The FRAME Program: Forest Fragments in Managed Ecosystems

In brief: The FRAME program (Forest Fragments in Managed Ecosystems) is a long-term study of small forests in cities and suburbs. The goal of the FRAME is to provide useful recommendations for improving ecosystem function, with an emphasis on ecosystem services.

The first stage of the study (completed 2011) was the establishment of a set of 30 sites, and initial assessment of conditions using measures of soil, plants, and animals.

The second stage (in progress as of 2015) involves experimental studies of soil and key species to understand interactions between plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates.

The third stage of the study will consist of continued monitoring, manipulations aimed directly at site improvement, and technology transfer for better management of urban forest fragments. The structure of the FRAME encourages studies by other researchers on our well-studied sites. A number of these are already in place and are listed here on this site.


The Mid-Atlantic Forest Fragments comprising the current FRAME sites.

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