Classification of the Achilidae

The family Achilidae was cataloged by Metcalf (1948), and revised to the genus level by Fennah (1950) who provided a key to genus.  Previously Metcalf (1938) had established two subfamilies, Apatesoninae and Achilinae, diagnosed “by the prominence of the cephalic carinae and by the carriage of the tegmina” (Fennah 1950).  Fennah (1950) provided little commentary with respect to subfamilies, but rather concentrated on tribes.

Subsequently, Emeljanov (1991) revised the higher classification, describing a number of new tribes and including the Achilixiidae within the Achilidae.  He defined 3 subfamilies, two of which (Bebaiotinae Emeljanov, 1991, Achilixiinae Muir, 1923) were erected for the  traditional Achilixiidae, and the third (Achilinae) for traditional achilids.  Subsequently, Achilixiidae have been treated as a full family, but the subfamilies of Achilidae have not been revisited, leaving a single subfamily (Achilinae), divided into three infrafamilial groupings (“supertribes”) Achilites Stål, 1866, Apatesonites Metcalf, 1938, and Myconites Fennah, 1950, with the following principle features:

Supertribe Myconites
Second anal vein of hindwing simple, more or less straight, mostly not reaching wing margin by considerable distance and apically slightly dilated.

Supertribe Apatesonites
Wings at rest tectately folded, membranes overlapping or contiguous with their proximal (ventral) sides; hindwing with M separated from R basally of arculus, at point of connection to arculus M far distant from R – at 1/2 or entire length of arculus.  Wings at rest folded flat, membranes overlapping; hindwings with median vein coming off basal cell as common stem although independent, bout contiguous to radial stem, or arculus absent and basal cel not separated.

Supertribe Achilites
First anal vein of hindwing subbasaly or in middle part forming branch entering anojugal process and anastomosing with second anal vein.

The phylogeny, hence the higher classification of the Achilidae, has never been tested in a formal quantitative phylogenetic setting, and few modern works (aside from Asche 2015) treat Achilidae holistically.  O’Brien (1971) treated the Plectoderini north of Mexico.

Some North American Achilidae (scale = 0.5 mm). E. Catonia picta, F. Cixidia septentrionalis, G. Juniperthia indella, H. Momar maculifrons (From Bartlett et al. 2014).

I have recently treated the supertribes of Achilidae as subfamilies (Bartett et al. 2018) and will adopt that nomenclature here.

Below is a summary of the classification of Achilidae, according to FLOW (Jan. 2018).

Achilidae Stål, 1866
Subfamily Achilinae Stål, 1866
Supertribe Achilites Stål, 1866
Tribe Achilini Stål, 1866
= Tribe Elidipterini Fennah, 1950 synonym of Achilini Stål, 1866 according to Emeljanov 1991: 388.
Subtribe Achilina Stål, 1866

Achilus flammeus

Achilus flammeus Kirby from

Achilus Kirby, 1818 (type genus; type species Achilus flammeus Kirby, 1818; monotypic, Australia and New Zealand)
Flatachilus Fennah, 1950 (type species Poeciloptera diffinis Walker, 1858, Monotypic, Brazil, Para)
Olmiana Guglielmino, Bückle & Emeljanov, 2010 (type species Olmiana argentina Guglielmino, Bückle & Emeljanov, 2010; monotypic, Argenitina, Chile)
Ouwea Distant, 1907 (Type species Ouwea doddi Distant, 1907, monotypic, Australia; -= Spendon Jacobi, 1928; type species Spendon flavonotata Jacobi, 1928, syn by Fennah 1950)

Olmiana argentina Guglielmino, Bückle & Emeljanov (from Campodonico 2017)

