Wodzanowski, K.A.; Hyland, S.N.; Chinthamani, S.; Sandles, LM.D.; Honma, K.; Sharma, A.; Grimes, C.L.; Investigating Peptidoglycan Recycling Pathways in Tannerella forsythia with N-Acetylmuramic Acid Bioorthogonal Probes. ACS Infectious Diseases 2022, 8, 9, 1831-1838.

Crump, G.M.; Rozovsky, S.; Grimes, C.L.; Purification and Characterization of a Stable, Membrane-Associated Peptidoglycan Responsive Adenylate Cyclase LRR Domain from Human Commensal Candida albicans. Biochemistry. Article ASAP.

Wodzanowski, K.A.; Caplan, J.L.; Kloxin, A.M.; Grimes, C.L.; Multiscale Invasion Assay for Probing Macrophage Response to Gram-Negative Bacteria. Frontiers in Chemistry: Chemical Biology 2022.

Le, H.T.; D’Ambrosio, E.A.; Mashayekh, S.; Grimes, C.L.; Customized peptidoglycan surfaces to investigate innate immune recognition via surface plasmon resonance. Methods in Enzymology 2022.


Brown, A.R.; Wodzanowski, K.A.; Santiago, C.C.; Hyland, S.N.; Follmar, J.L.; Asare-Okai, P; Grimes, C.L.; Protected N-Acetyl Muramic Acid Probes Improve Bacterial Peptidoglycan Incorporation via Metabolic Labeling. ACS Chemical Biology 2021, 16, 10, 1908–1916.

Bersch K.L., DeMeester K.E., Zagani R., Wodzanowski K.A., Reinecker H.C., Grimes C.L.; Bacterial peptidoglycan fragments differentially regulate innate immune signaling. ACS Central Science 2021

Scherzi T.; D’Ambrosio, E.A.; Daher, S.S.; Grimes, C.L.; Dunman, P.M.; Andrade, R.B. Staphylococcus aureus resistance to albocycline can be achieved by mutations that alter cellular NAD/PH pools. Biorg. Med. Chem. 2021, (32) 15, 15995

Yang, X.; McQuillen, R.; Lyu, Z.; Phillips-Mason, P.; De La Cruz, A.; McCausland, J. W.; Liang, H.; DeMeester, K. E.; Santiago, C. C.; Grimes, C. L.; de Boer, P.; Xiao, J., A two-track model for the spatiotemporal coordination of bacterial septal cell wall synthesis revealed by single-molecule imaging of FtsW. Nat Microbiol 2021, 6584–593. 

Taylor, J.A.; Santiago, C.C.; Gray, J.; Wodzanowski, K.A.; DeMeester, K.E.; Biboy, J.; Vollmer, W.; Grimes, C.L.; Salama, N.R. Localizing peptidoglycan synthesis in Helicobacter pylori using clickable metabolic probes. Current Protocols. 2021.


Mashayekh, S.; Bersch, K. L.; Ramsey, J.; Harmon, T.; Genova, L.A.; Grimes, C.L. Synthesis of Bacterial-Derived Peptidoglycan Cross-Linked Fragments. J. Org. Chem. 2020, 85, 24, 16243–16253.

Crump, G.M.; Zhou, J.; Mashayekh, S.; Grimes, C.L. Revisiting Peptidoglycan Signaling: Interactions with Host Immunity and Beyond. Chem. Commun2020, 56, 13313-13322​.

