball, 1933c); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
3 Haplaxius catalinus (Ball, 1933c) – USA: AZ, NM, TX
Myndus catalinus Ball, 1933c: 481.
Haplaxius catalinus (Ball, 1933c); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
Haplaxius collinus (Ball, 1933c) – USA: CO, MT; CAN: SK
Myndus collinus Ball, 1933c: 482.
Haplaxius collinus Ball, 1933c; comb. by implication Emeljanov 1989: 62.
5 Haplaxius crena (Kramer, 1979) – USA: AZ, CO
= Myndus crena Kramer, 1979: 318-320.
Haplaxius crena Kramer, 1979; comb. by implication Emeljanov 1989: 62.
Haplaxius crudus (Van Duzee, 1907), the “American palm cixiid”  – USA: FL, TX (soon to be reported from MS); Belize, Brazil, Cayman Islands (Grand Cayman), Columbia, Costa Rica, Cuba (inc. Isle of Pines), Dominican Republic, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico (Baja California Sur, Quintana Roo), Panama, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Trinidad
Myndus crudus Van Duzee, 1907: 33.
Paramyndus crudus (Van Duzee, 1907); comb. by implication Fennah 1945b: 142.
Paramyndus cocois Fennah, 1945a: 424-425.
Haplaxius crudus (Van Duzee, 1907); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov, 1989: 62.
= Haplaxius cocois (Fennah, 1945a); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203.
Haplaxius pallidus Caldwell, 1946: 204; syn. by Kramer 1979: 346-347.
Haplaxius cocois (Fennah, 1945a); syn. by Kramer 1979: 346; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
Haplaxius dozieri (Kramer, 1979) – USA: MS
Myndus dozieri Kramer, 1979: 340.
Haplaxius dozieri (Kramer, 1979); comb. by implication Emeljanov 1989: 62.
Haplaxius enotatus (Van Duzee, 1909) – USA: FL, GA, LA, MD, MS, NC, SC, VA; CAN: QC; Cuba
Myndus enotatus Van Duzee, 1909: 188.
Haplaxius enotatus (Van Duzee, 1909); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
Haplaxius flocki (Kramer, 1979) – USA: AZ, CA; Mexico (Baja California)
Myndus flocki Kramer, 1979: 342-344.
Haplaxius flocki (Kramer, 1979); comb. by implication Emeljanov, 1989: 62.
10 Haplaxius fulvus (Osborn, 1903a) – USA: CT, IL, KS, KY, MA, NY, OH, TN; CAN: ON
Myndus fulvus Osborn, 1903a: 46.
= Haplaxius fulvus (Osborn, 1903a); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
11 Haplaxius gabrielensis Flock, 1951- USA: CA
Haplaxius gabrielensis Flock, 1951: 169.
Myndus gabrielensis (Flock, 1951); comb. by Kramer 1979: 328, 330; restored to Haplaxius by Emeljanov 1989: 62.
12 Haplaxius glyphis (Kramer, 1979) – USA: MA, NY, TN; CAN: NB, QC
Myndus glyphis Kramer, 1979: 311-312.
Haplaxius glyphis (Kramer, 1979); comb. by implication Emeljanov 1989: 62.
13 Haplaxius impiger (Ball, 1902a) – USA: CO, NM
Myndus impiger Ball, 1902a: 153.
Haplaxius impiger (Ball, 1902a); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
14 Haplaxius lophion lophion (Kramer, 1979) – USA: AZ, CO
Myndus lophion lophion Kramer, 1979: 349-350 (subspecific combination by implication).
= Haplaxius lophion lophion (Kramer, 1979); comb. by implication Emeljanov 1989: 62.
Haplaxius lophion alpha (Kramer, 1979) – USA: CO
Myndus lophion alpha Kramer, 1979: 350.
Haplaxius lophion alpha (Kramer, 1979); comb. by implication Emeljanov 1989: 62.
15 Haplaxius lunatus (Van Duzee, 1909) – USA: FL
Myndus lunatus Van Duzee, 1909: 189.
= Haplaxius lunatus (Van Duzee, 1909); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
16 Haplaxius mojavensis (Ball, 1933c) – USA: AZ, CA, NV
= Myndus mojavensis Ball, 1933c: 480.
Haplaxius mojavensis (Ball, 1933c); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
17 Haplaxius neopusillus (Kramer, 1979) – USA: FL
Myndus neopusillus Kramer, 1979: 338-339.
= Haplaxius neopusillus (Kramer, 1979); comb. by implication Emeljanov 1989: 62.
18 Haplaxius nevadensis (Kramer, 1979) – USA: AZ, NV
Myndus nevadensis Kramer, 1979: 325.
