Classification of the Caliscelidae

Caliscelidae Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843

The Caliscelidae were elevated from a subfamily of Issidae to a family by Emeljanov (1999). Subsequent phylogenetic analyses supports Caliscelidae as an independent family (e.g., Yang & Chang 2000, Yeh et al. 2005, Urban and Cryan 2007, Wang et al. 2016). The only phylogenetic treatment of the family was that of Catanach (2013), which was based on 29 morphospecies and found Caliscelidae to be monophyletic (albeit weakly) and  was found to have originated approximately 80 MYA.  The higher classification is principally that of Gnezdilov (2013).  Gnezdilov (2015b) noted two main evolutionary trends – brachyptery and neoteny – in Caliscelidae, and that the origin of the family may be in southeast Asia (although Catanach 2013 and Catanach  & Dietrich 2017 suggested Ethiopian).  An expanded family diagnosis and elaboration of tribal features were provided by Gnezdilov and Wilson (2006), the family appears to still be incompletely circumscribed.

Phylogenetic tree from Catanach (2013)

Caliscelidae Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843

Subfamily Caliscelinae Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843

Tribe Caliscelini Amyot & Audinet-Serville, 1843 (all Old World except where adventive)

Afronaso Jacobi, 1910 (type species Afronaso rhinarius Jacobi, 1910, 5 species, Africa, Madegascar)
Ahomocnemiella Kusnezov, 1929 (type species Ahomocnemiella chivensis Kusnezov, 1929. Monotypic, Iran, Mongolia)
Annamatissus Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2014 (type species Annamatissus tami Gnezdilov & Soulier-Perkins, 2014  type species, monotypic, Vietnam)
Asarcopus Horváth, 1921 (type species Asarcopus palmarum Horváth, 1921  , 3 species, Mediterranean, middle east, north Africa, adventive southwest USA)
Bambusicaliscelis Chen & Zhang, 2011  (type species Bambusicaliscelis fanjingensis Chen & Zhang, 2011, 2 species, China)
Bolbonaso Emeljanov, 2007 (type species Afronaso tapirifacies Parshad, 1981, 2 species, India, Assam)
Bruchoscelis Melichar, 1906 (type species Caliscelis peculiaris Horváth, 1904, Palestine, turkey)
Calampocus Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2009 (type species Calampocus sphaeroides Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2009, 2 species, Madagascar, Zambia)
Caliscelis De Laporte, 1833  type genus
Subgenus Bambula Emeljanov 2015 (type species Caloscelis wallengreni Stål, 1863, 10 species, Palearctic)
Subgenus Caliscelis De Laporte, 1833 (type species Fulgora bonellii Latreille, 1807, 7 species, Palearctic)
Subgenus Caurca Emeljanov , 2015 (type species Caliscelis gissarica Kusnezov, 1930, 3 species, Palearctic [near east Asia])
