Genus Cixius Latreille, 1804

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Family Cixiidae Spinola, 1839

Subfamily Cixiinae Spinola, 1839

Tribe Cixiini Spinola, 1839

Genus : Cixius Latreille, 1804

Type species (in original combination):  Cicada nervosa Linnaeus, 1758

Synonyms:
  • Vincentia Uhler, 1895 (Type species Vincentia interrupta Uhler, 1895); syn. by Muir 1925a: 104.
  • Pseudocixius Caldwell, 1950a (Type species Pseudocixius bandarus Caldwell, 1950a); syn. by Kramer 1981a: 2..
Distribution:

Widespread, worldwide.

Recognized species

There approximately 303 valid species in this genus.  The listing below may be incomplete for Old World taxa, and possibly Neotropical taxa.  Distribution data for Old World taxa will be updated later; distribution data for Neotropical taxa may be incomplete.

Subgenera. The following have been treated as subgenera of Cixius, but most of these have not been applied to New World taxa.  I have not yet attempted to ascertain the contents of each subgenus)

  • Cixius (Acanthocixius) Wagner, 1939 (includes Cixius (Acanthocixius) heydenii Kirschbaum, 1868, Cixius (Acanthocixius) sticticus Rey, 1891) (Paleactic) (synonym of Cixius (Orinocixius) Wagner, 1939 according to Emeljanov (2015: 116)
  • Cixius (Alcixius) Emeljanov, 1992 (type species Cixius stigmaticalis Melichar, 1911)
  • Cixius (Ceratocixius) Wagner, 1939 (type species Flata simplex Herrich-Schäffer, 1835)
  • Cixius (Ciximonia) Emeljanov, 2015 (type species Cixius admirabilis Logvinenko, 1976 )
  •  Cixius (Cixius)  Latreille, 1804   (Type species Cixius  nervosus (Linné, 1758))
  • Cixius (Criocixius) Emeljanov, 2015 (Type species Cixius bergeniae Vilbaste, 1965)
  • Cixius (Issomimus) Jacobi, 1910
  • Cixius (Olibroma) Emeljanov, 1964 (Type species Olibroma nitidum Emeljanov, 1964).
  • Cixius (Orinocixius) Wagner, 1939
  • Cixius (Paracixius) Wagner, 1939 (includes Cixius (Paracixius) distinguendus Kirschbaum, 1868 [type species?]; Paleartic)
  • Cixius (Pacixius) Emeljanov, 2015 (type species Cixius towadensis Matsumura, 1914)
  • Cixius (Pseudocixius) Caldwell, 1950 (type species Pseudocixius bandarus Caldwell, 1950)
  • Cixius (Sciocixius) Wagner, 1939
  • Cixius (Tetracixius) Ribaut, 1960
  • Cixius (Tetrixius) Emeljanov, 2015 (type species Cixius brachydentus Logvinenko, 1969)
  • Cixius (Ussuricixius) Vilbaste, 1968 (includes Cixius (Ussuricixius) remmi Vilbaste, 1969)