Brown, A.R.; Gordon, R.A.; Hyland, S.N.; Siegrist, M.S.; Grimes, C.L. Chemical Biology Tools for Examining the Bacterial Cell Wall. Cell. Chem. Bio. 2020, 27 (8), 1052-1062

Ukaegbu, O.I.; DeMeester, K.E.; Liang, H.; Brown, A.R.; Jones, Z.S.; Grimes, C.L. Utility of bacterial peptidoglycan recycling enzymes in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of valuable UDP sugar substrates. Methods in Enzymology2020, 638, 1-26

D’Ambrosio, E. A.; Bersch, K. L.; Lauro, M. L.; Grimes, C. L. Differential Peptidoglycan Recognition Assay Using Varied Surface Presentations. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2020, 142 (25), 10926-10930

 Wodzanowski K. A.*; Cassel, S. E.*; Grimes, C. L., Kloxin, A. M. Tools for probing host-bacteria interactions in the gut microenvironment: From molecular to cellular levels. Bioorg. med. chem. lett. 2020, 30 (10)

Mashayekh, S.*; D’Ambrosio E.A*, Grimes CL. Methods to investigate innate immune receptors and their carbohydrate based ligands. ACS eBooks Symposium Series. 1346 chapter 8. 127-147

Taylor, J. A.; Bratton, B. P; Sichel, S. R.; Blair K. M.; Jacobs, H. M. DeMeester, K. E.; Gray, J.; Biboy, J.; VanNieuwenhze, M.S.; Grimes, C.L.; Shaevitz, J.W.; Salama, N.R. Distinct cytoskeletal proteins define zones of enhanced cell wall synthesis in Helicobacter pylori. elife. 2020, 9:e52482.


DeMeester, K. E.*; Liang ,H.*; Zhou, J.*; Wodzanowski, K. A.*; Prather, B. L.; Santiago, C. C.; Grimes, C. L. Metabolic incorporation of N-acetyl muramic acid probes into bacterial peptidoglycan. Current Protocols in Chemical Biology. 2019, 74 (11).

D’Ambrosio, E. A.*; Drake, W. R.*; Mashayekh, S.*; Ukaegbu, O. I.; Brown, A. R.; Grimes, C. L. Modulation of the Nod-like receptors NOD1 and NOD2: A Chemist’s Perspective. Bioorg. med. chem. lett. 2019, 29 (10), 1153-1161. Featured on cover

Lazor, K. M.; Zhou, J; DeMeester, K. E.; D’Ambrosio, E.A.; Grimes, C.L. Synthesis and application of methyl N,O-hydroxylamine muramyl peptides. ChemBioChem. 2019, 20, 1369-1375


McDonald, N. D.; DeMeester, K.E.; Lewis A.L.; Grimes, C.L. ; Boyed, E.F. Structural and functional characterization of a modified legionaminic acid involved in glycosylation of a bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J. Biol. Chem. 2018, 293 (49), 19113–19126

Chang, P. V.; Grimes, C.L. Designer Dendrons To Dissect Innate Immune Signaling. ACS Central Science. 2018, 4 (8),  948–949

DeMeester, K. E.; Liang, H.; Jensen M. R.; Jones, Z. S.; D’Ambrosio, E. A.; Scinto, S. L.; Zhou, J.; Grimes, C. L. Synthesis of functionalized N-acetyl muramic acids to probe bacterial cell wall recycling and biosynthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140 (30), 9458–9465

Liang, H.;  Zhou, G.; Ge, Y.; D’Ambrosio, E. A.; Eidem, T. M.; Blanchard, C.; Shehatou, C.; Chatare, V. K.; Dunman, P. M.;  Valentine, A. M.; Voelz, V. A.; Grimes, C. L.; Andrade, R. B. Elucidating the inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus by albocycline, a macrolactone isolated from Streptomyces maizeus. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 2018, 26 (12), 3453-3460

Drake, W.R.; Hou C.W.;  Zachara, N. E.; Grimes, C. L. New use for CETSA: monitoring innate immune receptor stability via post-translational modification by OGT. Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes. 2018, 50 (3), 231-240

Burch, J. M.; Mashayekh, S.; Wykoff, D.D.; Grimes, C.L. Bacterial Derived Carbohydrates Bind Cyr1 and Trigger Hyphal growth in Candida albicans. ACS Infectous Diseases. 2018, 4, 53-58


Wang, Y.; Lazor, K. M.; DeMeester, K. E.; Liang, H.; Heiss, T. K.; Grimes, C. L. Postsynthetic Modification of Bacterial Peptidoglycan Using Bioorthogonal N-Acetylcysteamine Analogs and Peptidoglycan O-Acetyltransferase B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 13596-13599.