Tribe Achilini incertae sedis
Anabunda Emeljanov, 2005 (type species Anabunda retortinervis Emeljanov, 2005; 3 species, Australia)
Aneipo Kirkaldy, 1906 (type species Aneipo diva Kirkaldy, 1906, 4 species, Australia) (=Tudea Distant, 1907; type species Tudea picturata Distant, 1907, synonym of Aneipo diva Kirkaldy, 1906 by Distant 1907: 416)
Bunduica Jacobi, 1909 (type species Bunduica rubrovenosa Jacobi, 1909, monotypic, Australia)
Dipsiathus Emeljanov, 2005 (type species Dipsiathus obscurifrons Emeljanov, 2005 type species, 2 species, Australia)
Epiona Emeljanov, 2005 (type species Epiona kirejtshuki Emeljanov, 2005, monotypic, Australia)
Mabira Fennah, 1950 (type species Mabira pallida Fennah, 1950, 4 species, Africa)
Nelidia Stål, 1862 (type species Phrygia ancora Stål, 1862, monotypic, brazil)
Parabunda Emeljanov, 2005 (type species Parabunda tasmanica Emeljanov, 2005, monotypic, Australia)
Paratesum† Emeljanov & Shcherbakov, 2009 (type species Paratesum rasnitsyni† Emeljanov & Shcherbakov, 2009, monotypic, Poland)
Protepiptera† Usinger, 1940 (type species Protepiptera haweckii† Usinger, 1940; 2 species, Palearctic)
Protomenocria† Emeljanov & Shcherbakov, 2009 (type species Protomenocria notata† Emeljanov & Shcherbakov, 2009, monotypic, Poland)
Psycheona† Emeljanov & Shcherbakov, 2009 (type species Psycheona variegata† Emeljanov & Shcherbakov, 2009 , 2 species, Poland)
Rhinochloris Emeljanov, 2005 (type species Rhinochloris acutirostris Emeljanov, 2005, monotypic, Australia)

Anabunda murrayfletcheri Moir (from New South Wales Government, Department of Primary Industries, Biosecurity Collections)

Aneipo diva Kirkaldy (New South Wales Government, Department of Primary Industries, Biosecurity Collections)

Subtribe Cixidiina Emeljanov, 1992
Angustachilus† Lefebvre, Bourgoin & Nel, 2007 (type species Angustachilus longirostris† Lefebvre, Bourgoin & Nel, 2007)
Cixidia Fieber, 1866 (type species Cicada confinis Zetterstedt, 1828, 36 species inc. Epiptera, Holarctic)
(=Neomenocria Fennah, 1950, type species Elidiptera advena Spinola, 1839, synonym of Cixidia Fieber, 1866 according to Emeljanov (1992))
Subgenus Epiptera Metcalf, 1922 (type species Flata opaca Say, 1830, 19 species, Holarctic)

Cixidia opaca (UDEL)

Cixidia vareigata

Cixidia vareigata from Discover Life.


Cixidia opaca

Cixidia opaca (Wikipedia, Robert Webster, Mayes County, OK,


Subtribe Elidipterina Fennah, 1950
Booneta Distant, 1907 (Type species Cixius ferrugineus Walker, 1870, 2 species Indomalayan)
Catonidia Uhler, 1896 (Type species Catonidia sobrina Uhler, 1896; 10 species Indomalayan, coastal Asia, Australia)
Elidiptera Spinola, 1839 (type species Elidiptera callosa Spinola, 1839, 4 species Neotropical)
Faventilla Metcalf, 1948 (type species Cixius pustulatus Walker, 1857, 5 species, Indomalayan and vic.)
Messeis Stål, 1862 (Type species Messeis fuscovaria Stål, 1862; 2 species, Brazil)
Metaphradmon Fennah, 1950 (type species Metaphradmon tortrix Fennah, 1950; monotypic, Brazil)
Paracatonidia Long, Yang & Chen, 2015 (Type species Paracatonidia webbeda Long, Yang & Chen, 2015; monotypic, China)
Paraphradmon Fennah, 1950 (type species Paraphradmon albus Fennah, 1950; monotypic, Brazil)
Parelidiptera Fennah, 1950 (Type species Parelidiptera teres Fennah, 1950; monotypic, Brazil)
Phradmonicus Emeljanov, 1991 (Type species Phradmonicus fennahi Emeljanov, 1991; monotypic, range not specified in FLOW)
Prinoessa Fennah, 1950 (type species Prinoessa livida Fennah, 1950; monotypic, Guyana)
Uniptera Ball, 1933 (Type species Uniptera ampliata Ball, 1933; monotypic, California)

Uniptera ampliata (UDEL)

Catonidia sobrina (from twitter, じょうかいぼん, @sabikikori5 )

Tribe Achillini Emeljanov, 1991
Achilla Haglund, 1899 (type species Achilla marginatifrons Haglund, 1899; 3 species Africa)
Hooleya† Cockerell, 1922 (Type species Hooleya indecisa† Cockerell, 1922, monotypic, Great Britain)
Maurisca Emeljanov, 2005 (Type species Maurisca bimaculata Emeljanov, 2005 ; monotypic, Africa))

