Research in this lab focuses on a broad range of topics in biomechanics, including gait mechanics, figure skating simulation software, biomechanical analysis of sport, clinical applications of biomechanics, rehabilitation biomechanics, pediatric obesity, and community-based activity programs.


James G. Richards


Thomas M. Kepple


Todd Royer, PhD

Associate Professor

Steven J. Stanhope


Susan J. Hall


Marisa Theroux-Jones, Katherine Arbour, Angela Boynton, Sarah Trager, Jeffrey Mattson, Shaun Hager, Kota Takahashi, Alexander Razzook, Elisa Schrank, Lakisha Guinn

Graduate Students


  • Todd Royer investigates gait mechanics that contribute to risk factors associated with the development of knee osteoarthritis, and gait mechanics and energetics of human locomotion.
  • Tom Kepple is developing custom Figure Skating Simulation Software program to be used in support of a project funded by United Sates Figure Skating. He also serves as the technical coordinator on the luminary site agreement between the College of Health Sciences and C-Motion, Inc. This work includes the development of new software and motion capture algorithms that support both the mission of the College of Health Sciences and C-Motion Inc. He is also developing software for improving and testing the performance of Motion Capture Systems. This includes software for locating force platforms, assessing the accurarcy of the force platform locations and testing the latency of the real-time Motion Analysis systems.
  • Jim Richards focuses on three primary areas: 1) the development of new tools for measurement and analysis of human motion, 2) gait mechanics, and 3) biomechanical analysis of sport.
  • Susan Hall is interested in clinical applications of biomechanics.
  • Steven Stanhope’s research focus is in rehabilitation biomechanics, pediatric obesity, and community-based activity programs.
  • The development of custom software for simulating the airborne phase of figure skating jumps. Funding from the United States Figure Skating Association. (Richards, Kepple).
  • Factors contributing to tibial acceleration in figure skating jump landings. Funding from the United States Figure Skating Association. (Arbour, Provost-Craig, and Royer)
  • Modulating asymmetrical lower-extremity joint loading via split-belt treadmill ambulation. (Theroux-Jones and Royer)
  • The inter-relationship among load carriage, gait mechanics and metabolic cost. (Boynton and Royer)
  • Are joint loads minimized at preferred step rate frequencies? (Royer)
  • Measurement of scapular orientation and position using motion capture technology. (Richards)
  • Rapid manufacture of personalized rehabilitation devices (Stanhope, Schrank)
    Gait Adaptations to Passive Dynamic Ankle-Foot Orthosis Use (Stanhope, Takahashi, Guinn, Razzook, Kregling)
  • Changes in the distribution of human body shape incidences and incidence of overweight and obesity in US children (Guinn, Stanhope)
  • Ankle Joint Pseudo Stiffness Changes with Walking Velocity (Razzook, Stanhope)
  • Roll-over dynamics during natural walking (Kregling, Razzook, Stanhope)

Goldberg, S. & Kepple, T (2010). Muscle induced accelerations at maximum activation to assess individual muscle capacity during movement. Journal of Biomechanics, in press.

Hall, S. J. (2010). Biomechanics. In Exploring Exercise Science. G. Wilson, ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Barrios, J.A., Crenshaw, J.R., Royer, T.D., and Davis, I.S. (2009) Walking shoes and laterally wedged orthoses in the clinical management of medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis: A one-year prospective controlled trial. Knee, 16(2), 136-142.

Stuart M, Benvenuti F, Macko R, Taviani A, Segenni L, Mayer F, Sorkin JD, Stanhope SJ, Macellari V, Weinrich M. Community-Based Adaptive Physical Activity Program for Chronic Stroke: Feasibility, Safety, and Efficacy of the Empoli Model. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2009;23(7)726-734.

Brindle TJ, Mizelle JC, Lebiedowska MK, Miller JL, Stanhope SJ. Visual and Proprioceptive Feedback Improves Knee Joint Position Sense. Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 2009;17(1):40-47.

Butler, R.J., Barrios, J., Royer, T., and Davis, I.S. (2009) Effect of laterally wedged foot orthoses on rearfoot and hip mechanics. Prosthetics and Orthotics International, 33(2), 107-116.

Goldberg, SR, Kepple TM, Stanhope SJ. In Situ Calibration and Motion Capture Transformation Optimization Improve Instrumented Treadmill Measurements. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 2009;25:401-406.