Haplaxius nevadensis (Kramer, 1979); comb. by implication Emeljanov, 1989: 62.
19 Haplaxius nigrifrons (Ball, 1937) – USA: TX
Myndus nigrifrons Ball, 1937: 179.
Haplaxius nigrifrons (Ball, 1937); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
20 Haplaxius nolinus (Ball, 1933c) – USA: AZ, NM
Myndus nolinus Ball, 1933c: 481.
= Haplaxius nolinus (Ball, 1933c); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
21 Haplaxius occidentalis (Van Duzee, 1914) – USA: AZ, CA, ID, OR, UT
Myndus occidentalis Van Duzee, 1914: 39.
Haplaxius occidentalis (Van Duzee, 1914); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
22 Haplaxius ovatus (Ball, 1933c) – USA: DE, GA, IA, KS, MA, MD, NE, NJ, OK, VA
Myndus ovatus Ball, 1933c: 483.
Haplaxius ovatus (Ball, 1933c); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
23 Haplaxius pictifrons (Stål, 1862a) – USA: CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, TN, VA; CAN: ON, QC; Cuba
Myndus pictifrons Stål, 1862a: 307.
= Haplaxius pictifrons (Stål, 1862a); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
Myndus sordipennis Stål, 1862a: 308.
Haplaxius sordipennis (Stål, 1862a); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; syn. by Kramer 1979: 314, 316.
24 Haplaxius pusillus (Van Duzee, 1909) – USA: CT, FL, GA, MA, NC, NH, NJ, VA
Myndus pusillus Van Duzee, 1909: 190.
Haplaxius pusillus (Van Duzee, 1909); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
Haplaxius perrinei Caldwell, 1951: 34; syn. by Kramer 1979: 336, 338.
25 Haplaxius radicis (Osborn, 1903b) – USA: DC, DE, IL, IN, KS, MD, MS, NC, NY, OH, OK, TN, TX, VA
Myndus radicis Osborn, 1903b: 42.
Haplaxius radicis (Osborn, 1903b); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203.
Myndus delicatus Van Duzee, 1908: 492.
Haplaxius delicatus (Van Duzee 1908); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; syn. by Kramer 1979: 320-321.
26 Haplaxius rubidus (Ball, 1933c) – USA: TX
Myndus rubidus Ball, 1933c: 483.
Haplaxius rubidus (Ball, 1933c); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
27 Haplaxius slossonae (Ball, 1902a) – USA: FL, GA, KS, MO, MS, OK, TX
Myndus slossoni Ball, 1902a: 154.
Haplaxius slossoni (Ball, 1902a); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203.
Myndus slossonae (Ball, 1902a); emendation to by Kramer 1979: 334, 336.
Haplaxius slossonae (Ball, 1902a); comb. by implication Emeljanov 1989: 62.
28 Haplaxius texensis (Kramer, 1979) – USA: FL, GA, KS, MO, MS, OK, TX
= Myndus texensis Kramer, 1979: 333.
Haplaxius texensis (Kramer, 1979); comb. by implication Emeljanov 1989: 62. USA: TX
29 Haplaxius truncatus (Metcalf, 1923) – USA: IA, IL, WI
Myndus truncatus Metcalf, 1923: 184.
Haplaxius truncatus (Metcalf, 1923); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
30 Haplaxius viridicatus (Ball, 1933c) – USA: AZ, CA
Myndus viridicatus Ball, 1933: 483.
Haplaxius viridicatus (Ball, 1933c); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
31 Haplaxius viridis (Ball, 1902a) – USA: AZ, CA, CO (reported in error: USA: IA, NJ, OH)
Myndus viridis Ball, 1902a: 153.
Haplaxius viridis (Ball, 1902a); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.
Myndus auratus Ball, 1933c: 434; syn. by Caldwell 1946: 203.
Haplaxius auratus (Ball, 1933c); comb. by Kramer 1979: 340, 342.
32 Haplaxius wheeleri (Wilson, 1996) (in Wheeler & Wilson 1996) – USA: NJ, PA
Myndus wheeleri Wilson, 1996: 103-104 (in Wheeler & Wilson 1996).
Haplaxius wheeleri (Wilson, 1996); comb. by Bartlett et al. 2011: 12.
33 Haplaxius xyron (Kramer, 1979) – USA: MI, NY; CAN: ON, QC
Myndus xyron Kramer, 1979: 312-314.
Haplaxius xyron (Kramer, 1979); comb. by implication Emeljanov 1989: 62.
34 Haplaxius yuccandus (Ball, 1933c) – USA: AZ
Myndus yuccandus Ball, 1933c: 482.
Haplaxius yuccandus (Ball, 1933c); comb. by Caldwell 1946: 203; also Emeljanov 1989: 62.