Cixius species found or reported north of Mexico

Cixius angustatus Caldwell, 1938a – USA: DE, GA, IL, MD, MO, NC, OH, SC, VA; CAN: ON, QC
Cixius apicalis Metcalf, 1923 – USA: CT, IL, NY, OH, PA; CAN: MB, NB, ON
Cixius balli Kramer, 1981a – USA: AZ
Cixius caldwelli Kramer, 1981a – USA: OH, VA
Cixius chisosus Caldwell, 1938b – USA: TX
Cixius cinctus Ball, 1937 – USA: AZ
Cixius clitellus Ball, 1937 – USA: AZ
Cixius coloepeum Fitch, 1856 – USA: AR, CO, IA, IL, KS, MD, ME, MO, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, TN, WI, WY; CAN: BC?, NB, ON, QC
Cixius comptus Fowler, 1904 – USA: AZ; Mexico
10 Cixius cultus Ball, 1902a – USA: AZ, CA, CO, ID, KS, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WY; CAN: AB, SK
Pseudocixius cultus (Ball 1902a); comb. by Caldwell 1950a: 290; restored to Cixius by Kramer 1981a: 25.
11 Cixius ephratus Ball, 1937 – USA: NV, UT
12 Cixius evexus Kramer, 1981a – USA: CA
13 Cixius krameri Tsaur, 1990 – USA: CA
14 Cixius knulli Caldwell, 1938b – USA: TX
15 Cixius meridionalis Beirne, 1950c – USA: AK, MT; CAN: AB, BC, LB, MB, NT, QC, SK, YK
16 Cixius misellus Van Duzee, 1916a – USA: CT, GA, IA?, IL, KY, MA, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, TN, VA, VT; CAN: AB, BC, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC (reported in error: USA: CO, TX)
17 Cixius narke Kramer, 1981a USA: CA; CAN: BC?
18 Cixius nervosus (Linnaeus, 1758) – Widespread Holarctic; Nearctic: USA: AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, NC, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI; CAN: AB, BC, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK; Palearctic (Widespread Europe, N. Africa, W. Asia; e.g., Algeria, Austria, Belgium, China, “Czechoslovakia”, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, “Hungary”, Italy, Japan, Macedonia, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkestan)
Cixius basalis Van Duzee, 1908: 489; syn. by Beirne 1951: 315.
Cixius umbrosus Walley, 1932: 22; syn. by Kramer 1981a: 8, 10-11.
19 Cixius nike Kramer, 1981a – USA: CO, CT, GA, MA, ME, MI, MN, NE, NH, NY, OH, PA, VT, WI; CAN: MB, NB, NS, ON, QC
20 Cixius pini Fitch, 1851 – USA: CT, DC, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, TN, VA, WV; CAN: MB, ON, QC (reported in error: USA: CO)
Cixius guttulatus Walley, 1932: 21; syn. by Kramer 1981a: 20, 22.
21 Cixius praecox Van Duzee, 1925 – USA: CA, CO, ID, OR, UT, WA, WY; CAN: BC
Pseudocixius praecox (Van Duzee, 1925); comb. by Caldwell 1950a: 290; restored to Cixus by Kramer 1981a: 24.
22 Cixius procrustes Kramer, 1981a USA: AR, KS
23 Cixius prodotes Kramer, 1981a USA: NC, OH
24 Cixius prominens Tsaur, 1990 USA: CA
25 Cixius quebecensis Beirne, 1951- USA: ME, NY; CAN: NB, NS, ON, PE, QC
Cixius fulvus Beirne, 1950c: 100 (nec. Walker, 1858).
Cixius quebecensis Beirne, 1951: 316; replacement name for preoccupied Cixius fulvus Beirne, 1950c (nec. Walker, 1858).
26 Cixius stigmatus (Say, 1825) – USA: AR, AZ, CA, CO, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, MO, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TX, UT, VA, WI, WY; CAN: AB, SK, ON, QC
Flata stigmata Say, 1825: 336.
Cixius stigmatus (Say, 1825); comb. by Fitch 1851: 45.
Pseudocixius stigmatus (Say, 1825); comb. by Caldwell, 1950a: 290.
Cixius stigmata (Say, 1825); restored combination and unjustified emendation by Wilson & McPherson 1980a: 8; 1980b: 27; 1980c: 27.
Cixius lepidus Van Duzee, 1910a: 87; syn. by Kramer 1981a: 18.
27 Cixius vandykei Van Duzee, 1925 – USA: CA, WA
28 Cixius yufengi Tsaur, 1993 – USA: CA

Neotropical species

Cixius anceps Germar 1830 – Brazil
Cixius apicatus Fowler 1904 – Guatemala
Cixius bandarus (Caldwell 1950) – Mexico
Cixius bipunctata Linne 1767 – Brazil
Cixius blockeri Kramer 1981 – Mexico
Cixius citrinus Walker 1858 – Brazil
Cixius comptus Fowler 1904 – USA: AZ; Mexico (see above)
Cixius conjector Kramer 1981 – Mexico
Cixius decoris Valdes (nomen nudum – not valid) – Cuba
Cixius diastus Caldwell 1947 – Mexico
Cixius dislogicus Kramer 1981 – Mexico
10 Cixius flavobrunneus Fowler 1904 – Mexico
11 Cixius grammica (Germar 1830) – Brazil
  =Cixius irroratus Spinola, 1852- jr. syn. of Catonia gayi (Spinola, 1852)
  =Cixius interruptus (Uhler, 1895) – St. Vincent, Cuba (Type species of Vincentia)
  =Cixius maculatus Spinola, 1852 – – jr. syn. of Catonia gayi (Spinola, 1852)
12 Cixius metcalfi Kramer 1981 – Mexico
13 Cixius montanus Fowler 1904 – Mexico
14 Cixius nielsoni Kramer 1981 – Mexico
15 Cixius orcus Fennah 1973 – Mexico
   =Cixius ornatipennis Spinola, 1852 – jr syn of Catonia ornatipennis (Spinola, 1852)
16 Cixius pruinosus Spinola 1852 – Chile
17 Cixius punctulatus Spinola 1852 – Chile
18 Cixius seriata (Germar 1830) – Brazil
19 Cixius servillei Spinola 1839 – loc unk.
   =Cixius stigmatus mexicanus (Caldwell 1950) – Mexico
20 Cixius sulcifrons (Germar 1830) – Brazil, Germany, N.A.
21 Cixius youngi Kramer 1981 – Mexico

Old World species Imported directly from FLOW, dups of above noted, some terminations fixed (I’ll renumber later).