Luo W, Stanhope SJ, Sheehan FT. Using Two Palpable Measurements Improves the Subject- Specific Femoral Modeling. Journal of Biomechanics 2009;42(12):2000-2005.

Tseng SC, Stanhope SJ, Morton SM. Impaired Reactive Stepping Adjustments in Older Adults. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2009;64(7):807-815.

Ugyur, M., Richards, J., Jaric, S., de Freitas, P., and D. Barlow, “Kinematics and kinetics of unanticipated misstep conditions: Femoral fracture implications in the elderly”, Journal of Biomechanics, 42(9), 2009, pp 1241-1245.

Niiler, T., Miller, F., and J. Richards, “Concurrent Surgeries Are A Factor In Predicting Success Of Rectus Transfer Outcomes”, Gait and Posture, 26(1), 2008, pp 76-81.

Zeni, J., Richards, J., and J. Higginson, “Two Simple Methods for Determining Gait Events During Treadmill and Overground Walking Using Kinematic Data”, Gait and Posture, 27, 2008, pp. 710-714.

Macko RF, Benvenuti F, Stanhope S, Macellari V, Taviani A, Nesi B, Weinrich M, Stuart M. Adaptive Physical Activity Improves Mobility Function and Quality of Life in Chronic Hemiparesis. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 2008;45(2):323-328.

Brindle TJ, Miller JL, Lebiedowska MK, Stanhope SJ. Gastrocnemius Fascicle Length Changes With Two-Joint Passive Movements. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 2008;24(3):252-261.

Faustini MC, Neptune RR, Crawford RH, Stanhope SJ. Manufacture of Ankle-Foot Orthoses Using Selective Laser Sintering. IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering, 2008;55(2):784-790.

Lebiedowska MK, Alter KE, Stanhope SJ. Human Body Shape Index based on an Experimentally Derived Model of Human Growth. J Pediatr, 2008;152:45-49.

Siegel KL, Kepple TM, Stanhope SJ. A Case Study of Gait Compensations for Hip Muscle Weakness in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy, Clinical Biomechanics, 2007;22;319-326.

Butler, R.J., Marchesi, S.J., Royer, T.D., and Davis, I.S. (2007) The effect of a subject specific amount of lateral wedge on knee mechanics in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis. Journal of Orthopedic Research, 25, 1121-1127.

Schell, K., Farquhar, W., and J. Richards, “The Effects Of Anatomical Structures On Adult Forearm And Upper Arm Non-Invasive Blood Pressures”, Blood Pressure Monitoring, 12(1), 2007, pp17-22.

Hall, S.J. (2007). Sport biomechanics. In the 2007 Yearbook of Science and Technology. Dubuque: McGraw-Hill.

Carter, A., Kaminski, T., Douex, A., Knight, C., and J. Richards, “Effects of High Volume Upper Extremity Plyometric Training on Throwing Velocity and Functional Strength Ratios of the Shoulder Rotators in Collegiate Baseball Players”, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2007, 21(1), 208–215

Siegel KL, Kepple TM, Stanhope SJ. Using Induced Accelerations to Understand Knee stability During Gait of Individuals with Muscle Weakness. Gait & Posture, 2006;23(4):435-440

Mazzà C, Stanhope SJ, Taviani A, Cappozzo A. Biomechanical Modelling of Sit-to-Stand to Upright-Posture for Mobility Assessment of Persons with Chronic Stroke. Archives of PM&R, 2006;87(5):635-641.

Hudson, D., Richards, J. and T. Royer, “Ultrasound measurements of torsion in the tibia and femur ”, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 88, 138-143, 2006.
Crenshaw, S.J., Royer, T.D., Richards, J.G., and Hudson, D.J. (2006) Gait variability in people with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis. 12(5), 613-619.

Royer, T.D. and Wasilewski, C.A. (2006) Hip and knee frontal plane moments in persons with unilateral, trans-tibial amputation. Gait and Posture. 23(3), 303-306.

Crenshaw, S., and J. Richards, “A Method For Analyzing Joint Symmetry And Normalcy, With An Application To Analyzing Gait”, Gait and Posture, 24, 2006, pp515-521.

