A Look into Air Displacement Plethysmography

All information about this Air Displacement Plethysmography Chamber was retrieved from this patent: Air Circulation Apparatus and Methods for Plethysmographic Measurement Chambers 

Air Displacement Plethysmography

This air displacement plethysmography chamber is used to assess the body composition of patients. The measurements of fat and fat-free mass allow physicians to record important physical information about patients. Excess body fat and low levels of free-fat mass are indicators of various different diseases and developmental problems.  The major claim of the device is that air displacement plethysmography determines the volume of a patient by measuring the amount of air displaced when the patient sits in an enclosed chamber. This invention specifically includes an apparatus and plethysmographic measurements chamber that use air that has circulated through the chamber and replaced with air from outside the chamber in order to record its measurements. [1]

Who uses it?

Physicians primarily use air displacement plethysmography within the populations of infants and obese individuals. For low birth weight infants, variations in body composition can dictate infant energy needs and can indicate the health progression and future physical development of the infant. Air displacement measurements for infants must be more accurate than other body composition determining techniques because of an infant’s metabolic rate and longer measurement periods required due to their larger breathing artifacts. Excess body fat within obese individuals can be indicators of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyper tension, hyperlipidemia, kidney disease, and musculoskeletal disorders. Athletes can also use this technology to determine their body composition to ensure that they are at peak physical shape for their required sport. [1]

How it works: A little bit of engineering for you

In air displacement plethysmography, the volume of air in the chamber is calculated through Boyle’s Law and/or Poisson’s Law. In most technologies, volume perturbations of a fixed frequency of oscillation are induced with the chamber and the perturbations lead to pressure fluctuations. The amplitude of the pressure fluctuations is determined and is used to determine the amount of air in the chamber through Boyle’s Law (isothermal conditions) or Poisson’s Law (using adiabatic conditions). [1]

Boyle’s Law: For gases at room temperature, there is an inversely proportional relationship between pressure and volume of that gas. [2]

P1V1 = P2V2

Where,

  • P1 is the initial pressure of the gas
  • V1 is the initial volume of the gas 
  • P2 is the final pressure of the gas 
  • V2 is the final volume of the gas

Poisson’s Law: In an adiabatic process, no heat transfer takes place between the surroundings and the system, or within the system. [3]

(P1V1)^Y= (P2V2)^Y

Where,

  • P1 is the initial pressure exerted by the gas
  • V1 is the initial volume occupied by the gas
  • P2 is the final pressure exerted by the gas
  • V2 is the final volume occupied by the gas
  • Υ is the ratio of specific heats, CP/ CV

By subtracting the volume of air remaining in the chamber (when the subject is in the container) from the volume of air in an empty chamber, body volume can be calculated indirectly.

Once the volume of the subject is known, body composition can be found with the volume, the weight, and the surface area of the subject. Body composition can be found by using the relationship between density and percent fat mass. The following two equations can be used to determine percent fat mass: 

Siri’s Equation: Percent Fat Mass=(4.95/Density)-4.5)*100) 

Brozek’s Equation: Percent Fat mass=((4.57/Density)-4.142)* 100)

Where,

Density= subject mass/subject volume

[1]

Better Than the Rest

There are other methods out there used to determine body composition, but they contain flaws compared to air displacement plethysmography. One method is skin folding, which uses calipers that compress the skin at certain points on the body. This technique is inaccurate in accounting for variations in fat patterning and requires perfect application of the calipers by a technician. Biometric impedance analysis (BIA) is also used to determine body composition. This technique requires the passing an electric current through a patient’s body, measuring its impedance value and comparing it to the known impedance value of muscle tissue thus to determine body composition. This method is not effective because impedance can be affected by the patient’s state of hydration, internal and external temperature, and BIA has not been used on infants. Lastly, the most common technique used to measure body composition is hydrostatic weighing. This process includes weighing the patient on land and repeatedly underwater to estimate the amount of air present in their lungs. This technique is incredibly invasive and unpleasant, especially for the populations of infants, the elderly, and individuals with disabilities. Air plethysmography is used because it is a less invasive technique for the populations of interest and it provides more accurate readings of body composition. [1]

There are a few components of the invention in the patent that differentiate it from other air displacement plethysmography devices. This plethysmographic measurement chamber prevents the accumulation of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the chamber, it addresses variations in chamber temperature due to body heat produced by the subject, and it maintains a safe and comfortable air composition for infants. All of these measures are due to internal systems and methods of circulating and renewing air within the chamber, while also maintaining the acoustic properties of the chamber at the perturbation frequency used to conduct the volume measurements. [1] 

Patent Information

The information from this post was retrieved from the following patent:

Patent Title: Air circulation apparatus and methods for plethysmography measurement chambers

Patent Number: US 2004/0193074 A1

Patent Filing Date: March 26, 2003

Patent Issue Date: September 30, 2004

How long it took for this patent to be issued: About 1.5 years 

Inventors: Philip T. Dempster, Michael V. Homer, Mark Lowe 

Assignee: Fish & Neave 

U.S. Classification: 600/587; 73/149

Amount of Claims: 57

[1]

Detailed Drawing

Figure 1: Labeled drawing of an air plethysmography displacement system with the following labeled components: 50. Entire plethysmographic system,  52. Plethysmographic measurement chamber, 54. Chamber door, 56. Plethysmographic measurement components, 58. Volume perturbation element, 60. Air circulation chamber, 62. Plethysmographic measurement components, 64. Computer, 66. Software for controlling operation of measurement components, 68. Inlet tube, 70. Exhaust tube [1]

References

  1. Dempster et al. (2004). Air Circulation Apparatus and Methods for Plethysmographic Measurement Chambers.  US 2004/0193074 A1. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 
  2. (2019) Boyle’s Law – Statement, Detailed Explanation, and Examples. Retrieved from https://byjus.com/chemistry/boyles-law/
  3. (n.d.) Adiabatic Process. Retrieved from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/adiab.html

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