Neotropical species (from an unpublished list by Lois O’Brien)
Haplaxius akko (Kramer 1979:372) – Belize, Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama
Haplaxius brimosis (Kramer 1979:366) – Bolivia
Haplaxius caldwelli (Kramer 1979:359) – Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico
Haplaxius cabrerensis Ferreira, McKamey, & Sanchez, 2010 – Dominican Republic
   Haplaxius crudus (Van Duzee, 1907: 33) – see above
Haplaxius deleter (Kramer 1979: 379) – Panama
Haplaxius delta (Kramer 1979: 376) – Belize, , Guatemala, Panama
Haplaxius dolon (Kramer 1979: 384) – Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay
Haplaxius fennahi (Kramer 1979: 382) – Peru
Haplaxius frontalis Fowler 1904: 98) – Mexico (Guerrero)
10 Haplaxius gnophos (Kramer 1979: 366) – Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina
11 Haplaxius gomphos (Kramer 1979: 374) – Mexico
12 Haplaxius hochae O’Brien 2006: 313) – Dominica
13 Haplaxius jamaicae (Kramer 1979: 355) – Jamaica, Dominican Republic
14 Haplaxius laevis Fowler 1904: 98) – Mexico (Mexico City)
15 Haplaxius lyssa (Kramer 1979: 364) – Peru, Ecuador, Brazil
16 Haplaxius meadi (Kramer 1979: 388) – Mexico
17 Haplaxius mokos (Kramer 1979: 363) – Peru
18 Haplaxius nimbus (Kramer 1979: 368) – Venezuela
19 Haplaxius phylax (Kramer 1979: 362) – Costa Rica
20 Haplaxius serratus (Caldwell 1946: 204) – Mexico
21 Haplaxius sillos (Kramer 1979: 363) – Peru
22 Haplaxius simplicatus Caldwell, 1946: 204 – Costa Rica, El Salvador, Panama
23 Haplaxius skarphion (Kramer 1979: 386) – Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama
24 Haplaxius spanglerorum (Kramer 1979: 380) – Peru
25 Haplaxius sparagma (Kramer 1979: 374) – Guatemala
26 Haplaxius synavei (Kramer 1979: 378) – Venezuela
27 Haplaxius tekmar (Kramer 1979: 368) – Mexico
28 Haplaxius tekton (Kramer 1979: 382) – Peru
29 Haplaxius thryligma (Kramer 1979: 372) – Brazil
30 Haplaxius vilbastei (Kramer 1979: 379) – Argentina