Crenshaw, S., Royer, T., Richards, J., and D. Hudson, “Gait Variability In People With Multiple Sclerosis”, Multiple Sclerosis, 12, 2006, pp613-619

Marwaha, R. Hall, S.J., Knight, C.A., and Jaric, S. (2006). Load and Grip Force Coordination in Static Bimanual Manipulation Tasks in Multiple Sclerosis. Motor Control, 10 (2), 160-177.

Hall, S. J. Basic biomechanics (5th ed.). (2006). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill. (Translations also published in Portuguese, Korean, and Chinese.)

Stanhope SJ, Weinrich M, Stuart ME, Macko R, Macellari V, Benvenuti F, Giampaoli S, Spalletta G, Cappozzo A. Collaboration in medical rehabilitation: past accomplishments and future opportunities. ISS/NIH Collaborative Program. 2006 Progress Report Meeting, Rome, July 2006. (Proceedings) Rapporti ISTISAN 2006, ISSN 1123-3117: p.163-168.

Macellari V, Giacomozzi C, Fadda A, Benvenuti F, Giampaoli S, Spalletta G, Cappozzo A, Stanhope SJ, Weinrich M, Stuart ME, Macko R. Obtaining optimal functional recovery and efficient managed care for the chronic stroke population. ISS/NIH Collaborative Program. 2006 Progress Report Meeting, Rome, July 2006. (Proceedings) Rapporti ISTISAN 2006, ISSN 1123-3117: p.189-194.

Manal K, Chang C, Hamill J, Stanhope SJ. A Three Dimensional Data Visualization Technique for Reporting Movement Pattern Deviations. Journal of Biomechanics, 2005;38(11):2151-2156.

Shibanuma N, Sheehan FT, Stanhope SJ. Limb positioning is Critical for Defining Patellofemoral Alignment and Femoral Shape. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 2005;(434):198-206.

Slobounov S, Hallett M, Stanhope S, Shibasaki H. Role of Cerebral Cortex in Human Postural Control: an EEG Study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 2005;116(2):315-323.

Hicks, J., and J. Richards, “Clinical applicability of using spherical fitting to find hip joint centers”, Gait and Posture, Vol. 22(2), 138-145, 2005.

Kepple T. (2005) Sharing data and software in biomechanics. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 6, 293-297.

Royer, T.D. and Koenig, M.D. (2005) Joint loading and bone mineral density in persons with unilateral, trans-tibial amputation. Clinical Biomechanics. 20(10), 1119-1125.

Woodburn J, Nelson K.M., Siegel K.L., Kepple T. & Gerber L.H. (2004) Multi-segment foot motion during gait: Proof of concept in rheumatoid arthritis. The Journal of Rheumatology, 31, 1918-1927.

Mazzà C, Benvenuti F, Bimbi C, Stanhope SJ. Association Between Subject Functional Status, Seat Height and Movement Strategy in Sit-to-Stand Performance. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2004;52(10):1750-1754.

Manal K, Stanhope SJ. A Novel Method for Displaying Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis Data. Gait & Posture, 2004;20(2):222-226.

Shibanuma N, Sheehan FT, Lipsky P, Stanhope S. Sensitivity of Femoral Attitude Estimates to MR Image Plane Location Relative to Condylar Surface. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2004;20:300-305.

Siegel KL, Kepple TM, Stanhope SJ. Joint Moment Control of Mechanical Energy Flow During Normal Gait. Gait & Posture, 2004;19(1):69-75.

Manal K, Davis IM, Galinat B, Stanhope S. Efficacy of Proximal Tibial Translation Estimates During Natural Cadence Walking: Bone vs. Skin Mounted Targets. Clinical Biomechanics, 2003;18(2):126-131.

Holden J, Selbie S, Stanhope SJ. A Proposed Test for the Clinical Movement Analysis Laboratory Accreditation Process. Gait & Posture, 2003;17:205-213.
Hall, S. J. and Evans, G. G. (2003). Biomechanics. In Comprehensive Physical Education: What Every Student Needs to Know(2nd ed.)B. Mohnsen, ed. Reston, VA: NASPE.

Balzini L, Vannucchi, L, Benvenuti F, Benucci M, Monni F, Cappozzo A, Stanhope SJ. Clinical Characteristics of Flexed Posture in Elderly Women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2003;51(10):1419-1426.