Subgenus Cerepa Emeljanov, 2015 (Type species Caliscelis carnavalis Emeljanov, 2015, 2 species, Vietnam, Cambodia)
Subgenus Melanero Emeljanov, 2015 (Type species Caliscelis nero Fennah, 1967  , 2 species, southern Africa)
Chirodisca Emeljanov, 1996 (type species Caliscelis astyages Dlabola, 1982, 3 species, eastern Palearctic, Far east, Africa)
Formiscurra Gnezdilov & Viraktamath, 2011 (Type species Formiscurra indicus Gnezdilov & Viraktamath, 2011 , monotypic, India
Gelastissus Kirkaldy, 1906 (type species Gelastissus albolineatus Kirkaldy, 1906, 3 species, Australia, Indomalaya, southeast Asia, India)
(=Conocaliscelis Matsumura, 1916, type speceis Conocaliscelis hokutonis Matsumura, 1916, synonym of Gelastissus Kirkaldy, 1906 by Gnezdilov 2008: 21)
Griphissus Fennah, 1967 (type species Griphissus xenocles Fennah, 1967, monotypic, southern Africa)
Gwurra Linnavuori, 1973 (Type species Gwurra aphrodite Linnavuori, 1973, 3 species, Africa)
Homocnemia Costa, 1857 (Type species Homocnemia albovittata Costa, 1857, monotypic, Greece, Italy)
Issopulex China & Fennah, 1960 (Type species Issopulex gloriosus China & Fennah, 1960, monotypic, Africa)
Madaceratops Gnezdilov, 2011  (Type species Madaceratops adelinae Gnezdilov, 2011, monotypic, Madagascar)
Myrmissus Linnavuori, 1973 (Type species Myrmissus bellicosus Linnavuori, 1973, monotypic, Africa)
Nenasa Chan & Yang, 1994 (type species Nenasa obliqua Chan & Yang, 1994, monotypic, Taiwan)
Nubianus Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2009 (Type species Issopulex nasutus Linnavuori, 1973 p, monotypic, Africa)
Ordalonema Dlabola, 1980 (Type species Ordalonema faciepilosa Dlabola, 1980, monotypic, Spain)
Patamadaga Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2009 (type species Patamadaga pauliani Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2009, monotypic, Madagascar)
Populonia Jacobi, 1910 (Type species Populonia difformis Jacobi, 1910, 2 species, Africa)
Reinhardema Gnezdilov, 2010 (type species Homocnemia pasagarda Dlabola, 1982, monotypic, Iran)
Rhinogaster Fennah, 1949 (Type species Rhinogaster albivenosa Fennah, 1949, 3 species, India and Africa)
Rhinoploeus Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2009 (type species Rhinoploeus iwa Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2009, monotypic, Zambia)
Savanopulex Dlabola, 1987 (type species Savanopulex endroedyi Dlabola, 1987, 2 species, Africa)
Sphenax Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2009 (type species Sphenax cuneus Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2009, monotypic, Madagascar)
Thaiscelis Gnezdilov, 2015a (type species Thaiscelis alutaceus Gnezdilov, 2015a, monotypic, Thialand)
Ugandana Metcalf, 1952 ) (replacement name for Ugandella Schmidt, 1932, type species apparently  Afronaso bayoni Schmidt, 1911, monotypic?, Africa)

