CyberMAD Measure

 Cyber Motivations for Aggression and Deviance (Cyber-MAD)

  • Article: DeMarsico, D., Bounoua, N., Miglin, R., & Sadeh, N. (2021). Aggression in the Digital Era: Assessing the Validity of the Cyber Motivations for Aggression and Deviance Scale. Assessment, 1073191121990088.
    • Assesses the motivations of adult cyber-aggression
    • Factor analysis of the motivations for cyber-aggression indicated an eight-factor model best fit the data with separable factors emerging for cyber-aggression motivated by a desire to…
      • Social Bonding – affiliate with others
        • bonding with others who think like me
        • making friends with like-minded people
        • connecting with others who share my views or opinions
      • Social Activism – advance or defend political/social issues
        • supporting a political cause or moral viewpoint that is important to me
        • combating rival or opposing cultural, political, or social groups
        • fighting fake news
        • trying to change someone’s opinion about a social or political issue
      • Reactive Aggression – act on angry feelings
        • feeling upset about hurtful, mean, or insulting posts or messages
        • provoked by aggressive messages or posts
        • defending myself or people I care about in response to insults or attack
        • feeling angry or frustrated at other people or their posts/messages
      • Interpersonal Distress – cope with relationship stress
        • feeling rejected or lonely
        • trying to get the attention of someone close to me
        • scared a romantic partner or friend is planning to breakup with me 
        • trying to keep a loved one from leaving or abandoning me
        • feeling jealous or envious of other people after viewing their posts or messages
      • Impulsivity – satisfy impulsive urges
        • struggling to control my urges or impulses 
        • feeling out of control or impulsive 
        • acting without thinking 
      • Virtual Dissociation – adopt a new online persona
        • pretending to be someone I’m not for fun
        • posing as another person using a fake or anonymous online identity 
        • wanting to act like a different or new person
      • Thrill-Seeking – experience excitement
        • feeling bored or looking for entertainment
        • wanting to feel excitement or get a thrill
        • wanting to escape my dull life 
      • Vengeance – seek revenge
        • trying to get revenge against someone
        • punishing someone who betrayed me
        • getting even with someone
    • It includes a brief assessment of seven types of cyber-aggression to enable researchers to screen the degree and range of forms of online aggression perpetrated by participants:
      • Flaming (e.g., inciting arguments with hostile or insulting attacks)
      • Trolling (e.g., disseminating irritating or upsetting material)
      • Social exclusion (e.g., blocking access to an online community)
      • Harassment (e.g., using threats or intimidation)
      • Defamation (e.g., disseminating cruel, untrue, or harmful material)
      • Outing (e.g., sharing others’ personal, sensitive, or embarrassing information)
      • Masquerading (e.g., pretending to be someone else to deceive or manipulate)
      • These questions are also necessary to identify individuals for whom the motivation questions do not apply, because they do not have a history of cyber-aggression.
    • One item asks participants about the targets of their cyber-aggression to assay the perpetrator’s relationship with the target of the aggressive behavior:
      • strangers
      • coworkers
      • friends
      • family
      • romantic partners
      • ex-romantic partners
      • celebrities/ political figures
    • It also includes questions about the amount of time each day they spend on 11 online platforms where cyber-aggression occurs, “On a typical day, how often do you use a digital device (e.g., smartphone, laptop, work computer, video game console) to spend time on the following websites or apps?”:
      • Social networking or sharing websites (e.g., Facebook, Snapchat, Twitter, Instagram)
      • Media sharing and messaging (e.g., YouTube)
      • News or political outlets (e.g., CNN, Fox News)
      • Shopping or product reviews (e.g., Amazon, Yelp, TripAdvisor)
      • Email
      • Texting, instant messaging, or chatrooms (e.g., Whatsapp, Kik)
      • Video gaming (e.g. Steam, Twitch)
      • Online gambling or fantasy sports (e.g., Bovada, DraftKings)
      • Dating websites / Apps (e.g., Tinder, Bumble, OkCupid)
      • Cybersex platforms / Apps (e.g., AdultXXXDate)
      • Anonymous sharing websites (e.g., Reddit)
      • These questions were included to provide researchers with the ability to exclude individuals who do not use online platforms, and therefore, do not have the opportunity to perpetrate cyber-aggression.

Cyber Motivations for Aggression and Deviance (Cyber-MAD)

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