Manal, K., McClay, I., Richards, J., Galinat, B., and S. Stanhope, “Knee moment profiles during walking: errors due to soft tissue movement of the shank and the influence of the reference coordinate system”, Gait and Posture, 15, 2002, pp10-17.

Niiler, T., Richards, J., Miller, F., and Royer, T., “Determining the Limitations in Neural Network Gait Predictions Using a Web Based Clinical Survey”, Gait and Posture, 13(3):278-279, 2001.

Knight, C.A., Morris, C.R., Cox, M.E., Acosta, M. and Hall, S.J. (2001). Effect of superficial heat, deep heat, and active exercise warm-up on the extensibility of the plantar flexors, Physical Therapy, 81(6), 1206-1214.

Manal, K., McClay, I., Stanhope, S., Richards, J., and B. Galinat, “Comparison of Surface Mounted Markers and Attachment Methods in Estimating Tibial Rotations during Walking: an in vivo Study”, Gait and Posture, 11 (2000), 38-45.

Richards, J., “The Measurement of Human Motion: A Comparison of Commercially Available Systems”, Human Movement Sciences, vol 18, 1999.
Cooper RA, Quatrano LA, Stanhope SJ, Cavanagh PR, Miller F, Kerrigan DC, Esquenazi A, Harris GF, Winters JM. Gait Analysis in Rehabilitation Medicine. Amer J of Physical Med and Rehabilitation 1999;78(3):278-280.

Benvenuti F, Mecacci R, Gineprari I, Bandinelli S, Benvenuti E, Ferrucci L, Baroni A, Rabuffetti M, Hallett M, Dambrosia JM, Stanhope SJ. Kinematic Characteristics of Standing Disequilibrium: Reliability and Validity of a Posturographic Protocol. Archives of PM&R 1999;80(3):278-287.

Gatev P., Thomas S., Kepple T. & Hallett M. (1999) Feedforward ankle strategy of balance during quiet stance. Journal of Physiology (London), 514: 915-928.

Crenshaw, S., Herzog, R., Castagno, P., Richards, J., Miller, F., Michaloski, G., and E. Moran, The Efficacy of Tone-Reducing Features in Orthotics on the Gait of Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy, Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics, Mar-Apr, 20(2):210-6.

Bowen, T., S. Cooley, P. Castagno, F. Miller, and J. Richards, “A Method for Normalization of Oxygen Cost and Oxygen Consumption in Normal Children While Walking”, J. Pediatr. Orthop., 18(5): 589-593; September/October, 1998.

Bowen, T., F. Miller, P. Castagno, J. Richards, and G. Lipton, “A Method of Dynamic Foot Pressure Measurement for the Evaluation of Pediatric Orthopaedic Foot Deformities”, J. Pediatr. Orthop., 18(6):789-793;November/December, 1998

O’Connell PA, Siegel KL, Kepple TM, Stanhope SJ, Gerber LH. Forefoot Deformity, Pain, and Mobility in Rheumatoid and Nonarthritic Subjects. The Journal of Rheumatology 1998;25:1681-6.

Kepple TM, Sommer HJ, Siegel KL, Stanhope SJ. Three-Dimensional Normative Database of Muscle Origins and Insertions for the Lower Extremities. Journal of Biomechanics 1998;31:77-80.

Holden JP, Stanhope SJ. The Effect of Variation in Knee Center Location Estimates on Net Knee Joint Moments. Gait & Posture 1998;7(1):1-6.

Bowen, T., N. Lennon, P. Castagno, F. Miller, and J. Richards, “The Variability of Energy Consumption Measures in Children with Cerebral Palsy”, J. Pediatr. Orthop., 18(6):738-742; November/December, 1998

Stanhope SJ. Does Clinical Gait Analysis Meet the Patient Care Needs of Rehabilitation Specialists? Proceeding – 19th International Conference – IEEE/EMBS, Chicago, IL 1997;1:2836-2838.

Holden JP; Chou G; Stanhope SJ. Changes in knee joint function over a wide range of walking speeds. Clinical Biomechanics 1997;12(6):375-382.

Benvenuti F, Stanhope SJ, Thomas SL, Panzer VP, Hallett M. Flexibility of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments Revealed by Self-Paced and Reaction-Time Arm Movements. Brain Research 1997;761(1):59-70.

Kepple TM, Siegel KL, Stanhope SJ: Relative Contributions of the Lower Extremity Joint Moments to Forward Progression and Support During Gait. Gait & Posture 1997;6:1-8.