Subfamily Apatesoninae Metcalf 1938
Supertribe Apatesonites Metcalf, 1938
Tribe Apatesonini Metcalf, 1938

Apateson albomaculatum

Apateson albomaculatum (Gernot Kunz, on FLOW)

Apateson Fowler, 1900 (Type species Apateson albomaculatum Fowler, 1900; monotypic, Mesoamerica)

Tribe Ilvini Emeljanov, 1991
Ilva Stål, 1866 (Type species Ilva nigrosignata Stål, 1866, monotypic, Africa)

Tribe Seviini Emeljanov, 1991
Sevia Stål, 1866 (= Diacira Stål, 1862 nomen praeoccupatum replaced by Sevia Stål, 1866 nomen novum, according to Stål 1866: 181);
Subgenus Sevia; type species Diacira moerens Stål, 1862, 2 species in subgenus, Neotropical)
Subgenus Ateson Metcalf, 1938 (Type species Flata bicarinata Fabricius, 1803; 5 species in subgenus, Neotropical)

Tribe Tropiphlepsiini Emeljanov, 1991
Tropiphlepsia Muir, 1924 (Type species Tropiphlepsia badia Muir, 1924; monotypic, Australia)

Tropiphlepsia badia Muir (New South Wales Government, Department of Primary Industries, Biosecurity Collections)

Tropiphlepsia badia ( Dacre England on Bowerbird)

Subfamily Myconinae Fennah 1950
Supertribe Myconites Fennah, 1950

Myconus ? sp. from Costa Rica by Gernot Kunz (here)

Tribe Amphignomini Emeljanov, 1991
Amphignoma Emeljanov, 1991 (Type species Amphignoma corybas Emeljanov, 1991, monotypic, Vietnam)

Tribe Mycarini Emeljanov, 1991
Acocarinus Emeljanov, 1991 (Type species Acocarinus bipunctata Emeljanov, 1991, monotypic, locality not specified in FLOW)
Emeljanocarinus Bourgoin & Soulier-Perkins, 2006 (Type species Emeljanocarinus gargantua Bourgoin & Soulier-Perkins, 2006, monotypic, Madagascar)
Katbergella Fennah, 1950 (Type species Katbergella griseobrunnea Fennah, 1950, 2 species Southern Africa)
Mycarinus Emeljanov, 1991 (Type species Mycarinus subrubrinervis Emeljanov, 1991, monotypic locality not specified in FLOW)
Mycarus Emeljanov, 1991 (Type species Mycarus psyche Emeljanov, 1991; monotypic locality not specified in FLOW)

Tribe Myconini Fennah, 1950
Ganachilla Wang & Huang, 1989 (Type species Ganachilla zhenyuanensis Wang & Huang, 1989 , Monotypic, China)
Haicixidia Wang, 1989 (Type species Haicixidia jianfengensis Wang, 1989, monotypic, China)
Myconellus Fennah, 1950 (Type speices Myconellus tucumana Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Argentina)
Myconus Stål, 1862 (Type species Achilus conspersinervis Stål, 1862, 4 species, Neotropical) (=Messoides Metcalf, 1938, type species Messoides uniformis Metcalf, 1938, synonym of Myconus Stål, 1862 according to Fennah 1950: 19))
Myrophenges Fennah, 1965 (Type species Issus planifrons Spinola, 1852, monotypic, Chile)(transferred from Dictyopharidae to Achilidae, Myconini by Emeljanov 1992: 9)