Cixius (Acanthocixius) heydenii Kirschbaum, 1868
Cixius (Acanthocixius) sticticus Rey, 1891
Cixius (Paracixius) distinguendus Kirschbaum, 1868
Cixius (Ussuricixius) remmi Vilbaste, 1969
Cixius acceptus Anufriev, 1970
Cixius actunus Hoch, 1988
Cixius aculeatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
Cixius acutus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
Cixius admirabilis Logvinenko, 1976
10 Cixius adornatus Logvinenko, 1974
11 Cixius adspersus Spinola, 1852
12 Cixius aduncus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
13 Cixius aequa Walker, 1857
14 Cixius (Alcixius) africana Synave, 1953
15 Cixius albida Walker, 1851
16 Cixius albistriga Walker, 1857
17 Cixius (Alcixius) almon Fennah, 1945
18 Cixius (Acanthocixius) alpestris Wagner, 1939
19 Cixius alpinus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
=Cixius anceps (Germar, 1830) – See above
=Cixius angustatus Caldwell, 1938 – See above
20 Cixius anmashanus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
=Cixius apicalis Metcalf, 1923 – See above
21 Cixius apicata Fowler, 1904
22 Cixius apicemaculatus Distant, 1920
23 Cixius aquilonius Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
24 Cixius aragoensis Distant, 1920
25 Cixius ariadne Hoch & Asche, 1993
26 Cixius arisanus Matsumura, 1914
27 Cixius armata Ribaut, 1953
28 Cixius armiger Fennah, 1945
29 Cixius australis Walker, 1851
30 Cixius azofloresi Remane & Asche, 1979
31 Cixius azomariae Remane & Asche, 1979
32 Cixius azopicavus Hoch, 1991
=Cixius azopifajo azofa Remane & Asche, 1979
=Cixius azopifajo azojo Remane & Asche, 1979
33 Cixius azopifajo azopifajo Remane & Asche, 1979
34 Cixius azoricus azoricus Lindberg, 1954
=Cixius azoricus azoropicoi Remane & Asche, 1979
35 Cixius azoterceirae Remane & Asche, 1979
=Cixius balli Kramer, 1981 – See above
36 Cixius bamendensis Van Stalle, 1988
=Cixius bandarus Caldwell, 1950 – See above
=Cixius basalis Van Duzee, 1908 – see Cixius nervosus
37 Cixius beieri Wagner, 1939
38 Cixius bicolor Matsumura, 1914
39 Cixius bidentis Matsumura, 1914
40 Cixius bipunctata (Linné, 1767) – See above

     =Cixius blockeri Kramer 1981 – See above
41 Cixius brachydenta Logvinenko, 1969
42 Cixius brachyptera Van Stalle, 1988
43 Cixius brocha Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
44 Cixius broncus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
45 Cixius bueae Van Stalle, 1982
Cixius caldwelli Kramer, 1981 – See above
46 Cixius caledonica China, 1942
47 Cixius cambrica China, 1935
48 Cixius canariensis Lindberg, 1954
49 Cixius capillatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
50 Cixius carniolica Wagner, 1939
51 Cixius cathetus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
52 Cixius cavazoricus Hoch, 1991
53 Cixius chaoensis China, 1938
54 Cixius chinai Synave, 1953
55 Cixius chituanus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
56 Cixius chouorum Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
57 Cixius chydaeus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
58 Cixius cingulata Matsumura, 1914
59 Cixius circinatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
60 Cixius circulus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
=Cixius citrinus Walker, 1858 – See above
61 Cixius clara Melichar, 1914
=Cixius clitellus Ball, 1937 – See above
=Cixius coloepeum Fitch, 1856 – See above
62 Cixius communis Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
  =Cixius comptus Fowler, 1904 – See above
 =Cixius conjector Kramer, 1981 – See above
63 Cixius crambiformis (Germar, 1830)
 =Cixius cultus Ball, 1902 – See above
64 Cixius (Ceratocixius) cunicularia (Linné, 1767)