Economic Importance:

Haplaxius crudus (Van Duzee 1907) is a vector of Lethal Yellowing of coconut palms in Florida (Howard et al. 1983; Howard 1987, here), and almost certainly elsewhere. It (and perhaps other species) may be vectors of other diseases in coconut, oil and ornamental palms.  Haplaxius crudus appears to be the vector of lethal browning (Texas Phoenix palm decline) and possibly foliar decay in palms. Haplaxius crudus has been repeatedly reported in association with palm disease vector surveys.

Plant associations:
  • Haplaxius beameri – Agave americana L. (American century plant, Agavaceae), Yucca (Agavaceae)
  • Haplaxius catalinus – Yucca
  • Haplaxius crudus – Phoenix canariensis hort. ex Chabaud (Arecaceae, Canary Island date palm), Cocos nucifera L. (coconut palm), Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze (St. Augustine grass, Poaceae), Paspalum notatum Flueggé (bahiagrass), Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (Bermudagrass)
  • Haplaxius enotatus – grass, Juncus (Rush, Juncaceae), ‘marsh grasses’
  • Haplaxius gabrielensis – Hesperoyucca whipplei (Torr.) Baker (chaparral yucca, Agavaceae), sedges
  • Haplaxius glyphis – Populus (Salicaceae)
  • Haplaxius lophion – Pinus (Pinaceae, Pine)
  • Haplaxius mojavensis – Yucca brevifolia Engelm. (Joshua tree, Agavaceae)
  • Haplaxius nigrifrons – Nolina Michx. (beargrass, Liliaceae)
  • Haplaxius nolinus – Nolina microcarpa S. Watson (sacahuista, Liliaceae), Dasyochloa pulchella (Kunth) Willd. ex Rydb.(low woollygrass, Poaceae, as Triodia pulchella)
  • Haplaxius occidentalis – JuncusWashingtonia filifera (Linden ex André) H. Wendl.(California fan palm, Arecaceae)
  • Haplaxius pictifrons – Phalaris arundinacea L. (reed canarygrass, Poaceae), grasses (streamside)
  • Haplaxius radicis – Impatiens L. (touch-me-not, Balsaminaceae), grasses, nettles
  • Haplaxius rubidus – “Palmetto” (presumably Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (cabbage palmetto, Arecaceae))
  • Haplaxius simplicatus – Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) T.Q. Nguyen (para grass, as Panicum barbinode)
  • Haplaxius slossonae – Juncus, ‘grasses’
  • Haplaxius tekmar – Agave
  • Haplaxius texansis – Yucca thompsoniana Trel. (Thompson’s yucca)
  • Haplaxius yuccandus – Yucca

Hosts from Wilson et al. 1994; plant names from USDA PLANTS or Tropicos.

Additional hosts listed in FLOW here.


Without spines on hind tibiae before apex (a tribal feature), tegulae evident, carina on longitudinal midline (median carina) of frons present; vertex without distinct carina on both longitudinal midline and between anterior portions of eyes; longitudinal midlength of mesonotum about 2x or less longitudinal midlength of vertex.

Fowler 1904: 97-98 description

Capite modico, subrotundato, vertice latitudine evidenter longiori, ad basim haud emarginato, ante oculos haud vel vix producto, laevi; fronte fere seque longa ac lata, subrotundata, a clypeo sulco sat profundo separata, hoc ad latera carinato; ocello frontali interdum vix distincto; pronoto brevi ; scutello tricarinato, carinis plerumque indistinctis ; tegminibus pellucidis, haud vel vix evidenter vel delicatissime granulatis, vena radiali et vena ulnari interiori paullo pone medium aequidistanter furcatis, areis apicalibus novem vel decern; tibiis simplicibus. [Google translate: Short head, subrotundata, top five clearly extends to the base and not emarginato before your eyes or a little long, smooth; the front of the long and wide, about himself, orbicular, separated from the shield to the bottom of a ditch they sat, with a carina on the sides of this have to do; at times scarcely an eye of a distinct of the frontal; slightly short; scutellum very tricarinate, the keels for the most part, indistinct; strong lobe, not even barely feed or clearly granulate radial and ulnar vein set an equal inward slightly forked tip areas, nine or ten; three simple.]