Tribe Plectoderini Fennah, 1950
Abas Fennah, 1950 (Type species Abas unipunctata Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Mesoamerica)
Acus Chen, Yang & Wilson, 1989 (Type species Acus acutulus Chen, Yang & Wilson, 1989, monotypic, Taiwan)
Afrachilus Fennah, 1965 (type species Afrachilus mirabilis Fennah, 1965 , monotypic, south Africa)
Agandecca White, 1879 (Type species Agandecca annectens White, 1879, monotypic, New Zealand)
Akotropis Matsumura, 1914 (= Ballonymus Jacobi, 1941, type species Ballonymus antica Jacobi, 1941, synonym of Akotropis Matsumura, 1914 by Fennah 1950: 95) (Type species Akotropis fumata Matsumura, 1914. 7 species Palearctic and Indomalayan)
Alticeps Williams, 1977 (type species Alticeps vigilis Williams, 1977, monotypic, Mauritius)
Amblycratus Uhler, 1895 (Type species Amblycratus pallidus Uhler, 1895, 5 species. mesoamerica and the Caribbean)
Aphypia Melichar, 1908 (Type species Aphypia longipennis Melichar, 1908, 3 species, Africa)
Argeleusa Kirkaldy, 1906 (Type species Argeleusa kurandae Kirkaldy, 1906. 2 species, Australia, Palau)
Aristyllis Kirkaldy, 1906 (Type species Aristyllis aristyllis Kirkaldy, 1906 , 4 species Australia and Philippines) (=Winawa Haupt, 1926, type species Winawa bicolor Haupt, 1926, syn. by ?)
Ballomarius Jacobi, 1941 (type species Ballomarius terrenus Jacobi, 1941, 13 speices Africa and Indonesia)
Bathycephala Fennah, 1950 (Type species Bathycephala guianesa Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Guyana)
Benella Kirkaldy, 1906 (Type speices Benella aliena Kirkaldy, 1906  , monotypic, Australia)
Betatropis Matsumura, 1914 (Type species Betatropis formosana Matsumura, 1914, monotypic Taiwan, China)
Brachypyrrhyllis Fennah, 1967 (Type species Brachypyrrhyllis fuscoclypeata Fennah, 1967, monotypic, Africa)
Caffropyrrhyllis Fennah, 1950 (Type species Caffropyrrhyllis bicuspidata Fennah, 1950, monotypic, South Africa)
Calerda Signoret, 1863 (type species Calerda biocelleta Signoret, 1863, monotypic, Chile)
Callichlamys Kirkaldy, 1907 (Type species Callichlamys muiri Kirkaldy, 1907, 2 species, FIJI)
Callinesia Kirkaldy, 1907 (Type species Callinesia pulchra Kirkaldy, 1907, 9 species, Indomalayan)
Caristianus Distant, 1916 (Type species Caristianus indicus Distant, 1916, 13 species, China, Japan, Indomalayan)
Catonia Uhler, 1895 (Type species Catonia intricata Uhler, 1895, 39 species, New World)
Subgenus Pyren Fennah 1950 (type species Catonia (Pyren) saltator Fennah, 1950, monotypic?, Dominica)
Catonoides Metcalf, 1938 (Type species Catonoides fusca Metcalf, 1938, monotypic, Panama)
Cenophron Fennah, 1969 (Type species Cenophron aesar Fennah, 1969, monotypic, New Caledonia)
Cernea Williams, 1977 (Type species Cernea insularis Williams, 1977, monotypic, Mauritius)
Chroneba Stål, 1859 (Type species Chroneba pallifrons Stål, 1859, 2 species Philippines, Sri Lanka)
Cionoderella Fennah, 1950 (Type species Cionoderella rubromarginata Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Ecuador)
Clidonisma Fennah, 1969 (Type species Clidonisma serapis Fennah, 1969, monotypic, New Caledonia)
Clusivius Distant, 1917 (Type species Clusivius spectabilis Distant, 1917, India, Mauritius, Seychelles)
Cnidus Stål, 1866 (Type species Cnidus variegatus (Stål, 1855) [orig comb ?], 12 species, Africa) (= Necho Jacobi, 1910, type species Necho naevius Jacobi, 1910, syn by ?)
Cocottea Williams, 1977 (Type species Cocottea seclusa Williams, 1977, 3 species, Mauritius)
Cythna Kirkaldy, 1906 (Type species Cythna laon Kirkaldy, 1906, 3 species Australia, Philippines, Samoa)
Deferunda Distant, 1912
Subgenus Deferunda Distant, 1912, type species, Deferunda (Deferunda) stigmatica Distant, 1912, 12 species, Indomalaya, China, Etc.)
Subgenus Tugaia Dlabola, 1961 (Type species Deferunda (Tugaia) incompta Dlabola, 1961. Monotypic, Tadzhikistan) (=Majella Kirkaldy, 1906 [type species ?] nomen praeoccupatum replaced by Majellana Metcalf, 1948: 63 ; synonym of Deferunda Distant, 1912 by Fennah 1950: 104) (= Okatropis Matsumura, 1914, type species ??,  synonym of Deferunda Distant, 1912 by Fennah 1950: 104)