     =Cixius cunicularia fusca Fieber, 1872
65 Cixius curvicostata Van Stalle, 1988
66 Cixius curvus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
67 Cixius cyclus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
=Cixius decoris Valdes Ragues, 1910 – See above
68 Cixius deflexus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
69 Cixius denotatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
70 Cixius dentatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
71 Cixius denticulatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
72 Cixius desertorum (Becker, 1865)
73 Cixius diastus Caldwell, 1947 – See above
74 Cixius diductus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
75 Cixius dilatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
76 Cixius dilecta Walker, 1857
=Cixius dislogica Kramer, 1981 – See above

    Cixius discretus† Li, Liu, Ren, Li & Yao, 2016 – China (Qinghai)
77 Cixius distincta Signoret, 1865
78 Cixius divisa Walker, 1858
79 Cixius dotata Walker, 1857
80 Cixius dubia Wagner, 1939
81 Cixius elbergi (Vilbaste, 1980)
82 Cixius elegantulus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
83 Cixius elongatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
=Cixius evexa Kramer, 1981 – See above
84 Cixius fangi Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
85 Cixius fasciolaris Spinola, 1852
86 Cixius finita (Walker, 1857)
87 Cixius flavescens Matsumura, 1914
88 Cixius flaviceps Matsumura, 1913
 =Cixius flavobrunnea Fowler, 1904 – See above
89 Cixius fraternus† Germar & Berendt, 1856 (fossil)
90 Cixius furvus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
91 Cixius fustis Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
 =Cixius gayi Spinola, 1852 – See Catonia
92 Cixius gladius Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
93 Cixius gracilis† Germar & Berendt, 1856 (fossil)
=Cixius grammica (Germar, 1830) – See above
94 Cixius granulata Horváth, 1897
95 Cixius gravelyi Muir, 1922
96 Cixius guttulata Walley, 1932
97 Cixius habunus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
98 Cixius hachijonis Matsumura, 1914
99 Cixius hakonensis Matsumura, 1914
100 Cixius haupti Dlabola, 1949
101 Cixius helvola Spinola, 1852

       =Cixius heydenii minor Kirschbaum, 1868
=Cixius heydenii notativertex Rey, 1894
102 Cixius hirundinaria Logvinenko, 1974
103 Cixius hispida Logvinenko, 1967
104 Cixius homtiniensis Van Stalle, 1988
105 Cixius hopponis Matsumura, 1914
106 Cixius hsui Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
107 Cixius hueisunus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
108 Cixius hyalina (Palisot de Beauvois, 1805)
109 Cixius hylaea Logvinenko, 1969
110 Cixius ibukisana Matsumura, 1914
111 Cixius inaffectatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
112 Cixius incisus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
113 Cixius inficita Walker, 1870
114 Cixius inflatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
115 Cixius insueta Walker, 1857
116 Cixius insularis Lindberg, 1954
117 Cixius (Ceratocixius) intermedia Scott, 1870
118 Cixius kalehensis Van Stalle, 1988
119 Cixius kivuensis Van Stalle, 1988
120 Cixius kommonis Matsumura, 1914
121 Cixius krameri Tsaur, 1990 – See above
122 Cixius kukuanus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
123 Cixius kuyaniana Matsumura, 1914
124 Cixius laboriosus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
125 Cixius  (Alcixius) ladon Fennah, 1958
126 Cixius latus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
127 Cixius leei Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
128 Cixius lepidus Van Duzee, 1910