Bolbonaso tapirifacies

Bolbonaso tapirifacies from Gnezdilov 2015d

Tribe Peltonotellini Emeljanov, 2008 (Old and New World)

Peltonotellus punctifrons

Peltonotellus punctifrons type specimen (from FLOW)

Peltonotellus niger

Peltonotellus niger Meng. 20. male, dorsal view; 21. male frons and clypeus; 22. male, lateral view; 23. female, dorsal view; 24. female, frons and clypeus; 25. female, lateral view. Scale bars = 0.5 mm

Acromega Emeljanov, 1996 (type species Peltonotus scurrilis Stål, 1862, monotypic, east Asia)
Aphelonema Uhler, 1876 (= Mushya Kato, 1933; type species Mushya quadrivittata Kato, 1933; synonym of Aphelonema Uhler, 1876 by Chan & Yang 1994: 8; 18 species, widespread nearly Holarctic)
= Peltonotellus Puton 1886; replacement name for unavailable Peltonotus Mulsant & Rey 1855 (nec. Burmeister 1847); syn. by Melichar 1906: 36, 53; removed from syn. and redefined (subgenus) by Emeljanov 1996: 994; revised status (to genus) by Emeljanov (2008).
subgenus Aphelonema Uhler, 1876, type species Aphelonema simplex Uhler, 1876, 2 species, Nearctic.
Subgenus Protrocha Emeljanov 1996 (Type species Aphelonema orbiculata Ball, 1935, ~11 species, Nearctic).
Bergrothora Metcalf, 1952 (Type species Bruchomorpha globosa Melichar, 1906, monotypic, Africa [Liberia]; Schmidtella Bergroth, 1910 nomen praeoccupatum replaced by Bergrothora Metcalf, 1952: 227))
Bruchomorpha Newman, 1838 (Bruchomorpha oculata Newman, 1838: 399, ~26 species, Nearctic inc. Mesoamerica; = Embolonia Provancher, 1889, type species Embolonia tricarinata Provancher, 1889: 252 (key), 253: syn. by Van Duzee 1912b: 327 (Embolonia tricarinata jr. syn. of Bruchomorpha oculata Newman, 1838).
Ceragra Emeljanov, 1996 (Type species Aphelonema oxyura Kusnezov, 1930, 3 species, middle Asia, near east [segregate (subgenus) of Aphelonema])
Concepcionella Schmidt, 1927 (type species Concepcionella theunei Schmidt, 1927, monotypic, Chile)
Fitchiella Van Duzee, 1917 (Type species Naso robertsoni Fitch, 1856. 8 species, Nearctic; replacement name for Naso Fitch, 1856 (nec. Lacépède, 1801) (Type species Naso robertsoni Fitch, 1856), Nearctic)
Homaloplasis Melichar, 1906 (type species Homaloplasis aprica Melichar, 1906 , monotypic, Mediterranean [near east, N. Africa])
Itatiayana Metcalf, 1952 (replacement name for Itatiaya Schmidt, 1932 preoccupied, type species Itatiayana banzhafi (Schmidt, 1932) [check original combination], monotypic, Brazil)
Nenema Emeljanov, 1996 (Type species Peltonotellus bivittatus Ball, 1902, 7 species, Nearctic into Mesoamerica, segregate [subgenus0 of Aphelonema)
Ohausiella Schmidt, 1910 (type species Ohausiella andina Schmidt, 1910 , monotypic, Ecuador)
Papagona Ball, 1935 (type species Papagona papoosa Ball, 1935, 2 species SW USA)
Paranaso Schmidt, 1932 (type species Paranaso ohausi Schmidt, 1932, monotypic, Brazil)
Peltonotellus Puton, 1886  (type genus; type species Peltonotellus raniformis Mulsant & Rey, 1855, 11 species, widespread Palearctic)
Peripola Melichar, 1907 (Type species Bergiella nigra Melichar, 1906, monotypic, Argentina; Bergiella Melichar, 1906 [preoccupied?] synonym of Peripola Melichar, 1907 by Melichar 1907)
Plagiopsis Berg, 1883 (type speices Plagiopsis distanti Berg, 1883, 4 species, Argentina &?)
Plagiopsola Schmidt, 1927 (type species Plagiopsola strandi Schmidt, 1927, monotypic, Costa Rica)
Semiperipola Schmidt, 1910 (type species Semiperipola saltaensis Schmidt, 1910, monotypic, Argentina)

Subfamily Ommatidiotinae Fieber, 1875
Tribe Adenissini Dlabola, 1980
subtribe Adenissina Dlabola, 1980

Adenissus fuscus

Adenissus fuscus Gnezdilov 2017

Adenissus fuscus

Adenissus fuscus Gnezdilov 2017

Adenissus Linnavuori, 1973 (type genus; type species Adenissus brachypterus Linnavuori, 1973, 7 species, near east)
Perissana Metcalf, 1952 (type species Issus jakowleffi Puton, 1890, 3 species, near east)
[Perissus Melichar, 1906 synonym of Perissana Metcalf, 1952 according to Metcalf (1952)
= Anissus Dlabola, 1980, type species Anissus bispinatus Dlabola, 1980, synonym of Perissana Metcalf, 1952by synonym of Perissana Metcalf, 1952 according to Gnezdilov & Wilson 2006: 10)
Adenissus (Denissus) circularis Dlabola, 1980 nomen praeoccupatum replaced by Perissana (Perissana) dlabolai Gnezdilov & Wilson, 2006 nomen novum, by Gnezdilov & Wilson 2006: 15)]
Raunolina Gnezdilov & Wilson, 2006 (Type species Perissus circularis Linnavuori, [1952?], 4 species, near east)