Head subrotundate, with the vertex long and smooth, and not emarginate at the base, and not or scarcely produced before the eyes ; forehead about as long as broad, roughly subrotundate, separated from the clypeus by a distinct furrow, clypeus carinate at the sides ; pronotum short ; scutellum with three indistinct earinse ; tegmina with the radial and interior ulnar veins forked at about an equal distance, slightly behind the middle, the granulation not or scarcely evident ; tibiae simple.

Haplaxius radicis

Haplaxius radicis

Haplaxius pictifrons

Haplaxius pictifrons

udcc_tcn-00068539-haplaxius_crudus-male-dor udcc_tcn-00068539-haplaxius_crudus-male-latudcc_tcn-00068539-haplaxius_crudus-male-frons

Haplaxius crudus


Haplaxius crudus and H. fulvus (as Myndus) from Kramer (1979).

Haplaxius catalinus (Salvador Vitanza, Extension education in El Paso County)

Haplaxius fulvus

Haplaxius fulvus (From BOLD, ccdb-21319-f09+1387463020)

Haplaxius pictifrons

Haplaxius pictifrons (from BOLD, ccdb-21319-f07+1387463002)

Haplaxius radicis

Haplaxius radicis (From BOLD, ccdb-21319-f08+1387463012)

Online resources

Discover Life.
Hoppers of North Carolina.
Kunzweb Gallery.
American Insects.


I’ve had best luck sweeping grasses and sedges near streams, but mostly I get H. pictifrons (this species is recorded on willow and I have collected from Willow also). Haplaxius crudus is collected from palm fronds (an ongoing study uses sticky cards). Haplaxius shows up in Lindgren funnel traps (in Pennsylvania) along with other cixiids.

Molecular resources: 

Genbank has data for Haplaxius crudus and Haplaxius sp. (Genbank lists Haplaxius deleter, and H. skarphion, but the generic status of these species requires confirmation); Barcode of Life has data for 7 species, all recorded under Myndus (H. balli, H. fulvus, H. glyphis, H. ovatus, H. pictifrons, H. radicis, H. xyron) – Update (May 2017 22 Nov. 2018) BOLD has 3 species under Haplaxius.

Selected references:

Bahder, B. W., E. E. Helmick, De-Fen Mou, N. A. Harrison and R. Davis. 2018. Digital PCR technology for detection of palm-infecting phytoplasmas belonging to group 16SrIV that occur in Florida. Plant Disease 102(5): 1008-1014.

Bahder, B. W., E. E. Helmick and N. A. Harrison. 2017. Detecting and differentiating phytoplasmas belonging to subgroups 16SrIV-A and 16SrIV-D associated with lethal declines of palms in Florida using qPCR and High-Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA). Plant Disease 101(8): 1449–1454.

Bander, B. W., E. E. Helmick and N. A. Harrison. 2017. Detecting and differentiating phytoplasmas belonging to subgroups 16SrIV-A and 16SrIV-D associated with lethal declines of palms in Florida using qPCR and high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA). Plant Disease 101(8): 1449–1454. doi: 1410.1094/PDIS-1401-1417-0023-RE.

Ball, E. D. 1902. Some new North American Fulgoridae. Canadian Entomologist 34: 147-157.

Ball, E. D. 1933e. The genus Myndus Stål in North America (Homoptera: Fulgoridae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Science 23(10): 478-484.

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Beirne, B. P. 1950. The Canadian Cixiidae (Homoptera : Fulgoroidea). The Canadian Entomologist 82: 93-101.

Caldwell, J. S. 1946. Notes on Haplaxius Fowler with descriptions of new species (Homoptera, Cixiidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 48: 203-206.

Caldwell, J. S. 1951. New Cixiidae from Southern North America with notes on others. (Homoptera : Fulgoroidea). The Ohio Journal of Science. Columbus 51: 34-36.

Cherry, R. H. and F. W. Howard. 1984. Sampling for adults of the planthopper Myndus crudus, a vector of lethal yellowing of palms. Tropical Pest Management 30(1): 22-25.