129 Cixius (Orinocixius) lermontovi Gnezdilov, 2018 – Russia (Krasnodar Territory)
130 Cixius leucoescatia Costa, 1834
131 Cixius linearis Eversmann, 1837
132 Cixius lineolata Ribaut, 1960
133 Cixius linorum Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
134 Cixius logvinenkoae Emeljanov, 1979
  =Cixius logvinenkovae Emeljanov, 1979
135 Cixius longirostris† Germar & Berendt, 1856 (fossil)
136 Cixius lotti Costa, 1834
137 Cixius luridus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
138 Cixius maculosus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
139 Cixius madeirensis China, 1938
140 Cixius mahungui Van Stalle, 1988
141 Cixius (Alcixius) manengoubae Van Stalle, 1986
142 Cixius matsumurai Matsumura, 1986
143 Cixius meifengensis Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
144 Cixius meruana Vilbaste, 1910
 =Cixius metcalfi Kramer, 1981 – See above
   =Cixius misellus Van Duzee, 1916 – See above
145 Cixius montaguei Distant, 1920
 =Cixius montanus Fowler, 1904 – See above
146 Cixius monticelli Costa, 1834
147 Cixius montosus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
148 Cixius (Alcixius) morion Emeljanov, 1992
149 Cixius mubalensis Synave, 1953
150 Cixius mukanensis Synave, 1953
151 Cixius mukwanus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
152 Cixius murreensis Mushtaq, 1984
=Cixius narke Kramer, 1981 – See above
153 Cixius nawae Matsumura, 1914
 =Cixius nervosus (Linné, 1758) – See above
  =Cixius nervosus atavus Schumacher, 1912
 =Cixius nervosus fasciatus Fieber, 1872
=Cixius nervosus minor Ferrari, 1885
=Cixius nielsoni Kramer, 1981 – See above
 =Cixius nike Kramer, 1981 – See above
154 Cixius nitens Melichar, 1914
155 Cixius nitidum Emeljanov, 1964
156 Cixius nitobei Matsumura, 1914
157 Cixius nordica Mitjaev, 1990
158 Cixius nycticola Hoch & Asche, 1993
159 Cixius obliqua Stephens, 1829
160 Cixius obuduensis Van Stalle, 1988
161 Cixius obvius Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
162 Cixius ochracea Ribaut, 1953
163 Cixius operosus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
164 Cixius opposita Walker, 1851
   =Cixius orcus Fennah, 1973 – See above
  =Cixius ornatipennis Spinola, 1852 – see Catonia gayi
165 Cixius pallens Spinola, 1852
166 Cixius pallipes Fieber, 1876
167 Cixius palmensis Lindberg, 1960
168 Cixius palmeros Hoch & Asche, 1993
169 Cixius parallelus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
170 Cixius parinarii De Rochebrune, 1883
171 Cixius parumpunctata Signoret, 1884
172 Cixius pascuorum Ribaut, 1953
173 Cixius paucus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
174 Cixius perexiguus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
175 Cixius perpendicularis Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
176 Cixius persica Distant, 1907
177 Cixius perturbata Walker, 1870
178 Cixius petilus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
179 Cixius petrinus† Fennah, 1961 (fossil)
180 Cixius phaeptera Stephens, 1829
181 Cixius pidani Anufriev & Emeljanov, 1988
182 Cixius pilifer Melichar, 1903
183 Cixius pilosa (Olivier, 1791)
  =Cixius pilosa albicincta (Germar, 1818)
 =Cixius pilosa discicollis Rey, 1894
=Cixius pilosa infumata Fieber, 1872
=Cixius pilosa nigrita Haupt, 1931
184 Cixius pilosellus Matsumura, 1914
185 Cixius pinarcolada Hoch & Asche, 1993
=Cixius pini Fitch, 1851 – See above
186 Cixius pirene Fennah, 1958
187 Cixius polydentis Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
=Cixius praecox Van Duzee, 1925 – See above
188 Cixius privus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
189 Cixius procerus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
=Cixius procrustes Kramer, 1981 – See above
=Cixius prodotes Kramer, 1981 – See above
190 Cixius prognata Logvinenko, 1974
=Cixius prominens Tsaur, 1990 – See above
=Cixius pruinosa Spinola, 1852 – See above
191 Cixius pseudocunicularis Mitjaev, 1978
192 Cixius pseudomukanensis Van Stalle, 1988
Cixius punctulatus Spinola, 1852 – See above
193 Cixius pyrenaica Fieber, 1876
194 Cixius quinarius Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
195 Cixius rarus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
196 Cixius ratonica Hoch & Asche, 1993
197 Cixius remota Edwards, 1888
198 Cixius resurgens Walker, 1858
199 Cixius reversus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
200 Cixius ripariusi Mitjaev, 1990
201 Cixius rufa Logvinenko, 1969
202 Cixius rufofasciata Logvinenko, 1974
203 Cixius sanctangeli Costa, 1834
204 Cixius scotti Edwards, 1888
205 Cixius scyllae Costa, 1834
206 Cixius segregatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
207 Cixius selengensis Emeljanov, 1979
208 Cixius separatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
=Cixius seriata Germar, 1830 – See above
209 Cixius serratus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
=Cixius servillei Spinola, 1839 – See above
210 Cixius setinervis Stål, 1855
211 Cixius sibirica Emeljanov, 1979
212 Cixius sidnica Stål, 1859
213 Cixius sieboldtii† Germar & Berendt, 1856 (fossil)
214 Cixius signifer Walker, 1870
215 Cixius similis Kirschbaum, 1868
216 Cixius (Ceratocixius) simplex (Herrich-Schäffer, 1835)
217 Cixius sphagnetophila Dlabola, 1957
218 Cixius spinosus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
219 Cixius spirus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
220 Cixius stallei Tsaur & Hsu, 1991

