Our research is concerned with the modeling and simulation of flow processes, transport phenomena and flow-induced phase transitions in systems with a complex internal microstructure. Typical examples include the flow of polymer solutions and melts, turbulent flow, free-surface flows with surfactants, etc. Our primary concern is the interrelationship between the flow and the microstructure. Our approach in dealing with complex dynamic phenomena involving multiple scales in length and time is hierarchical. Our theoretical analysis starts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics considerations of the microstructure. Based on our recently developed modeling approach, a thermodynamically consistent macroscopic continuum description is achieved. For that, microscopic information is used, which is obtained from models in the literature or generated, as needed. Last, but not least, specific predictions on flow processes of interest are obtained through the use of analytical (i.e., stability analysis and bifurcation theory) and numerical methods (high performance computing simulations). Thus, considerable effort is devoted to the development of suitable numerical methods and their efficient implementation in state-of-the-art computer architectures (vector and parallel supercomputers).