Dzido, J., R. S. Borges, M. Narvaez, J. Julia, C. Oropeza, and M. Dollet. 2012. Transmission of phytoplasmas associated with Texas Phoenix palm decline (16SrIV-D) to Pritchardia pacifica by the planthopper Haplaxius crudus (Cixiidae) in Yucatan, Mexico. Phytopathology 102(11): 2-2.

Eden-Green, S. J. and M. Schuiling. 1976. “Root acquisition” transmission tests with Haplaxius crudus (Hom: Cixiidae) and Proarna hilaris (Hom: Cicadidae).(Abstract). Principes 20: 66.

Emeljanov, A. F. 1989. To the problem of division of the family Cixiidae (Homoptera, Cicadina). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 68(1): 93-106.

Farr, T. H. 1985. The earliest known date of collection of Myndus crudus (Homoptera: Cixiidae) from coconut palms in Jamaica. Florida Entomologist 68(1): 226-227.

Ferreira, M., S. H. McKamey and R. T. Martinez. 2010. New records of Haplaxius (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) in the Dominican Republic, with description of a new species. Zootaxa 2614: 65-68.

Flock, R. A. 1951. A new species of Haplaxius, with a key to California species (Homoptera: Cixiidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 27(4): 169-171.

Fowler, W. W. 1904. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). Biologia Centrali-Americana; contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America 1: 77-84, 85-124.

Flock, R. A. 1951. A new species of Haplaxius, with a key to California species (Homoptera: Cixiidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 27(4): 169-171.

Gronenborn, B., J. W. Randles, D. Knierim, Q. Barrière, H. J. Vetten, N. Warthmann, D. Cornu, T. Sileye, S. Winter and T. Timchenko. 2018. Analysis of DNAs associated with coconut foliar decay disease implicates a unique single-stranded DNA virus representing a new taxon. Scientific Reports 8(1): 5698.

Gurr, G. M., A. Bertaccini, D. Gopurenko, R. R. Krueger, K. A. Alhudaib, J. A. Liu, and M. J. Fletcher. 2015. Phytoplasmas and Their Insect Vectors: Implications for Date Palm. Pp. 287-314. In: W. Wakil, J. Romeno Faleiro, T.A. Miller. (eds.). Sustainable Pest Management in Date Palm: Current Status and Emerging Challenges. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland.

Halbert, S., S. W. Wilson, B. Bextrine and S. B. Youngblood. 2014. Potential planthopper vectors of palm phytoplasmas in Florida with a description of a new species of the genus Omolicna (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). Florida Entomologist 97(1): 90-97.

Holzinger W. E., A. F. Emeljanov and I. Kammerlander. 2002. The family Cixiidae Spinola, 1839 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) – a Review. Denisia 4: 113-138.

Howard, F. W. 1980. Population densities of Myndus crudus Van Duzee (Homoptera: Cixiidae) in relation to coconut lethal yellowing distribution in Florida. Principes 24:174-178.

Howard, F. W. 1981. Pigment migration in the eye of Myndus crudus (Homoptera: Cixiidae) and its relation to day and night activity. Insect Science and Its Application 2(3): 129-133.

Howard, F. W. 1981. Attractiveness of date and coconut palms to Myndus crudus and other homopterans. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 93:199-201.

Howard, F. W. 1987. Myndus crudus (Homoptera: Cixiidae), a vector of lethal yellowing of palms. Pp. 117-129.  In: M.R. Wilson and L.R. Nault,(eds.). Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Leafhoppers and Planthoppers of Economic Importance : Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA, 28th July-1st August 1986. CAB International Institute of Entomology.

Howard, F. W. 1989. Evaluation of six species of grasses as breeding host of Myndus crudus, a vector of lethal yellowing in palms. Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society 25: 144-146.

Howard, F. W. 1990. Evaluation of grassess for cultural control of Myndus crudus, a vector of lethal yellowing of palms. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 56: 131-137.

Howard, F. W. 1990. Evaluation of Brachiaria and St. Augustune grasses as breeding hosts of Myndus crudus Van Duzee, a vector of leathal yellowing disease of Palms. Beiträge zur Tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmediziz (Leipzig) 28: 425-430.

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