221 Cixius (Acanthocixius) sticticus Rey, 1891
222 Cixius stictica vitrea Rey, 1891
  = Cixius stigmatus (Say, 1825) – See above

        =Cixius stimaticus reuteri Reuter, 1880
223 Cixius stigmatica (Germar, 1818)
224 Cixius (Alcixius) stigmaticalis Melichar, 1911
225 Cixius succineus† Germar & Berendt, 1856 (fossil)
  =Cixius sulcifrons (Germar, 1830) – See above
226 Cixius suturalis Matsumura, 1914
227 Cixius tacanda Hoch & Asche, 1993
228 Cixius taipingshanus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
229 Cixius taiwanus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
230 Cixius tappana Matsumura, 1914
231 Cixius  (Alcixius) terminalis (Jacobi, 1910)
232 Cixius testudinarius† Germar & Berendt, 1856
233 Cixius theroni Van Stalle, 1988
234 Cixius towadensis Matsumura, 1914
235 Cixius transversus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
236 Cixius trifasciata Stephens, 1829
237 Cixius trirhacoides Remane & Holzinger, 1998
238 Cixius trispinosa Van Stalle, 1988
239 Cixius tsuifenghuenis Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
240 Cixius tungpuus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
241 Cixius turkestanica Dubovsky, 1966
242 Cixius tzuenus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
243 Cixius ugandana Van Stalle, 1988
244 Cixius ukrainica Logvinenko, 1974
=Cixius umbrosa Walley, 1932 – see C. nervosus
245 Cixius unidentata Signoret, 1863
246 Cixius vallaris Emeljanov, 1979
  =Cixius vandykei Van Duzee, 1925 – See above
247 Cixius varicolor Distant, 1920
248 Cixius vatius Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
249 Cixius velox Matsumura, 1914
250 Cixius venustula (Germar, 1830)
251 Cixius verticalis Noualhier, 1897
252 Cixius vilis Walker, 1857

253 Cixius (Acanthocixius) vindobonensis Wagner, 1939
254 Cixius vitreus† Germar & Berendt, 1856 (fossil)
255 Cixius vitripennis Kirschbaum, 1868
256 Cixius vittatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
257 Cixius wagneri China, 1942
258 Cixius wui Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
259 Cixius wusheus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
260 Cixius yangi Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
=Cixius youngi Kramer, 1981 – See above
=Cixius yufengi Tsaur, 1993 – See above

Economic Importance:

Cixius are not reported to be pests.

Known host plants:

Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi.  The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants.

  • Cixius adornatus iranicus Dlabola – Pterocarya (Juglandaceae)
  • Cixius alpestris Wagner – Pinus mugo Turra (mugo pine, Pinaceae; = Pinus montana)
  • Cixius angustatus Caldwell – Prunus (Rosaceae, cherry, plum)
  • Cixius balli Kramer – Pinus
  • Cixius cambricus China – Quercus (Oak, Fagaceae), Acer (maple, Aceraceae), Carpinus (hornbeam, Betulaceae), Rhododendron (Ericaceae) (xerothermic sites)
  • Cixius cinctifrons Fitch – Carya (hickory, Juglandaceae)
  • Cixius coloepium Fitch – Gaylussacia (huckleberry, Ericaceae)
  • Cixius cultus Ball – polyphagous
  • Cixius cunicularis (L.) – polyphagous on woody plants; Corylus (hazelnut, Betulaceae), Betula (Birch), Alnus (Alder), Ulmus (Elm, Ulmaceae) &c.
  • Cixius distinguendus Kirschbaum – Fagus (Beech, Fagaceae), QuercusPiceaPinus
  • Cixius dubias Wagner – Prunus spinosa L. (blackthorn, Rosaceae), Quercus pubescens Willd. (Downy Oak), Corylus, ‘trees & bushes’
  • Cixius ephratus Ball – Salsola kali L. (Russian thistle, Chenopodiaceae)
  • Cixius haupti Dlabola – Pinus
  • Cixius misellus Van Duzee –Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce)
  • Cixius nervosus (L.) – polyphagous on woody plants; Salix (willow, Salicaceae), AlnusBetulaCorylusTilia (basswood, Tiliaceae)
  • Cixius nervosus as Cixius basalis Van Duzee – Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. (balsam fir, Pinaceae), Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (black spruce, Pinaceae)
  • Cixius pallipes Fieber – Tamarix (Larch, tamarisk, Tamaricaceae)
  • Cixius pini Fitch – GaylussaciaPinusPiceaAbies
  • Cixius pinicola Dufour – Pinus
  • Cixius praecox Van Duzee – SalixPopulus (Salicaceae, cottonwood, poplar)
  • Cixius setinervis Stal – Cliffortia strobilifera Murray (Rosaceae) (as Cliffortia ‘scrabilifera‘)
  • Cixius similis – Kirschbaum – Betula pubescens Ehrh. (downy birch), PinusVaccinium myrtillus L. (whortleberry, Ericaceae), V. uliginosum L. (bog blueberry)
  • Cixius simplex (Herrich-Schaffer) – polyphagous on woody plants; AlnusBetulaTiliaPrunus spinosa L. (blackthorn, Rosaceae), Pinus
  • Cixius stictus Rey – Rosa (rose, Rosaceae), shrubs
  • Cixius stigmatus (Germar) – BetulaAlnusSalixQuercusRubus (blackberry, Rosaceae)
  • Cixius wagneri – probably polyphagous on deciduous trees
  • Cixius sp. – Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. (fourwing saltbush, Chenopodiaceae)