Quigley, E., Castagno, P., Miller. F., Lennon, N., and J. Richards. “The reliability of kinetics in clinical gait analysis-a comparison between normal children and children with cerebral palsy”, Gait and Posture. 5(2), 1997.

Hersh, L., Sun, J., Richards, J., and F. Miller, “The prediction of post-operative gait patterns using neural networks”, Gait and Posture, 5(2), 1997.

Holden JP, Orsini JA, Siegel KL, Kepple TM, Gerber LH, Stanhope SJ. Surface Movement Errors in Kinematic and Kinetic Measurements of Gait. Gait & Posture 1997;5:217-227.

Quigley, E. J., and J. G. Richards, “Biomechanical Analysis of the Bike to Run Transition”, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, Vol 12, 1996.

Miller, F., Castagno, P., Richards, J., Lennon, N., Quigley, E., Niiler, T., “Reliability of Kinematics During Clinical Gait analysis: A Comparison Between Normal and Children with Cerebral Palsy.”, Gait and Posture, 4(2), 1996.

Siegel K., Kepple T., & Caldwell G. (1996). Improved agreement of foot segmental power and rate of energy during gait: inclusion of distal power terms and use of 3D models. Journal of Biomechanics, 29, 823-827.

Castagno, P.W. , Richards, J.G., Miller, F., Lennon, N., “Comparison of 3-Dimensional Lower Extremity Kinematics During Walking Gait Using Two Different Markers Sets.”, Gait and Posture, 3(2), June, 1995.

Sullivan, K., Miller, F., Richards, J.G., Castagno, P.W. , Lennon, N., “Predicting The Outcome Of Surgery For Children With Cerebral Palsy Using Pre-Operative Gait Analysis.”, Gait and Posture, 3(2), June, 1995.

Miller, F., Castagno, P.W. , Richards, J.G., Lipton, G., “Using Objective Measurements From Pedobarograph Data To Assess Foot Deformities.”, Gait and Posture, 3(2), June, 1995.

Stanhope SJ. Recent Advancements in Functional Movement Analysis. Connective Tissue Research 1995;31(4):s65-s68.

Siegel KL, Kepple TM, O’Connell PG, Gerber LH, Stanhope SJ. A Technique to Evaluate Foot Function During the Stance Phase of Gait. Foot and Ankle International 1995;16(12):764-770.

Asplund, D. J. and Hall, S. J. (1995). Kinematic and myoelectric activity during stair climbing ergometry, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 22(6), 247-253.

Buczek FL, Kepple TM, Siegel KL, Stanhope SJ. Translational and Rotational Joint Power Terms in a Six Degree-of-Freedom Model of the Normal Ankle Complex. Journal of Biomechanics 1994;27(12):1447-1457.

Kepple TM, Arnold AS, Stanhope SJ, Siegel KL. Assessment of A Method To Estimate Muscle Attachments From Surface Landmarks – A 3D Computer-Graphics Approach. Journal of Biomechanics 1994;27(3):365-371.

Hallett M, Lebiedowska MK, Thomas SL, Stanhope SJ, Denckla MB, Rumsey J. Locomotion of Autistic Adults. Arch Neurol 1993;50:1304-1308.

Hall, S. J. and Messier, S. P. (1993). Biomechanics of Fitness Exercises. In The American College of Sports Medicine Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (2nd ed.), pp. 38-47, Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Ross, M., Hall, S. J., Breit, N., and Britten, S. (1993). Effect of a lumbar support device on muscle activity during abdominal exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 7, (4), 219-223.

Siegel KL, Stanhope SJ, Caldwell GE. Kinematic and Kinetic Adaptations in the Lower Limb During Stance in Gait of Unilateral Femoral Neuropathy Patients. Clinical Biomechanics 1993;8:147-155.

Hall, S. J. and Rodeen W. (1992). Influence of pelvic stabilization/orientation and trunk rotation on paraspinal muscle activity during support of a hand-held load. Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition and Health, 1(2), 83-91.

Kepple T. (1991) MOVE3D – Software for analyzing human motion. IEEE 1991 Future Directions Workshop, 106-109.

Hall, S. J., Lee, J. & Wood, T. M. (1990). Evaluation of selected sit-up variations for the individual with low back pain. Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, 4(1), 42-46.