Schaefer, A. K.; Wastyk, H. C.; Mohanan, V.; Hou, C. W.; Lauro, M.L.; Melnyk, J.E.; Burch, J. M.; Grimes, C. L. Crohn’s Disease Variants of Nod2 Are Stabilized by the Critical Contact Region of Hsp70. Biochemistry. 2017, 56, 4445-4448.

Schaefer, A. K.*; Melnyk, J. E.*; Baksh, M. M.; Lazor, K. M.; Finn M. G.; Grimes, C. L. Membrane Association Dictates Ligand Specificity for the Innate Immune Receptor NOD2. ACS Chemical Biology. 2017, 12, 2216-2224.

Liang, H.*; DeMeester, K. E.*; Hou, C. W.; Parent, M. A.; Caplan, J. L.; Grimes, C. L. Metabolic labeling of the carbohydrate core in bacterial peptidoglycan and its applications. Nature Communications. 2017, 8, 15015.

Lauro, M. L.; D’Ambrosio, E. A.; Bahnson, B. J.; Grimes, C. L. Molecular Recognition of Muramyl Dipeptide Occurs in the Leucine-rich Repeat Domain of Nod2. ACS Infectious Diseases. 2017, 3, 264-270.


Hou, C. W.; Lauro, M. L.; Grimes, C. L. “Redefining the Defensive Line: Critical Components of the Innate Immune System”, ACS Infectious Diseases. 2016, 2, 746.

Lauro, M. L.; Burch, J.; Grimes, C. L. The effect of Nod2 on the microbiota in Crohn’s disease. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2016, 40, 97.

Hou, C. W.; Mohanan, V.;  Zachara, N. E.; Grimes, C.L.,Identification and biological consequences of the OGlcNAc modification of the human innate immune receptor, Nod2. Glycobiology. 2016, 26, 13.


Grimes, C.L.; White, H.B. Passing the Baton: Passing the Baton: Mentoring for Adoption of Active-learning Pedagogies by Research-active Junior Faculty. Biochem. Molec. Biol. Educ. 2015, 43, 345.

Melnyk, J.E., Mohanan, V., Schaefer, A.K., Hou, C-H., Grimes, C.L., Peptidoglycan Modifications Tune the Stability and Function of the Innate Immune Receptor Nod2, JACS. 2015, 137, 6987.


Mohanan, V., Grimes, C.L., The Molecular Chaperone HSP70 binds to and stabilizes NOD2, an important protein in Crohn’s Disease, J. Biol. Chem. 2014, 289, 18987.


Grimes, C. L.*; Ariyananda, L. D.; Melnyk, J. E.; O’Shea, E. K. The Innate Immune Protein, Nod2, Binds directly to MDP, a bacterial cell wall fragment. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13535. (*CLG is corresponding author)

Leimkuhler Grimes Post-Doctoral and Graduate Publications

Grimes, C.L.; Podolsky, D.K.; O’Shea, E.K. Synthesis of Biologically Active Biotinylated Muramyl Dipeptides, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2010. 20 (20), 6061-3.  

Hu, Y.; Al-Mestarihi, A.; Grimes, C.L.; Kahne, D.; Bachmann, B.O. A unifying nitrososynthase involved in nitrosugar biosynthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130 (47), 15756-7. 

Leimkuhler, C.; Fridman, M.; Lupoli, T.; Walker, S.; Walsh, C.T.; Kahne, D. Characterization of rhodosaminyl transfer by the AknS/AknT glycosylation complex and its use in reconstituting the biosynthetic pathway of aclacinomycin A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129 (34),  10546-50.