Hosts from Wilson et al. 1994 and Nickel 2003; plant names from USDA PLANTS or Tropicos.

Recognition:

Mesonotum with 3 carinae, posterior portion of head not incised or roundly incised (Cixiini), hind tibiae without lateral spines, tegulae not hidden, wings rooflike (tectiform), apices separated (vs. Pintaliini).

Cixius 1

Cixius pini (all photographs by Kimberley Shropshire, University of Delaware)

Cixius pini (all photographs by Kimberley Shropshire, University of Delaware)

Cixius (Orinocixius) lermontovi Gnezdilov 2018

Cixius (Orinocixius) lermontovi Gnezdilov 2018 (from original article)

Key to species of Cixius north of Mexico OCR and edit from Kramer (1981).

Figure references are for figures in Kramer (1981)

  1. Aedeagal shaft with 2 processes … 2

1.- Aedeagal shaft with 3 or more processes … 7

  1. Apical portion of anal tube not decurved in lateral view (fig. 6); flagellum forked nearly symmetrically at apex (fig. 6) … meridionalis Beirne

2.- Apical portion of anal tube decurved in lateral view; flagellum unforked or asymmetrically forked at apex … 3

  1. Flagellum simple {fig. 10); ventral margin of aedeagus with subquadrangular projection near base in lateral view {fig. 11) … nervosus (L.)

3.- Flagellum with one or two acute processes at apex or subapex; ventral margin of aedeagus without projection as above. 4

  1. Flagellum with two acute processes (fig. 13); process on left side of shaft semicircularly hooked distally (fig. 13) … nike Kramer

4.- Flagellum with one acute process (fig. 16); process on left side of shaft not semicircularly hooked distally … 5

 Process on right side of aedeagus nearly as long as shaft (fig. 17); ventrobasal area of aedeagus not concave (fig. 16) … caldwelli Kramer

5.- Process on right side of aedeagus half or Jess Length of shaft; ventrobasal area of aedeagus concave … 6

  1. Apical portion of anal tube triangular (fig. 19); process on right side of aedeagus arising near base of flagellum (fig. 20); median lobe of pygofer broader and bluntly triangular (fig. 21). . …. quebecensis Beirne

6.- Apical portion of anal tube avicephaliform (fig. 22); process on right side of aedeagus arising behind base of flagellum (fig. 23); median lobe of pygofer roundly produced (fig. 24) … apicalis Metcalf

  1. Aedeagal shaft with 3 processes … 8

7.- Aedeagal shaft with 4 or more processes … 21

  1. Anal tube with proximal portion not elongated and stalklike (figs. 25, 37) or apical margin of anal tube truncated or subtruncated (figs. 28, 33)… 9

8.- Anal tube with proximal portion elongated and stalklike and its apical margin variably acute to rounded (figs. 46, 55) … 14

  1. Flagellum unusually long (fig. 25), with sharp needlelike process near middle of outer margin (figs. 26, 27) … stigmatus (Say)

9.- Flagellum not unusually long, without process as above. 10

  1. Dorsal margins of aedeagal shaft in lateral view with large and prominent quadrate or subquadrate elevations; flagellum with acute process protruding at apex … 11

