The 19th Century
|1830s through 1880s— European explorers and traders, including Cecil Rhodes, travel to Africa’s southern regions.
|1889 — Britain gives a mandate allowing Rhodes and his associates to colonize what becomes Southern Rhodesia.
|1890 — A colonial white settlement is firmly established in the southern territory.
The 20th Century
|1922 — The white minority chooses self-governance after the British South Africa Trading Company administration ends.
|1930 — Land Appointment Act forces African natives into wage labor by restricting black access to land ownership.
|1930s through 1960s — Zapu (Zimbabwe African People’s Union) and Zanu (Zimbabwe African National Union) emerge due to growing resentment regarding colonial rule.
|1953 — Britain creates the Central African Federation, made up of Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Nyasaland (Malawi).
|1960s through 1980s — Federation breaks up when Zambia and Malawi gain independence. Ian Smith of the Rhodesian Front becomes prime minister, and a year later in 1965 declares independence under white minority rule. A British-brokered peace treaty guaranteeing minority rights is signed and passed in 1979.
The 21st Century
|2000 — President Mugabe supports the violent seizure of white-owned farms by squatters.
|2001 — The Finance Minister acknowledges the economic crisis and warns of food shortages. Western donor programs cut aid in response to Mugabe’s sponsored land seizures.
|2002 — Parliament passes a law limiting media freedom. President Mugabe re-elected in elections. A state of disaster is declared in April.
|2008 — Robert Mugabe declared winner of run-off presidential election.
|2013 — New constitution approved by an overwhelming majority in a referendum. Future presidents will be limited to two five-year terms. Emmerson Mnangagwa is elected after Mugabe resigns from his seventh and final term.
Jasmine Edwards ’19