Epirama Melichar, 1903 (Type species Epirama conspergata Melichar, 1903, 3 species, China, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka)
Epiusana Fennah, 1950 (Type species Epiusana rugiceps Fennah, 1950, 2 species, Africa)
Epiusanella Synave, 1959 (Type species Epiusanella bimaculata Synave, 1959, monotypic, Africa)
Eudeferunda Chen, Yang & Wilson, 1989 (Type species Eudeferunda lenita Chen, Yang & Wilson, 1989, 2 species China and Taiwan)
Eurynomella Fennah, 1967 (Type species Eurynomeus granulatus Muir, 1921, 2 species Samoa)
Eurynomeus Kirkaldy, 1906 (Type species Eurynomeus australiae Kirkaldy, 1906, 4 species Australa, Indomalayan)
Francesca Kirkaldy, 1906 (Type species Francesca saleminophila Kirkaldy, 1906, 2 species Australia)
Gongistes Fennah, 1969 (Type species Gongistes alcander Fennah, 1969, 3 species New Caledonia)
Gordiacea Metcalf, 1948 (Type species Gordia oculata Melichar, 1903, 2 species, Indomalayan) (=Gordia Melichar, 1903 nomen praeoccupatum replaced by Gordiacea Metcalf, 1948: 17) (=Planusfrons Chen, Yang & Wilson, 1989 synonym of Gordiacea Metcalf, 1948 by ?)
Haitiana Dozier, 1936 (Type species Haitiana nigrita Dozier, 1936  , monotypic, Haiti)
Hamba Distant, 1907 (Type species Hamba perplexa (Walker, 1857) [original comb. Not specified in FLOW); 4 species, Indomalayan]
Hemiplectoderes Fennah, 1950 (Type species Hemiplectoderes trabeculatus Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Trinidad-Tobago)
Horcomotes Fennah, 1969 (type species Horcomotes damoetas Fennah, 1969, 2 species, New Caledonia)
Indorupex Fennah, 1965 (Type species, Indorupex albivenulosa Fennah, 1965, monotypic, Sri Lanka)
Isodaemon Fennah, 1969 (Type species Isodaemon cyllarus Fennah, 1969, 3 species New Caledonia)
Juniperthia O’Brien, 1985 (Type species Catonia succinea Van Duzee, 1916, 5 species, Western US) (= Juniperia O’Brien, 1971 nomen praeoccupatum replaced by Juniperthia O’Brien, 1985: 657)
Kardopocephalus Metcalf, 1938 (Type species Kardopocephalus lineatus Metcalf, 1938  , monotypic, Honduras)
Kawanda Fennah, 1950 (Type species Kawanda luteovittata Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Uganda)
Kawandella Synave, 1959 (Type species Kawandella pallidomaculata Synave, 1959, monotypic, Congo)
Kempiana Muir, 1922 (Type species Kempiana maculata Muir, 1922, monotypic, India)
Koloptera Metcalf, 1938 (Type species Helicoptera longiceps Fowler, 1904, 2 species, Trinidad and Mesoamerica)
Kosalya Distant, 1906 (Type species Kosalya flavostrigata Distant, 1906, 4 species, eastern Palearctic)
Kurandella Fennah, 1950 (Type species Kurandella nigromaculata Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Australia)
Lanuvia Stål, 1866 (Type species Lanuvia luteovittata Fennah, 1950, 4 species, Africa)
Magadha Distant, 1906 (Type species Magadha flavisigna (Walker, 1851) [Original combination not given in FLOW], 21 species China, Indomalaya)]
Magadhaideus Long & Chen, 2017 (Type species Magadhaideus xiphos Long & Chen, 2017, 2 species, China)
Mahuna Distant, 1907 (Type species Mahuna conspersa Distant, 1907, 5 species, Australia, New Caledonia) (= Tabiana Jacobi, 1928, Type not specified in FLOW, synonym of Mahuna Distant, 1907 by Fennah 1950: 155)
Martorella Caldwell & Martorell, 1951 (Type species Martorella puertoricensis Caldwell, 1951, monotypic, Puerto Rico)
Mlanjella Fennah, 1950 (Type species Mlanjella bispinosa Fennah, 1950, 7 species, Africa)
Momar Fennah, 1950 (Type species Plectoderes lineatocollis Fowler, 1904, 3 species, west US and Mesoamerica)
Moraballia Fennah, 1950 *Type species Moraballia fuliginosa Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Guyana)
Nephelesia Fennah, 1965 (Type species Nephelesia candida Fennah, 1965, monotypic, Philippines)
Nephelia Kirkaldy, 1907 (Type species Nephelia bicuneata (Kirkaldy, 1907) [Original combination not provided in FLOW), 2 species, Fiji and Solomon Islands]