Raunolina species

Raunolina species (dorsal view) from Gnezdilov, 2017: 1–2 – R. remanei Gnezdilov, 2017; paratypes (1 – female; 2 – male); 3 – R. jeddahica sp. nov., holotype; 4 – R. circularis (Linnavuori, 1952), holotype (dissected).

subtribe Bocrina Emeljanov, 1999
Bocra Emeljanov, 1999  (type genus, type speices Bocra ephedrina Emeljanov, 1999, monotypic, Tadzhikistan)

subtribe Coinquendina Gnezdilov & Wilson, 2006

Coinquenda Distant, 1916 (type genus, type speices Coinquenda nigroclavata Distant, 1916, monotypic, India)
Delhina Distant, 1912 (type species Delhina eurybrachydoides Distant, 1912. monotypic, India)
Lasonia Melichar, 1903 (type species Lasonia kirkaldyi Melichar, 1903  , monotypic, Sri Lanka)

subtribe Pteriliina Gnezdilov & Wilson, 2006

Distantina Gnezdilov & Wilson, 2006 (type species Elidiptera limitata Walker, 1858  , 2 species, India, Malaysia)
Phusta Gnezdilov, 2008 (type species Phusta dantela Gnezdilov, 2008, monoypic, Vietnam)
Pterilia Stål, 1859  type genus (type species Pterilia ceylonensis Stål, 1859 , 3 species, Sri Lanka)
Pterygoma Melichar, 1903 (type species Pterygoma nasuta Melichar, 1903, monotypic, Sri Lanka)

Tribe Augilini Baker, 1915
Anthracidium Emeljanov, 2013 (type species Anthracidium albosignatum Emeljanov, 2013, monotypic, Vietnam)
Augila Stål, 1870  (type genus; type species Augila sulciceps Stål, 1870 , 4 species, Philippines)
Augilina Melichar, 1914 (type species Augilina longipes Melichar, 1914, 2 species, Philippines, Vietnam)
Augilodes Fennah, 1963 (type species Augila binghami Distant, 1906, 2 species, China, Myanmar)
Campures Gnezdilov, 2015c (type species Campures pallens Gnezdilov, 2015c, monotypic, Madagascar)
Cano Gnezdilov, 2011 (type species Cano merinus Gnezdilov, 2011, monotypic, Madagascar)
Cicimora Emeljanov, 1998 (type species Cicimora sicildia Emeljanov, 1998, monotypic, Vietnam)
Discote Emeljanov, 2013 (type species Augilodes scutifer Fennah, 1963, monotypic, Vietnam, Cambodia)
Pseudosymplanella Che, Zhang & Webb, 2009 (type species Pseudosymplanella nigrifasciata Che, Zhang & Webb, 2009, monotypic, China, Thialand)
Quizqueiplana† Bourgoin & Wang, 2015 (type species Quizqueiplana alexbrowni† Bourgoin & Gnezdilov, 2015 , monotypic, Dominican Republic)
Signoreta Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2009 (type species Signoreta victorina Gnezdilov & Bourgoin, 2009, monotypic, Madagascar)
Symplana Kirby, 1891 (type species Symplana viridinervis Kirby, 1891, 5 species, Indomalayan, China)
Symplanella Fennah, 1987 (type species Symplanella breviceps Fennah, 1987, 6 species, China, Myanmar)
Symplanodes Fennah, 1987 (type species Symplanodes conjunctor Fennah, 1987, monotypic, India)
Tubilustrium Distant, 1916 (type species Tubilustrium typicum Distant, 1916 , monotypic, Myanmar, Thailand)

Tribe Ommatidiotini Fieber, 1875

Ommatidiotus Spinola, 1839  (type genus; type species Issus dissimilis Fallén, 1806, 14 species, widespread in Palearctic)

Ommatidiotus dissimilis

Ommatidiotus dissimilis from here.