10.- Dorsal margins of aedeagal shaft in lateral view at most slightly convex; flagellum without process as above … 12

 

  1. Lower process on right side of shaft subequal to or shorter than upper process (figs. 29, 32); aedeagus strongly convex at basoventral margin (figs. 28, 31). . . . pini Fitch

11.- Lower process on right side of shaft about twice length of upper process (figs. 34, 35); aedeagus convex or not at basoventral margin (figs. 33, 35) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …. coloepeum Fitch

12. Veins of forewings without dark pustules … proecox Van D.

12.- Veins of forewings with dark pustules … 13

 

  1. With only one of the aedeagal processes directed dorsally in lateral view (fig. 41); both right and left positioned processes tapered to acute apices and curved to the right in ventral view (fig. 42) … cultus Ball

13.- With two of the aedeagal processes directed dorsally in lateral view (fig. 43); both right and left positioned processes not as above in ventral view (fig. 45) … ephratus Ball

  1. Aedeagus in lateral view stout, ventral margin indented near middle to form pair of subequal lobes (figs. 47, 50) … 15

14.- Aedeagus in lateral view variable, ventral margin not as above … 16

 

  1. Ventral process on right side of aedeagus about half length of other aedeagal processes (fig. 47); dorsal process on right side and left side of aedeagus abruptly tapered distally (figs. 46, 47) … prodotes Kramer

15.- Ventral process on right side of aedeagus at lease as long as other aedeagal processes (fig. 50); dorsal process on right and left side of aedeagus gradually tapered distally (figs. 49, 50) . . … procrustes Kramer

  1. With one process on left side of aedeagal shaft … 17

16.- With two processes on left side of aedeagal shaft … 18

 

  1. Aedeagus in lateral view with broad elevation on left dorsal margin and irregular subquadrate elevation on right dorsal margin (figs. 52, 53); ventral margin of aedeagus somewhat irregular but not strongly convex (figs. 52, 53) ….. angustatus Caldwell

17.- Aedeagus in lateral view with comparatively simple dorsal margins (figs. 55, 56), ventral margin of aedeagus strongly convex (figs. 58, 59) … misellus Van Duzee

  1. Styles in ventral view bilobed apically (fig. 63); posterior margin of pygofer in lateral view bluntly angled (fig. 61) …. knulli Caldwell

18.-Styles in ventral view entire apically; posterior margin of pygofer in lateral view truncated or subtruncated … 19

  1. Apical portion of anal tube in lateral view not decurved (fig. 65) … evexus Kramer

19.-Apical portion of anal tube in lateral view decurved …. 20

  1. Upper process on left side of shaft shore and inconspicuous (fig. 66); posterior margin of pygofer vertical (fig. 66). . … vandykei Van D.

20.- Upper process on left side of shaft long and conspicuous (fig. 69); posterior margin of pygofer oblique (fig. 69). … narke Kramer

 

  1. Aedeagal shaft with 5 processes (figs. 70, 71); styles bilobed apically (fig. 72) … chisosus Caldwell

21.- Aedeagal shaft with 4 processes; styles not bilobed apically … 22

  1. Apical portion of anal tube stout and not tapered to a slender tip in lateral view (figs. 73, 76, 79) … cinctus Ball

22.- Apical portion of anal tube narrow and tapered to a slender tip in lateral view … 23

  1. Apex of anal tube asymmetrically notched (fig. 82); ventral most process on right side of aedeagus el(tended basad beyond midlength of shaft (fig. 83)….. comptus Fowler

23.- Apex of anal tube symmetrically notched; ventral most process on right side of aedeagus extended barely to midline of shaft … 14

  1. Posterior margin of pygofer not smoothly rounded in lateral view (fig. 85); longest aedeagal process sharply downturned in distal third (fig. 86) … clitellus Ball

24.- Posterior margin of pygofer smoothly rounded in lateral view (fig. 88); longest aedeagal process bowed in distal third (fig. 89). . balli Kramer

Collecting

Cixus can be collected by beating vegetation (esp. woody vegetation), at lights, or in various kinds of passive traps (e.g., Malaise traps).  Cixius and other Cixiidae may also be attracted to traps intended for beetles (Lindgren funnel traps).

Molecular resources: 

As of this writing, there are three species of Cixius on Barcode of Life (Cixius nervosus, C. pini, C. praecox), and data for 4 species on Genbank (Cixius similis, C. nervosus, C. wagneri, C. pallipes) in addition to ‘Cixius sp.’

Selected references:

(more still to come)

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