Nyonga Synave, 1959 (Type species Epiusana satyra Fennah, 1957, monotypic, Africa [Congo, Cameroons])
Opsiplanon Fennah, 1945 (Type species Opsiplanon ornatifrons Fennah, 1945, 3 species, S. USA, Mesoamerica, N South America)
Paracatonia Fennah, 1950 (Type species Paracatonia securifalcata Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Dominica, Grenada)
Paraclusivius Fennah, 1950 (Type species Paraclusivius tristis Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Ghana, Sierra Leone)
Paragandecca Fennah, 1950 (Type species Paragandecca longibursata Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Papua New Guinea)
Parakosalya Distant, 1917 (Type species Parakosalya insularis Distant, 1917, 2 species Philippines, Seychelles)
Paraphypia Synave, 1960 (Type species Paraphypia macabeana Synave, 1960, 4 species, Reunion, Mauritius)
Parargeleusa Fennah, 1950 (Type species Parargeleusa trispinosa Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Indonesia)
Paratangia Melichar, 1903 (Type species Paratangia notata Melichar, 1903, 2 species, Indonesia)
Phenelia Kirkaldy, 1906 (Type species Phenelia elidipteroides Kirkaldy, 1906, 2 species, Australia, Taiwan)
Phypia Stål, 1862 (Type species Phypia fuscoguttata Stål, 1862, 7 species, Neotropics and Africa) (= Rhotella Metcalf, 1938, Rhotella punctata Metcalf, 1938, syn. by ??)
Plectoderes Spinola, 1839
Subgenus Plectoderes Spinola, 1839 (Type species Flata collaris Coquebert de Montbret, 1801, 3 species, Neotropical to Mesoamerica)
subgenus Plectoderella Fennah, 1950 (Type species Plectoderes scapularis Metcalf, 1938, monotypic, Belize)
Plectoderoides Matsumura, 1914 (Type species Plectoderoides maculatus Matsumura, 1914, 6 species, China, Japan, Indomalayan)
Plectoringa Fennah, 1950 (Type species Catonia excelsa (Fowler, 1904) [original comb. Not given in FLOW?], monotypic, Mesoamaerica)
Prosagandecca Fennah, 1950 (Type species v, monotypic, Sierra Leone)
Pseudhelicoptera Fowler, 1904 (Type species Pseudhelicoptera nasuta Fowler, 1904, 2 species, Mesoamerica)
Pyrrhyllis Kirkaldy, 1906 (Type species Pyrrhyllis pyrrhyllis Kirkaldy, 1906, 2 species Australia)
Quadrana Caldwell & Martorell, 1951 (Type species Quadrana punctata Caldwell, 1951, monotypic, Puerto Rico)
Remosachilus Fennah, 1950 (Type species Remosachilus macrocephala Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
Rhinocolura Fennah, 1950 *Type species Plectoderes championi Fowler, 1904, monotypic, Mesoamerica)
Rhotaloides Fennah, 1965 (Type species Rhotaloides andromeda Fennah, 1965, monotypic, Singapore)
Rupex Fennah, 1950 (Type species Plectoderes asper Fowler, 1904, monotypic, Mesoamerica)
Salemina Kirkaldy, 1906 (Type species Salemina francescophila Kirkaldy, 1906  , monotypic, Australia)
Semibetatropis Chen, Yang & Wilson, 1989 (Type species Semibetatropis mukwaensis Chen, Yang & Wilson, 1989  , 8 species, China, Taiwan)
Spino Fennah, 1950 (Type species Plectoderes notatus Fowler, 1904, monotypic, Mesoamerica)
Symplegadella Fennah, 1950 (Type species Symplegadella irrorata Fennah, 1950, monotypic, Mesoamerica) [see genus in FLOW, needs updating]
Synecdoche O’Brien, 1971 (Type species Catonia grisea Van Duzee, 1908, 22 species Nearctic)
Taloka Distant, 1907 (Type species Taloka opaca (Walker, 1870)[original combination not in FLOW], monotypic, Papua New Guinea)
Tangina Melichar, 1903 (Type species Tangina bipunctata Melichar, 1903, 7 species, Indomalayan, Japan)
Thectoceps Williams, 1977 (type species Thectoceps mauritiensis Williams, 1977, monotypic, Mauritius)
Usana Distant, 1906 (Type species Usana lineolalis Distant, 1906, 10 species, eastern palearctic and Indomalayan)
Williamsus Özdikmen & Demir, 2007 (replacement name for preoccupied Detometopus Williams, 1977; type species not specified in FLOW, 2 species Mauritius and Reunion)
Xerbus O’Brien, 1971 (type species Catonia brunella Ball, 1933 , monotypic, Arizona)
Zathauma Fennah, 1949 (type species Zathauma cristatum Fennah, 1949, monotypic, Indonesia)