Formiscurra indicus

Formiscurra indicus from Wiki commons (Bangalore, India, author L. Shyamal); an awesome creature, and a great photo. (See also New To Nature 91, The Guardian)

A–C Afronaso spinosa sp. n. (male), D-F, Calampocus zambiaensis sp. n. (male)

FIGURE 1. Habitus of new Caliscelidae. A – C, Afronaso spinosa Chmurova & Webb 2016 (male): A, dorsal view; B, lateral view; C, frontal view. D-F, Calampocus zambiaensis Chmurova & Webb 2016 (male): D, dorsal view; E, frontal view; F, lateral view. (Chmurova & Webb 2016)

Pterilia ceylonensis

Pterilia ceylonensis type specimen (image from FLOW)


Thaiscelis alutaceus

Thaiscelis alutaceus Gnezdilov 2015, holotype. 1 – dorsal view, 2 – lateral view, 3 – frontal view, 4 – ovipositor, lateral view. Total length of the specimen – 4.0 mm

Campures pallens Gnezdilov 2015

Campures pallens Gnezdilov 2015. holotype: (1) lateral view; (2) frontal view; (3) head and pro-and mesonotum, dorsal view; (4) ovipositor and VII sternum, ventral view. Total length of the specimen: 3.2 mm.

Madaceratops adelinae Gnezdilov, 2011

Madaceratops adelinae Gnezdilov, 2011

Select Literature [intended to include all genus-level names and nomenclatural acts, but incomplete; compiled mostly from FLOW]

Amyot, C. J. B. and J.G. Audinet-Serville. 1843. Deuxième partie. Homoptères. Homoptera Latr. Histoire Naturelle des insectes. Hemiptères 1843: 1-676.

Baker, C. F. 1915. Notices of certain Philippine Fulgoridae, one being of economic importance. Philippine Journal of Science 10: 137-144.

Ball, E. D. 1902. New genera and species of N. A. Fulgoridae. Canadian Entomologist 34: 259-266.

Ball, E. D. 1935. Some new Issidae, with notes on others-(Homoptera-Fulgoridae). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society  30: 37-41.

Berg, C. 1883. Addenda et Emendanda ad Hemiptera Argentina. (Continuatio). Anales de la Sociedad Cientifica Argentina 16: 180-191.

Bergroth, E. 1910. Eine neue Fulgoriden-Gattung. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 29: 238-241.

Bourgoin, T., Wang Rong-Rong & Gnezdilov V. M. 2015. First fossil record of Caliscelidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea): a new Early Miocene Dominican amber genus extends the distribution of Augilini to the Neotropics. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 14(3): 211-218.

Catanach, T. A. 2013. Biogeography and Phylogenetics of Grassland Auchenorrhyncha. Doctoral Thesis. University of Illinois, Urbana, Illionois.

Catanach, T. A. and C. H. Dietrich. 2017. Biogeographic history of grassland Auchenorrhyncha. In: G. Mejdalani and M. Felix (eds). Abstracts Book, 15th International Auchenorrhyncha Congress and 10th International Workshop on Leafhoppers and Planthoppers of Economic Importance. July 9th -15th 2017. Mendes, Brazil. P. 117.

Chan, Mei-Ling & Yang Chung-Tu 1994. Issidae of Taiwan: (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). National Chung Hsing University, Department of Entomology, Taichung (Taiwan). 168 pp.

Che, Yan-Li, Zhang Ya-Lin & Webb M. D. 2009. A new genus and species of the planthopper tribe Augilini Baker (Hemiptera, Caliscelidae, Ommatidiotinae) from Thailand and China. Zootaxa 2311: 49-54.

Chen, Xiang-Sheng & Zhang Zheng-Guang 2011. Bambusicaliscelis, a new bamboo-feeding planthopper genus of Caliscelini (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Caliscelidae: Caliscelinae), with descriptions of two new species and their fifth-instar nymphs from Southwestern China. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104(2): 95-104.

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