Howard-Jones, A.R., Kruger, R.G., Lu, W., Tao, J., Leimkuhler, C., Kahne, D., and Walsh, C.T., Kinetic analysis of teicoplanin glycosyltransferases and acyltransferase reveal ordered tailoring of aglycone scaffold to reconstitute mature teicoplanin. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 2007. 129 (33), 10082-3.

Adachi, M.; Zhang, Y.; Leimkuhler, C.; Sun, B.; LaTour, J.V.; Kahne, D.E. Degradation and reconstruction of moenomycin A and derivatives: dissecting the function of the isoprenoid chain. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128 (43),  14012-3.

Lu, W.; Leimkuhler, C.; Gatto, G.J. Jr.; Kruger, R.G.; Oberthur, M.; Kahne, D.; Walsh, C.T. AknT is an activating protein for the glycosyltransferase AknS in L-aminodeoxysugar transfer to the aglycone of aclacinomycin A. Chem Biol. 2005. 12 (5), 527-34.

Leimkuhler, C.; Chen, L.; Barrett, D.; Panzone, G.; Sun, B.; Falcone, B.; Oberthur, M.; Donadio, S.; Walker, S.; Kahne, D. Differential inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus PBP2 by glycopeptide antibiotics. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127 (10), 3250-1.

Kahne, D.; Leimkuhler, C.; Lu, W.; Walsh, C. T.,Glycopeptide and lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. Chem Rev. 2005, 105 (2), 425-48.

Leimkuhler, C.; Chen, Z.; Kruger, R.G.; Oberthur, M.; Lu, W.; Walsh, C.T.; Kahne, D. Glycosylation of glycopeptides:  a comparision of chemoenzymatic and chemical methods. Tetrahedron:  Asymmetry. 2005, 16 (2),  599-603.

Yuan, Y.; Chung, H.S.; Leimkuhler, C.; Walsh, C.T.; Kahne, D.; Walker, S. In Vitro Reconstitution of EryCIII Activity for the Preparation of Unnatural Macrolides. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127 (41), 14128-14129. 

Barrett, D.; Leimkuhler, C.; Chen, L.; Walker, D.; Kahne, D.; Walker, S. Kinetic Characterization of the Glycosyltransferase Module of Staphylococcus aureus PBP2. J Bacteriol. 2005, 187 (6),  2215-7.

Oberthur, M.; Leimkuhler, C.; Kruger, R.G.; Lu, W.; Walsh, C.T.; Kahne, D. A systematic investigation of the synthetic utility of glycopeptide glycosyltransferases. JACS. 2005, 127(30): p. 10747-52.

Lu, W.; Leimkuhler, C.; Oberthur, M.; Kahne, D.; Walsh, C.T. AknK is an L-2-deoxyfucosyltransferase in the biosynthesis of the anthracycline aclacinomycin A. Biochemistry. 2004, 43 (15), 4548-58.

Lu, W.; Oberthur, M.; Leimkuhler, C.; Tao, J.; Kahne, D.; Walsh, C.T. Characterization of a regiospecific epivancosaminyl transferase GtfA and enzymatic reconstitution of the antibiotic chloroeremomycin. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2004, 101 (13), 4390–4395

Oberthur, M., Leimkuhler, C., and Kahne, D., A practical method for the stereoselective generation of beta-2-deoxy glycosyl phosphates. Org Lett. 2004. 6(17): p. 2873-6.

Leimkuhler Grimes Undergraduate Publications

Belardi, J. K.; Curtis, L. A.; Clareen, S. S.; Shimp, H. L.; Leimkuhler, C. E.; Simonowicz, N. L.; Casillas, E. “A Nazarov Approach to 4-Benzoyloxymethyl-cyclopent-2-enone, a Precursor to the Helminthosporols.” Synth Comm 2005, 35, 1633-1640.

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