Magadhaideus xiphos sp. n. 1–2 Male habitus (dorsal and lateral views) 3–4 Female habitus

Magadhaideus xiphos sp. n. 1–2 Male habitus, 3–4 Female habitus (From Long et al. 2017).

Haitiana nigrita

Haitiana nigrita (University of Delaware, From Dominican Republic)

Tribe Rhotalini Fennah, 1950
Errada Walker, 1870 (type species Errada funesta Walker, 1870; 9 species; China, Indonesia, Japan; Panama)
Errotasa Emeljanov, 2005 (Type species Errotasa neovalesiaca Emeljanov, 2005, 2 species Australia and Philippines)
Hebrotasa Melichar, 1914 (type species Hebrotasa elongata Melichar, 1914; 2 species Madagascar and Indonesia)
Rhotala Walker, 1857 (Type speices Rhotala delineata Walker, 1857; 9 species, Indomalyan, etc)(= Chiotasa Melichar, 1914 transferred from [Tropiduchidae, Hiraciini] to [Achilidae] according to Fennah 1982: 632)
Taractellus Metcalf, 1948 (Type species Taractellus chilensis Spinola, 1852, monotypic, Chile) (=Chondrodera Melichar, 1912 (Dictyopharidae) previous name of Chondrodera Melichar, 1912 according to Muir (1923): 229; = Taracticus Berg, 1881 nomen praeoccupatum replaced by Taractellus Metcalf, 1948 nomen novum, according to Metcalf 1948: 77))

Errotasa neovalesiaca (New South Wales Government, Department of Primary Industries, Biosecurity Collections)

Rhotala vittata

Rhotala vittata (Shiiba Research Forest, Kyushu University, Japan)

Tribe Waghildini† Szwedo, 2006
Waghilde† Szwedo, 2006 (Type species Waghilde baltica† Szwedo, 2006, monotypic, locality not specifies in flow)

Achilinae incertae sedis
Ridesa Schumacher, 1915 (type species Ridesa tortriciformis Schumacher, 1915, 1 species Taiwan)

Achilidae incertae sedis
Acixiites† Hamilton, 1990 (Type species Acixiites immodesta† Hamilton, 1990, 2 species, Albian [112-99.6 Ma])
Niryasaburnia† Szwedo, 2004 (Type species Liburnia burmitina† Cockerell, 1917, monotypic, Myanmar (ex Burma)
Leptarciella Fennah, 1958 (Type species not specified in FLOW, 9 species, Africa &c.)
Parasabecoides Synave, 1965 (Type species Parasabecoides decellei Synave, 1965, monotypic, Ivory Coast)
Sabecoides Fennah, 1958 (type species Sabecoides bomilcar Fennah, 1958, monotypic, west Africa)

Literature [Incomplete, intending to include nomenclatural acts at the genus level and above.]

Amyot, C. J. B. and J. G.  Audinet-Serville. 1843. Deuxième partie. Homoptères. Homoptera Latr. Histoire Naturelle des insectes. Hemiptères 1843: 1-676.

Anufriev, G. A. 1969. Studies on some Palearctic Achilidae (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Bulletin de l’Académie Polonaise des Sciences XVII(3): 173-178.

Asche, M. 2015. The West Palaearctic Achilidae (Hemiptera, Fulgormorpha: Fulgoroidea) – a review with description of five new species from the Mediterranean. Nova Supplementa Entomologica 25: 1-135.

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